James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2010

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Achilleas Tsakiris
Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Formation Of Water Escape Structures Due To The Fluidization Of Pure Kaolin Clay

Fluidization iscaused when an upwelling fluid leads to the detachment of the grains within asoil, subject to extreme porewater pressure fluctuations due to wave, tidalaction or sediment consolidation. Water escapes from the fluidized mud layereither via single vertical channels or by forming a channel network within thefluid mud. Such structures have been documented at lakes and estuaries and beara strong resemblance to the volcanoes on the surface of planet Mars. The studygoal is to investigate the conditions that lead to each type of water escapestructures due to the fluidization action. To ensure replicate formationconditions for both types of water escape structures, laboratory experimentswere conducted in a fluidization column attached to a pressurized vessel andcontaining kaolin mud at constant concentration. Two variables were examined;namely the inflow rate, q, and theratio of the kaolin mud layer thickness to the fluidization column diameter, H/D. Our results revealed that theformation of a single vertical channel occurred at higher inflow rates or lowerratios H/D. However, when q <30 mL/min or H/D > 0.4, a network of upward bifurcating pipes had formed withinthe mud layer, because several channels were observed to erupt off the centerof the kaolin mud surface. Future research will visualize these bifurcatingpipes via X-Ray Computed Tomography.

Xinghua Li
Communication Studies
A Comparative Analysis of Hybrid Car Advertisements in the U.S. and China: Desire, Globalization, and the Environment

As the waves of modernization sweep across the world, country after country is developing an "aubomobility culture," putting the global environment under jeopardy.  China and the U.S. are the two largest car markets of the world, and are especially burdened with environmental debts. In the U.S., hybrid car consumption, together with the trend of eco-consumerism, recently rose to popularity and became hailed as an efficient environmental solution. Chinese car consumers, however, are reluctant to "buy" the hybrid and seem nonchalant to its environmental appeals. This essay analyzes hybrid car advertisements in the U.S. and China and focuses on the cultural and ideological factors that interrupt the translation of hybrids' environmental appeals into China. This analysis uses a combination of semiotic, rhetorical, and psychoanalytic methods. On the one hand, I read these ads as cultural symptoms to see the different dynamics of desire that motivate eco-consumerism in the two countries; on the other hand, I treat these ads as active rhetorical agents that actively restructure consumer desire and bring social changes. The analysis is to shed light on the relationship between (1) advertising aesthetics and consumer desire and (2) global consumer culture and its environmental impacts.

Evan Meaney
Film and Video Production
Synthetic Memory

Bergson reminds us that, for a functioning memory the prospect of the present is forever engrossed in the development of a usable history for the coming future to synthesize and subsequently interpret experiences. For him, the present is only usable in that it constructs a past to contextualize the future. I think it is safe to say now, as others have alluded to (Nora, Ricoeur, Bush, Usai, Nelson) that, as we further engage with the exteriority afforded to us by information technologies we also exteriorize and augment the process by which we experience and create the future, personal and public.

Alexey A. Soshnev
Molecular and Cellular Biology
A Conserved Long Non-Coding RNA Plays a Role in Sleep Regulation in Drosophila

Eukaryotic genomes encode many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with diverse cellular functions. One example of a Drosophila lncRNA is the developmentally regulated, alternatively spliced and polyadenylated yar RNA. This RNA is transcribed from the yar gene, located in the intergenic region separating yellow (y) and achaete (ac), two protein-coding genes with neural function. Here, we complete evolutionary comparisons of the y-ac intergenic region, coupled with RNA analyses, to show that yar is conserved over 40 to 60 million years of evolution. Using homologous recombination, null yar alleles were generated. Studies of these mutants revealed that yar is not required for transcriptional regulation of the neighboring y or ac genes. Instead, we find that loss of yar causes behavioral defects. These mutants exhibit decreased and fragmented nighttime sleep, due to shortened sleep bouts within a normal circadian sleep-wake cycle. Further, yar mutants had diminished levels of sleep rebound following deprivation, due to an inability to increase sleep bout lengths under these conditions. A transgene encompassing the yar gene rescues all mutant phenotypes. These data indicate that yar is required for sleep regulation, representing the first example of a lncRNA involved in Drosophila sleep behavior.

Sara Stasik
Psychology
Psychometric Examination of Core Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: Analysis of a Clinical Sample

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition with multiple symptom dimensions. Many reliable OCD measures have been developed and all appear to assess largely similar content. However, the symptom structure of OCD is still uncertain. Examining the properties of the common latent factors across assessment instruments therefore may prove illustrative. This study was designed to examine four common OCD symptom domains (checking, cleaning, ordering, hoarding), measured by the Schedule of Compulsions, Obsessions, and Pathological Impulses (Watson & Wu, 2005) and the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Revised (Foa et al., 2002). Exploratory factor analyses yielded clear factors corresponding very closely to the original scales; composite measures then were created for each of the four symptom domains. Correlational and mean score analyses indicated that the OCD composite scales were highly related to OCD diagnoses and were stronger predictors of these diagnoses than of all other anxiety and mood disorders examined.  Moreover, logistic regression analyses revealed that the Checking composite scale was a significant predictor of OCD diagnoses, showing incremental validity in relation to the Beck Anxiety Inventory.  The composite scales thus show specificity and incremental predictive power in relation to OCD diagnoses, suggesting they represent core OCD symptoms.

Adina Chuang
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Analysis of methods to extract, quantify, and identify the metaproteome of soil and groundwater samples

The key to developing and using protein biomarkers for environmental samples is efficient extraction and quantification techniques.  Protein extraction from the environment is challenging because of the complexity of the metaproteome and the variations between different ecosystems.  In our research, we have evaluated several protein extraction methods used for environmental samples to extract proteins in the soil and groundwater.  These methods vary in the types of buffers used, physical techniques to lyse cells, direct and indirect extraction of cells from samples, and means of concentrating protein extractions.  Furthermore, various quantification techniques for protein concentrations were studied.  Specifically, proteins from environmental samples spiked with a model bacterium, Nocardioides sp. JS614, were extracted, quantified, and identified in our studies.  Strain JS614 aerobically degrades and assimilates vinyl-chloride, a common groundwater pollutant and known human carcinogen.  As it could play a major role in the natural attenuation of vinyl-chloride in the environment, a protein biomarker for the presence and function of strain JS614 within a contaminated ecosystem would be a valuable tool for its use in bioremediation.

Anna A. Volkert
Chemistry
Verification of a Standard Estimation Model for Gold Nanoparticle Size

Noble metal nanoparticles have novel, size-dependent optical properties that can be tuned throughout the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. Currently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the standard method for determining the size of these nanostructures. While TEM provides a high degree of information about the structures of the nanoparticles, it requires highly skilled operators, consumes a lot of time and money, and destroys the sample. Recently, a standard estimation model was developed that estimated the size of gold nanoparticles based on their extinction spectra (i.e. sum of scattered and absorbed light). This method is fast, non-destructive, and utilizes optical data routinely collected in the lab. In this work, we have synthesized four sizes of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles. The extinction coefficient and sizes of these nanoparticles are calculated from extinction spectroscopy and a standard estimation model. These data are compared to TEM and various (size-indicating) scattering methods. This approach and validation of the standard estimation model will provide a low cost and efficient method to evaluate the size of gold nanoparticles. Future work will focus on determining the flexibility of the model for the evaluation of gold nanoparticles with various surface chemistries.

Audrey S. Dickey
Pharmacology
PP2A/Bβ2 and PKA/AKAP1 Restructure Mitochondria to Regulate Dendrite and Synapse Development

Mitochondria are critical for energy production, Ca++ homeostasis, and neuronal death. Fission/fusion processes determine mitochondrial size and interconnectivity. Mutations in mitochondrial fission/fusion enzymes cause neurological dysfunction. Bβ2, mutated in SCA12, mediates protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) translocation to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), where it promotes mitochondrial fragmentation and sensitizes neurons to injuries. Opposing PP2A/Bβ2's effect on mitochondrial morphology and cell death is cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) anchored to the OMM via A kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1). Expression of the mitochondrial fission enzyme dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), PKA binding-deficient AKAP1 (AKAP1 dPKA), or Bβ2, but not Bβ1 leads to mitochondria fragmentation, whereas dominant-negative (K38A) Drp1, AKAP1 or Bβ2 knockdown lead to mitochondria elongation. Treatments that fragment mitochondria increase the number of dendritic mitochondria but decrease total dendritic mitochondrial density, and treatments that elongate mitochondria have the opposite effect. Inducing mitochondrial fragmentation decreases dendritic branch complexity. Conversely, inducing mitochondrial elongation promotes dendrite outgrowth. Additional results suggest that manipulating the mitochondrial fission/fusion balance dramatically alters synapse density in HC cultures.

Daniel Azim Pschaida
Religious Studies
Calling towards an open space of mystical union &ndash; Teresa of Avila&rsquo;s <i>Meditations on Song of Songs</i> as poetic phenomenology

In religious traditions around the world the intimacy of two human lovers has been the epitomized metaphor for the mystic's yearning for the uttermost point of union with the Ultimate. In the early Middle Ages the Biblical book the Song of Songs was appropriated as an allegorical work that gave vision to these mystic yearnings and thousands of pages of commentaries ensued in the coming centuries. Of the immense amount of recent studies done on either the exegesis of the Song of Songs or the works of Saint Teresa of Avila, comparatively very little scholarship is in extant on Teresa's Meditations on Song of Songs. Mr. Pschaida's thesis aspires to bring together the diverse, salient aspects of her self-interpretive work and the overall spirit of its message. Drawing on conceptual frameworks of Schleiermacher, Buber, and Heidegger, Pschaida suggests that Teresa of Avila's Meditations on the Song of Songs is an example of poetic phenomenology - where she aspires, by way of language, not just to describe, but to re-create and evoke in the reader her own experience of mystical union with the One. He argues that she enacts this poetic phenomenology by way of her epistemological assertions, engaging conceptual explanations, the declarative modality's ontological force, prayerful addresses to the Thou, informal-conversational prose, and the aesthetics of her writing.

Hai Liu
Statistics
Constrained Generalized Additive Models for Zero-Inflated Data

Zero-inflated data abound in ecological studies as well as in other scientific and quantitative fields. Nonparametric regression with zero-inflated data may be studied via the zero-inflated generalized additive model (ZIGAM), which assumes that the zero-inflated responses come from a probabilistic mixture of zero and a regular component whose distribution belongs to the 1-parameter exponential family. With the further assumption that the probability of non-zero-inflation is some monotonic function of the mean of the regular component, we propose the constrained zero-inflated generalized additive model (COZIGAM) for analyzing zero-inflated data. Corresponding estimation algorithm is briefly discussed and illustrated with both Monte Carlo studies and a real application.

Erin M.G. Allen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Structure-Dependent Effects of Dieldrin Analogs on Dopamine Catabolism

Parkinson's Disease (PD), characterized by tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia, affects more than 300,000 people in the United States.  This disease has been correlated to pesticide exposure, and increased concentrations of dieldrin have been found in the brains of PD patients.  Dieldrin is a banned organochlorine pesticide, and one of the twelve most persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals ranked by the US EPA.  This compound has been shown to adversely affect a number of cellular processes thought to increase the likelihood of developing PD.  These effects include a modulation in the concentration of toxic intermediates such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), increased levels of oxidative stress, and altered mitochondrial function.  The hypothesis of this study is the cellular effects observed from dieldrin exposure is dependent upon the chlorine content and the structure of this pesticide.  This hypothesis will be tested using two specific aims, first to synthesize analogs of dieldrin with varying chlorine content, and second to analyze the cellular effects of these compounds on DA catabolism and mitochondrial function in dopaminergic PC6-3 cells.  A correlation between the structure of the dieldrin analogs and cellular effects was observed.

Olayinka Oladimeji
Pharmacy (PhD)
Concern beliefs in medicines: changes over time and factors related to its stability

Beliefs in medicines are a socio-psycological risk factor associated with adverse drug events (ADEs). Concern beliefs in medicine which charactherizes a person and his beliefs towards taking and managing his medicines could change with time. Objectives: Examine if concern beliefs change over time, examine the charactheristics of the groups of individuals whose beliefs change over time, investigate what factors are associated with changes in beliefs. Design: Longitudinal internet survey. Patients: 65 or older, English speakers, U.S residents, enrolled in Medicare. Data collected were socio-demographics, clinical and behavioral factors. Dependent variable was a change in concern beliefs in medicine defined as time 2-time 1. Analysis: Multiple linear regression and chi-square analysis. Results: Being female, stable medication adherence and reporting a self-identified ADE were positively associated with an increase in concerns about the dependence/worry/adverse effects of medicines. An understanding of the factors that may impact a change in concern beliefs would be helpful in interventions that could reframe patients ideas about medicines.

Anurag Dasgupta
Computer Science
Selfish Stabilization in Maximum Flow Tree

Consider the problem of stabilizing an Internet-scale distributed system. Unlike traditional  systems, where every process runs predefined programs mandated by a single administrator, here different groups of processes may execute different programs to maximize their own payoffs. Optimizing individual payoffs without sacrificing the stabilization property of the system is the essence of selfish stabilization.The problem yields some interesting results, e.g., even for only two subsets of processes and selfish moves, there are examples for which equilibrium may never exist. In this paper, we consider a graph G= (V,E), and assume that there are p (p>1) different subsets of processes. Starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, p (p>1) different subsets cooperate with one another to form a rooted maximum flow tree, and at the same time compete against each other to maximize their flow to the root node. We investigate scenarios for the existence and non-existence of equilibrium, discuss the role of different daemons in the system, and propose a stabilizing solution provided equilibrium exists.

Matt Gibson
Computer Science
An Improved Approximation Algorithm for Restricted Strip Covering

Suppose we have a collection of points that we would like to monitor.  Further suppose we have a collection of sensors, each of which is capable of monitoring some subset of the points.  Each sensor also has a duration which indicates the maximum amount of time that a sensor can be active.  The Sensor Cover Problem is the problem of assigning a start time to each of the sensors with the goal of maximizing the amount of time that the points are guarded by the sensors.  We give the first constant factor approximation algorithm for a geometric special case of this problem called the Restricted Strip Covering Problem.

Shannin Zevian
Biology
Tetraspanin CD151 is Important for Both alpha3 and alpha6 Integrin Function

A benchmark characteristic of malignancy is an invasive phenotype often associated with tumor cell motility. The role of tetraspanin CD151 in human cancers is supported by clinical studies where increased CD151 expression correlated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer, colon carcinoma, and prostate cancer. Major binding partners for CD151 include the integrins α3β1 and α6β4. CD151 is important for both initial attachment and motility on laminin-5 in epidermal cells, functions that both require α3β1 association with CD151. My work as found an additional role for CD151 in forming stable attachments to basement membranes in long-term adhesion assays, a function often associated  with integrin α6β4 and hemidesmosomes. Although the involvement of α3 and α6 integrins in these separate cellular functions was already known, my work has shown that CD151 is critically involved in both as well.

M.J. Conaway
Biomedical Engineering
The theory of calcium current in paralyzed human muscle

In current models of muscle force and fatigue in paralyzed subjects, the mechanistic understanding of the role of calcium current (R<sub>0</sub>) is inadequate.  R<sub>0</sub> is assumed to be scalar, which generates errors in predicting force and fatigue in response to external electrical stimulation.  Previous work generated experimental data that conform to the Riccati/logistic/Boltzmann equation.  To extend that work, a theoretical analysis of the role of calcium current, assumed to be a growth/diffusion/decay process, is presented for fresh and fatigued paralyzed muscle.  An improved theoretical model of the calcium current will lead to better understanding of muscle dynamics in paralyzed subjects.

Paul M Kaminsky
Anatomy and Cell Biology
AAV2 transduction is regulated by FAK and c-Src

Previous studies have demonstrated that integrins are important co-receptors for Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infection and endocytosis. However, signaling events regulating integrin-dependent endocytosis following AAV2 docking to the cell surface remain unclear. In the present, we sought to define the mechanisms that link integrin activation with downstream signaling pathways and hypothesized that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Src play critical roles in this process. These integrin effectors are known to bind and regulate Rac1 and PI3K, both of which are known to regulate AAV2 endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. In support of our hypothesis, AAV2 endocytosis and transduction of FAK<sup>-/-</sup> and c-Src<sup>-/-</sup> fibroblasts was significantly lower than in FAK and c-Src positive control fibroblasts. Furthermore, pharmacologic activation of PKC (activates integrins) increased AAV2 transduction only in FAK and c-Src positive cells, suggesting that integrin-dependent endocytosis is an underutilized, but highly efficient transduction pathway. These experiments have begun to outline a basic endocytic model linking integrin activation to the initiation of intracellular signaling cascades via PKC and FAK/c-Src that are required for rAAV2 infection. This information can ultimately be used identify signaling events which may augment rAAV transduction for gene therapy applications.

Matthew R. Cassidy
Social Studies Education
Creating A Culture of Civic Engagement

Since the earliest foundations of our public school system, civic education has been acknowledged as a critical component of the normative agenda. Even today, most schools explicitly articulate in their mission statement a commitment to the socio-civic development of their students. Unfortunately, most students' civic education is limited to courses in history and other disciplinary subjects within the social studies department. In these learning environments, civic education is often overshadowed by the prevailing disciplinary content. This format provides students with little opportunity to gain practical experiences as active community members.  To help enrich the civic education component of the school that I will ultimately work at, I intend to create a culture of civic engagement. My goal is to develop, or expand on an existing, service-based organization devoted to active engagement in the community. Service projects will be conceived by the students themselves, based on their own personal interests and concerns. Whenever possible the group will connect with community-level service organizations to establish cooperative partnerships and broaden the overall impact of the project. The idea is that if students have positive experiences associated with civic engagement, then they will be more likely to maintain these behaviors indefinitely.

Skye Souter
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Structure and interactions of microtubule-associated protein tau in human prostate cancer cells

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein expressed primarily in neurons.  While it has been established that tau is expressed in other cell types, its function in non-neuronal cells is not clear.  Recently, tau expression has been correlated with increased drug resistance in various cancers.  In this report, we investigate the tau expressed in cancerous prostate lines ALVA-31, DU 145, and PC-3.  Prostate cancer tau is heat-stable and highly phosphorylated, containing many of the modifications identified in Alzheimer's Disease brain tau.  RT-PCR and phosphatase treatment indicate that all six alternatively spliced adult brain tau isoforms are expressed in ALVA-31 cells, and that isoforms containing exon 6 are also present.  High molecular weight isoforms containing either exon 4A or a larger splice variant of exon 4A are also present.  Consistent with its hyperphosphorylated state, a large proportion of ALVA-31 tau does not bind to microtubules, as detected by confocal microscopy and biochemical tests.  Finally, endogenous ALVA-31 tau interacts with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitations and <em>in vitro</em> protein binding assays.

Amanda M. Fenner
Pharmacy (PhD)
Cyanobacterial Natural Product Drug Discovery in Panama

There is an incredible degree of biodiversity of Panama, much of which is contained in protected rainforest reserves and national parks along both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts.  The International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) based in Panama City, Panama seeks to characterize natural products isolated from Panamanian microorganisms and plants to identify compounds with therapeutic potential to treat tropical diseases including malaria, leishmaniasis, dengue virus, Chagas' disease, and cancer.  Cyanobacteria collected in marine environments have been shown to produce a variety of secondary metabolites demonstrating activity against cancer, malaria, viral infections, and other diseases.  In pursuit of novel agents against diseases prevalent in Panama, marine cyanobacteria were collected from Panamanian oceans, tested for biological activity, and purified to identify active components.  Herbamide B, though previously isolated, was purified and fully characterized, and, in addition, was found to have activity against leishmaniasis. Two compounds were isolated from an unidentified mat and both are highly active in against MCF-7 cancer cells.  Sample collection, fractionation, compound elucidation, and bioassay were conducted at the Panamanian National Laboratory, INDICASAT, in conjunction with the ICBG Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.

Vanja Stojkovic
Chemistry
Active site modification in a Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR): Contribution of active site dynamics to enzyme catalyzed hydrogen tunneling

Dihydrofolate reductase (DFHR) is a small, flexible, monomeric protein that catalyzes a conversion of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate through simple chemical transformation (C-H→C transfer). DHFR is necessary for the maintenance of intracellular levels of THF, an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathways of purines, thymine and several amino acids. Due to its pivotal role in the nucleotide biosynthesis in many organisms, DHFR is the target for many antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents. Moreover, its well-known mechanism makes it a good model for examination of the physical nature of the hydride transfer step. Nature of the hydride transfer as well as contribution of protein dynamics to the hydride transfer, are investigated through the systematic mutation of specific active site residues. Active site residue of interest, Ile14, is a conserved hydrophobic residue in contact with nicotinamide ring of NADPH.  It has been mutated into Ala in order to  increase the donor-acceptor distance in the C-H-C transfer, and to change the orientation and motility of the nicotinamide ring in the active site. Primary kinetic isotope effects for a full temperature range have been measured. The intrinsic kinetic isotope effects have been extracted and compared to wtDHFR values in order to examine the effect of the mutation on the environmental coupled tunneling.

Peter Likarish
Computer Science
Web Security 1.0

As an increasing number of people join the World Wide Web, the potential dangers resulting from malicious attacks and unintentional actions increases. My project proposes the creation of a web site designed to be used by parents and their children. The website conveys the very basic tenets of web security. In order to improve the usability and educational nature of the website, I plan to partner with technology teachers who need the curriculum offered by the website to instruct their students in web security. In turn, these teachers will provide me with feedback based on their student's experiences with the website in the classroom.

Amy Wilson
Health and Sport Studies
A 'Saga of Power, Money, and Sex:' The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women's (AIAW) 1980 Presidential Review at the University of Iowa

In July 1980, the Department of Physical Education and Dance (now the Department of Heath and Sport Studies) at the University of Iowa invited leaders of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) to campus for a week-long Presidential Review. Iowa professors Peg Burke, Christine Grant, and Bonnie Slatton, prominent leaders in the AIAW, organized this event to preserve an AIAW "living history." Founded in 1971 to administer championship play for college women, the AIAW featured an educational, student-centered model of sport and was the largest sport governing association in the U.S. by 1980. My research involves using a feminist cultural studies approach to analyze 25 hours of videotape of the AIAW Presidential Review. Generally, the AIAW has been merely a footnote in sport history scholarship; however, my work offers new insights to the lived experiences of those at the center of the 1970s women's sport revolution. This revolution was emeshed in much controversy as women entered the previously male dominated college sports world. What emerges from the 1980 AIAW Presidential Review videotapes is a narrative that transcends a story about sport and reveals a "sage of power, money, and sex."

Demelza Koehn
Biology
Tethering recombination initiation proteins promotes DSB formation

Meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated by the creation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), an event requiring ten recombination initiation proteins. Published data indicate that these ten proteins form three main interaction subgroups [(Spo11-Rec102-Rec104-Rec103), (Rec114-Mei4-Rec107), and (Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2)], but certain components from each subgroup may also interact. Although several of the protein-protein interactions have been defined, the mechanism for DSB formation has been challenging to define. Using a variation of the approach pioneered by Peciña et al. (2002), we have tethered eight of the ten initiation proteins to a recombination coldspot and discovered that seven of the eight promote DSB formation at the coldspot, albeit with different frequencies. Our results suggest there is substantial flexibility in the interactions among the recombination initiation proteins that results in the creation of a functional initiation complex in vivo to form DSBs.

Kelly M. Gierlus
Chemistry
Water Uptake of Humic and Fulvic Acid Aerosol

Humic and fulvic acids are macromolecular, multifunctional, polyacidic compounds that are important models for humic-like substances (HULIS) found in the troposphere.  In this research, the water uptake of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA) were determined by hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analysis (HTDMA) and extinction Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  The hygroscopic growth of 100 nm SRFA and NaHA aerosols was measured and used to determine both the ionic density (<em>ρ<sub>ion</sub></em>), and the value of <em>κ</em> from the <em>κ</em>-Köhler theory.  These two parameters were each used to model the hygroscopic growth and determine the critical percent supersaturations of the SRFA and NaHA. 

J.V. Loperfido
Civil and Environmental Engineering
High-frequency Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Turbidity in Clear Creek.

With the demand for water increasing, protection of this important natural resource is imperative.  In the future, a more sophisticated management system will be required to secure clean water for human consumption, agricultural uses, and recreation.  Recent advances in water quality sensors, telemetry hardware, and cyberinfrastructure have allowed for a greater understanding and a more detailed description of processes occurring in a watershed.  In the Clear Creek Watershed, high-frequency data from water quality sensors has revealed several natural phenomena that would be overlooked with traditional daily grab sampling campaigns.  Dissolved oxygen data has revealed non-linear nighttime increases in concentration, and was shown to decrease as watershed scale increased.  High-frequency turbidity data has revealed diel trends with higher values occurring during the nighttime.  Under baseflow conditions, this trend resulted in the delivery of a majority of the sediment and nutrient pollution during nighttime.  Together, these high-frequency data can assist stakeholders to make informed decisions on how to best regulate a watershed and efficiently allocate limited management resources.

LINGYAN YANG
School Psychology
Linking Chinese Mothers’ Perceptions of Child’s Attachment and Behavioral Characteristics to Parenting Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

In the social domain, autistic symptoms include impaired use of nonverbal behaviors, such as eye contact, facial expression, little seeking to share enjoyment or interests with other people, and limited social-emotional reciprocity (South, et al., 2008). Apparently, these behaviors may affect the attachment relationship with their parents/caregivers, and may have an impact on parenting. Most of the studies on early attachment behaviors in children with autism were conducted in western countries. To date, information regarding attachment behavior in Chinese children with autism remains under explored. Thus, the present study was designed to obtain data on Chinese parental perceptions of child’s attachment behavior and other problem behavior characteristics, as well as the perceived parental stress. This study posed three research questions: a. Do children with ASD demonstrate differentiated attachment behaviors in comparison to normal children in the eyes of their parents; and how do these behaviors differ in two groups? b. What are the differences in parenting stress and factors underlying parenting stress between mothers of children with ASD and mothers who have typically developing children? c. What are the associations between mothers’ perceptions of child’s behavioral characteristics and perceived parenting stress in the group of children with ASD?

Karry M. Jannie
Biology
Characterizing the role of ALCAM in cell adhesion and motility of melanoma cell lines

ALCAM is an immunoglobulin superfamily member that is expressed during development in cells of all three embryonic lineages; however, expression in the adult is tissue-specific. Typically, ALCAM localizes to cellular junctions in epithelial tissue, likely playing a role in adhesive complexes that preserve tissue architecture. ALCAM has been implicated in the control of several developmental processes, ranging from retinal ganglion cell guidance to activation of cells in the immune system. Studies performed in Weiner et al., 2004 demonstrated that ALCAM-null mice showed retinal dysplasias and folds in which pigmented tissue containing melanocytes invaginates. Further investigation of this phenotype showed that expression of ALCAM is restricted to the choroid. Therefore, we hypothesize that the retinal dysplasias present in ALCAM-null mice are due to misregulation of adhesion processes in the choroid. We have obtained a panel of melanoma cell lines and found that ALCAM expression correlates positively with motility. We are currently characterizing these cell lines; future studies will involve confirming candidate binding partners, modulating ALCAM expression, and determining the signaling pathway in which ALCAM is involved. It is our goal to characterize the role of ALCAM in the formation and maintenance of adhesion complexes and modulation of the cytoskeleton.

Andrew Hanson-Dvoracek
Music
Metal Machine Music: <i>Four Organs</i>, the Phase Shifting Pulse Gate, and Steve Reich's Early Career (1963-1970)

In the early 1970s, American composer Steve Reich shifted dramatically away from the tape manipulations for which he was known to a style marked by the use of acoustic instruments and a gradual abandonment of the minimalist aesthetic. The developments of this shift can be detected in his 1970 work <i>Four Organs</i> and particularly in his preceding experiments with a &quot;rhythmic computer&quot; called the Phase Shifting Pulse Gate. This paper describes the device and the music Reich composed using it. Many of the characteristics of <i>Four Organs</i> and the larger works following, such rhythmic augmentation and patterns of interlocking rhythms, can be traced to the failures of the experiments with the Pulse Gate. Additionally, a disastrous New York performance of <i>Four Organs</i> and its effect on the public's perception of Steve Reich will be discussed.

Marta N. Mack
Health and Sport Studies
Invisible Blackness: Effa Manley and The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Effa Manley, co-owner of Negro League Baseball's Newark Eagles, constructed an African-American identity. Furthermore, this paper examines how her location within an African-American identity can reveal something about the construction of racial and ethnic identities in the African-American community. Manley was raised by her mother who racially identified as white and two step fathers who racially identified themselves as black. Manley and her six siblings were raised as African-Americans. However, it was not until she was a teenager that her mother revealed to her that her biological father racially identified himself as white. The term African-American has been used to connote both a race and ethnicity. Thus, it is within the purview of the African-American experience for Manley to develop an African-American ethnic identity; although, she racially identified herself as white. This paper seeks to examine ways in which Manley negotiated her racial and ethnic identities which can offer further insight regarding the complexity of identity.

Xin Hu
Human Toxicology
Inhalation Exposure of Rats to a PCB Mixture Resembling the Chicago Ambient Air Congener Profile

Despite the continued occurrence of semi-volatile PCBs in the atmosphere, few studies have investigated inhalation exposure. We developed nose-only inhalation system that generated controlled atmospheres of vapor-phase PCB mixtures with a congener profile of the Chicago airshed. We measured the uptake and toxicological responses in Sprague-Dawley rats. We generated vapor-phase PCBs into a moving airflow that was then diluted and fed to a nose-only exposure chamber. Chamber outflow was sampled using XAD cartridges and characterized for congener profiles using LC-tandem MS. Rats were exposed 2 hr/day for 10 days. Pulmonary responses were evaluated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology of lungs, trachea, nose, nasopharynx and thymus. Lungs, livers and blood were collected to measure PCB uptake. Exposure data showed that a very high dose could be achieved with a high degree of consistency in concentration and PCB congener profile distribution. In a high dose experiment, we generated 11.3±2.0mg/day total PCBs (mean ± SD) during the 2hr daily exposure period. The low molecular weight PCB congeners represented 90% of the total PCB load. PCB 1, 4, 6, 8, 15, 17, 18*30, 20*28, 21*33, 31, and 52 were most abundant by mass, accounting for 83±4 % of the total PCBs. Even at these very high doses there was minimal lung inflammation and little evidence of lung injury.

Belinda Pinto
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Understanding the contributions of the LEM domain family of nuclear lamina proteins to Drosophila development

Proteins in the nuclear envelope and underlying lamina establish a network of interactions that provide mechanical stability to the nucleus and regulate nuclear trafficking, signal transduction and gene expression. The LEM domain proteins are a class of nuclear lamina proteins that share an ~ 40 amino acid motif that associates with the DNA binding protein BAF to establish a bridge between chromatin and the nuclear periphery. Although LEM domain proteins are expressed in most cells, loss of these proteins leads to tissue-specific human diseases.  We are using Drosophila as a model to provide insights into how LEM domain proteins contribute to lamina function during development. The Drosophila genome encodes four LEM domain proteins, dMAN1, Otefin, Bocksbeutel and dLEM3. To date, we have identified mutations in dMAN1, otefin and bocksbeutel.  Phenotypic analyses of these mutants demonstrate that loss of dMAN1 and Otefin reduces viability, and produces a spectrum of distinct tissue-specific phenotypes, whereas loss of Bocksbeutel produces no discernable developmental defects. Double mutant analyses show that loss of any two of the three LEM domain proteins causes lethality.  Taken together, these data suggest that Drosophila LEM domain proteins make distinct and over-lapping contributions to lamina function during development.

Piotr Domaszczynski
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Polarimetric Radar Network Simulator

“HawkEyes” is a network of mobile, polarimetric, X-band radars with overlapping view of a small, experimental watershed in Iowa City area. The network is expected to provide superior precipitation data for detailed hydrologic studies. Radars operating at X-band provide high spatial and temporal resolution data, but need to have correction algorithms applied to the measurements to correct for attenuation of radar signals by the intervening rainfall. In order to evaluate performance of existing attenuation correction algorithms in a networked environment, a full radar network simulator has been build. The simulator is based on the T-matrix approach and provides polarimetric variables for individual radars constituting the network. Obtained results are used to support optimal configuration of an operational radar network. Early simulation results are presented and discussed.

Pallavi Marrapu
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Air Quality in the California:Analysis of Observations from the NASA ARCTAS Field Experiment

The study analyzes air quality in California and its impact on regional weather and climate. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-CHEM) is a state-of-the-science mesoscale meteorology and chemical transport model developed by NCAR.  WRF/Chem is used to simulate atmospheric processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model is validated using surface observations from an intensive field campaign, Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites in California (ARCTAS-CA). Its objective was to better understand the factors driving the rapid ongoing changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate using chemical and radiative measurements from three research aircraft (DC-8, P-3, and B-200) to interpret and augment the continuous observation of the Arctic from NASA satellites. June 2008 saw considerable wildfire activity in California and the fresh plumes were repeatedly sampled by the aircraft. Data collected in California provides an opportunity to better understand air quality and to analyze the capability of current models. WRF/Chem model predictions are evaluated using the data. The results are analyzed to understand the roles of local forest fires, pollution from ships, and pollution from long distances sources (such as Asia) on the air quality of California.

Madhuparna Roy
Biology
Phenotypes of mutations in nervana 3, a beta subunit of Na/K ATPase, in Drosophila.

Plasma membrane localized Drosophila Na/K ATPase depends on the beta subunit for its transport to the plasma membrane and for regulating its activity.nervana 3 is a gene encoding the beta subunit is expressed in a subset of CNS neurons and, peripherally, in chordotonal organ neurons. This expression pattern suggested the possibility that nrv3 could be important for hearing. We have three nrv3 mutant alleles which result in homozygous lethality at early larval stage. Immunohistochemical studies in late stage embryos show that the alpha subunit localizes to the plasma membrane of CNS neurons while Nrv3 localizes to the PNS, especially the lateral pentascolopidial organ and in a subset of the CNS. Nrv3 protein localizes in the brain, eye and chordotonal neurons in the second antenna of Johnstons organ in adults. Experiments are in progress to rescue the lethal mutant phenotype using the UAS/Gal4 system and to construct mosaic animals with a view to testing auditory function of nrv3 in Johnston’s organ. Knocking down nrv3 expression in the nervous sysem with a tissue specific Gal4 driver crossed with UAS-RNAi resulted in severe adult uncoordination and early mortality in the experimental animals as well as reduction in auditory response.

Kanchna Ramchandran
Neuroscience
Can markets protect deficient decision-makers? Prediction and the aging brain.

Deficits in prediction among older adults would affect how they engage and make investment decisions. Older adults (90% male; M=74.0 years, SD=5.6) were asked to predict the winners of the Presidential primary elections in an experiment involving the Iowa Electronics Market . Participants traded shares (amongst themselves) of candidates in the primaries race to simulate stock market trading. Their performance was compared against an open market involving approximately 1000 younger, traders (90% male; M=45.8 years, SD=14.4.) Of the older adult sample, approximately 50% had been characterized as poor decision-makers. Brain MRI volumetric data was available on a subset of the older adult sample. Older adult, strong, decision-makers were found comparable to the younger traders in accurately predicting the winning nominees and their share prices. They outperformed the older adult poor decision-makers. Importantly, the market insulated poor decision-makers, and saved them more money than strong decision-makers in the aging sample-it did not let their extreme trading errors attain fruition. Prediction accuracy correlated with caudate volume in older adults. We conclude that a subset of older adults may suffer from prediction deficits that influence how they make investment decisions. Market based investments may save them more money than one on one investment vehicles.

David A. Rotsch
Chemistry
Synthetic, Structural, and Physicochemical Studies on Anion-Templated Polyeuropium(III) Complexes of Alpha-Amino Acids

Base hydrolysis of aqueous Eu(ClO4)3 in the presence of the α-amino acid L-proline leads to hydroxy-bridged, tetrahedral, tetraeuropium(III) complexes of the type [Ln43-OH)42-pro)6]2+ (pro = prolinate). In the presence of L-histidine and a templating halide, the pentadecaeuropium(III) complexes [Ln153-OH)205-X)n(OH2)8(his)15](10-n)+ (n = 1 for X = Cl- or Br- and n = 2 for I-) were prepared. The results of solid-state structural, electrochemical, and fluorescence studies on these polyeuropium compounds will be discussed.

Lisa Carlton
Communication Studies
The Role of Rhetoric in Plato's Philosophical Project

This presentation offers a sympathetic reading of Plato by suggesting that he was a devoted philosopher who recognized the limits of dialectic and occasionally overstepped his boundaries into the realm of rhetoric as a means to serve his idealistic ambitions. To support my reading, I will explicate key moments from Plato's middle period texts where Plato demonstrates poetic eloquence in his writing such as his use of proverb, pun, and metaphor because the metaphoric use of language is atypical of a trained dialectician and it provides a tangible example of Plato's boundary crossing into the rhetorical. Unlike other scholars, however, I will not argue that these moments suggest Plato was a rhetorician, or even that he had a soft-spot for rhetoric, but rather that he recognized dialectic's limitations and that these moments point to a conscious collapse of logos and mythos to serve his greater project-philosophy.

Gayan Rubasinghege
Chemistry
Simulated Atmospheric Processing of Iron Oxyhydroxide Minerals at Low pH: Roles of Particle Size and Acid Anion in Iron Dissolution

Iron from mineral dust, is an important source of iron for the open ocean. A number of recent studies have shown that iron dissolution in Fe-containing dust aerosol can be linked to source material (mineral or anthropogenic), mineralogy and iron speciation. All of these factors need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemistry models if these models are to accurately predict the impact of Fe-containing dusts into open ocean waters. In this study, we combine dissolution measurements along with spectroscopy and microscopy to focus on nanoscale size-effects in the dissolution of Fe-containing minerals in low pH environments and the importance of acid type, including HNO3, H2SO4 and HCl, on dissolution. All of these acids are present in the atmosphere and dust particles have been shown to be associated with nitrate, sulfate and/or chloride. These measurements are done under light and dark conditions so as to simulate and distinguish between day time and night time atmospheric chemical processing. Both size (nano- versus micron-sized particles) and anion (nitrate, sulfate and chloride) are found to play significant roles in the dissolution of alpha-FeOOH under both light and dark conditions. The current study highlights these important, yet unconsidered, factors in the atmospheric processing of iron-containing mineral dust aerosol.

Amy Lee Scott
English-Nonfiction Writing
Breaking Through the Looking Glass: Using archives to structure absence in nonfiction writing

Using both personal and historical adoption narratives, my presentation will explore what I call compulsive memorialization. This complex process of archivalconcretization expresses itself in various cultural artifacts and settings,ranging from scrapbooks and email accounts to museums and novels. My presentation bases itself upon the assumption that the establishment and articulation of personal, communal, and spiritual archives are more than mere acts of preservation; they are also acts of poetic creation designed to memorialize, contextualize, and—perhaps more importantly—reconfigure a person’s sense of place and history. By dismantling and rebuilding the facts behind my own adoption, I will demonstrate how combining personal and historical narratives cause larger stories to emerge—stories that investigate the way we forget, misremember, and ultimately rewrite ourselves. 

Devon C. Wootten
Comparative Literature
Positivism as Ideology

This essay reexamines the supposed disparity between Hegelian and Christian discourse in Golden Age Denmark. Specifically, I examine the relationship between J.L. Heiberg's On the Significance of Philosophy for the Present Age and J.P. Mynster's "On Religious Conviction." As Mynster's text was written in response to Heiberg's essay, these two texts provide an ideal example of the way in which the discourses of Hegelianism and Christianity interacted in Golden Age Denmark.

I will assert that Hegelian discourse supports the dominant Christian discourse of Golden Age Denmark. That is, as the discourse of Hegelianism maintains a knowable relation between the finite and the infinite, it participates in the same discursive system by and in which Christianity asserts its authority.

This essay concludes with a brief example of a discourse that is an actual threat to the dominant Christian discourse of the Danish Golden Age, Søren Kierkegaard's Stages on Life's Way. That is, as Kierkegaard's text takes away the individual's ability to posit a stable relation between the finite and the infinite while at the same time establishing this disparity as the necessary condition for faith, it shifts the epistemological basis of Christian discourse and thereby represents a real threat to Christian (and Hegelian) discourse.

Kelly C. Rowe
Neuroscience
Patterns of SSRI Usage in Prodromal Huntington Disease

      Antidepressant usage in Huntington Disease (HD) and its prodromal period (pr-HD) remains uncharacterized, despite its importance in designing experiments, studying psychiatric outcomes of HD, and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Additionally, recent animal studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of SSRIs in early HD, raising interest in studying this effect in humans. We searched medication logs of 787 pr-HD and 215 non-HD participants from HD families for antidepressant usage. Descriptive and mixed-effects logistic regression modeling was completed to characterize usage rates. At baseline, 24.02% of gene-expanded pr-HD participants took antidepressants. Of those, 66.14% took SSRIs and SSRI/NRIs.  Significantly more pr-HD participants used SSRIs and SSRI/NRIs than their non-HD counterparts (15.9% vs. 9.3%).  Because of the prevalence of these compounds, further analyses focused on the combined SSRI and SSRI/NRI group.  Mixed-effects logistic regression modeling revealed significant relationships of both gender and proximity to diagnosis with SSRI usage (DF=768.2, p=.0006; DF 2444, p=.0001). In conclusion, more pr-HD participants took antidepressants and SSRIs than their non-HD counterparts, which has implications for experimental design, psychiatric outcomes, and potential therapeutic interventions in these participants.

Daniel A. Usera
Communication Studies
"No, you cannot have my number:" Politeness and/or deception in rejecting phone number requests

This paper is about romantic relationship initiation, specifically, the practice of rejecting romantic relational advances. There are many books in the mainstream and much research from the pursuer's standpoint as to how to request a date or phone number from a potential mate. However, there is not much literature about how to reject a phone number or date request from an unwanted pursuer. This paper applies two theories of communication about this construct, highlights important issues surrounding it, and calls for future study on this topic. 

Karletta White
Sociology
Are Darker Skinned Blacks and Latinos Stopped More? The Effects of Skin Tone on Police Contact

This study explores the relationship between skin tone and police contact, in particular, the effect of Blacks' and Latinos' skin tone on the number of police stops and arrests they experience. For African Americans and Latinos, lighter skin tone is a culturally valued status marker (Keith & Herring 1991, Frazier 1957, and Hunter 2005). Darker skinned Blacks and Latinos are perceived as more threatening and hostile than those with lighter skin complexions (Sykes & Clark, 1975) and therefore warrant more police attention (Black, 1970). Using data from waves I and III of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I examine whether or not skin tone is correlated with police stops and arrests, controlling for prior delinquency and other important factors. Descriptive results show darker skinned Blacks and Latinos are stopped and arrested more often than lighter skinned members of the same group, but after controlling for other variables, skin tone was found not to be a significant factor in predicting police contact in 10 out of 12 cases.  Prior delinquency however is a strong predictor of police contact, along with having two parents in the home, remaining significant in all 12 models. 

Kwame Nyarko
Health Management and Policy
The Impact of Residential Segregation on Racial Disparities in Infant Health

African-American infants have significantly poorer health outcomes compared to White infants. We study the effects of residential segregation on the birth outcomes of African-American infants and the extent to which population and area-level characteristics explain these effects. We also evaluate the role of unobserved heterogeneity in the relationship between segregation and infant health. We also assess the heterogeneity in the effects of residential segregation by unobserved area-level endowments that impact infant health. We measure residential segregation by the dissimilarity and the isolation indices. The study finds that ignoring unobserved factors, both measures of residential segregation have significant negative effects on infant health that is explained to a large extent by the observed population and area-level characteristics. The study also finds that the negative impacts of residential segregation are in areas with low rates of adverse birth outcomes and high area-level endowments that improve infant health, but that segregation has insignificant effects in areas with high rates of adverse birth outcomes and poor endowments for infant health. The study results suggest that residential policies alone may not have large effects on reducing disparities in infant health, especially in areas with high rates of adverse birth outcomes among African-American infants.

Pallavi Marrapu
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Assessment of Criteria Air Pollutants from Various Emission Sectors over Delhi

Delhi, capital city of India is one of the most polluted cities in the world. Delhi will act as host for the Common Wealth Games during 4-14 October 2010. This high profile event a provides good opportunity to accelerate efforts to improve air quality. In support of this project, simulations are conducted to better understand scenario . WRF-CHEM, a state-of-the-science mesoscale meteorology and chemical transport model, is used to simulate atmospheric processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The main objective of this study is to understand the spatial patterns of each pollutant such as CO, SO2, NO2, O3 and Black Carbon (BC) . The study analyzes air quality in Delhi during 24 -September 2008 to 18-October 2008 (~25Days) and percentage contribution from various sectors such as Transportation, Power, Industrial and Domestic . It is found that SO2 and CO2 pollution is caused largely by thermal power plants (~80% and ~65% respectively) while the transport sector ontributes most to the CO pollution levels (~80%) . Considerable amounts of emissions are also seen from domestic and industrial sectors. The major contributor to BC is from Domestic (cooking practices) and Industrial sectors. These results depicts sector contribution of each pollutant clearly and provide key input into the development of pollution reduction strategies.

Raphael Apter
Spanish
Interiority, Exteriority and the Negotiation of Space in Carmen Laforet’s Nada

The interplay of internal and external spaces is a fundamental aspect of the portrait Carmen Laforet paints of Spain’s post-CivilWar era in her novel Nada (1945). Her protagonist Andrea straddles both worlds, finding herself stifled by the interior world of her adoptive extended family and simultaneously liberated when rejecting this reality to be in the external world of post-war Barcelona. Andrea enjoys the role of the outsider she creates for herself, as it affords her a necessary distance for making sense of the all that surrounds her. Most critics agree that it is her gaze that is crucial to understanding Andrea’s narration about her greater environment. Thus, in this paper, I maintain that space—and particularly Andrea’s negotiation of it—helps to explain this habit of hers of occupying and reoccupying the spectator role throughout the novel. Furthermore, I contest one common reading that the protagonist is almost completely passive and trapped in the space of literature to which she often evades, instead viewing Andrea’s negotiation of different spaces as a key way that she will assert her power within post-Civil War Spain.

Michael Schnack
Music
An Elite Borrowing and a Populist Original: The History and Provenance of Two Alma Mater Songs of the University of Iowa

The origins of two alma mater songs of the University ofIowa, Old Gold and Alma MaterIowa, illustrate marked differences betweenthe historical and personal contexts in which they were produced. OldGold is a typical alma mater of the firstdecade of the twentieth century, exemplifying the national popularity of gleeclub singing as well as the popular phenomenon of song contests sponsored byacademic institutions.   Itconsists only of original words written to a popular tune: the well-known almamater of Harvard University.  AlmaMater Iowa originated in a completelydifferent context.  It was composedfor purely personal reasons by an Iowa student who was forced to interrupt hisstudies when he was drafted for military service in World War II.  Old Gold was first published as a prize-winning, officialUniversity of Iowa song in the Hawkeye yearbook of 1907, while Alma Mater Iowa was presented to the public by the Old Gold Singers,a musical organization founded for outreach by the Alumni Association.  This ensemble was marketed as pure entertainment,seeking its audience outside as well as inside the academic community andavoiding any trappings of institutional elitism.  The original versions in which these two songs wereintroduced, restored from archival sources, reflect their larger historicalcontexts in musical terms. 

Katherine Gubbels
English-Literary Studies
Sexing Sidney: Pyrocles’ Queering Process in The Old Arcadia

Typically read a pastoral romance, Sir Philip Sidney’s The Old Arcadia serves as an early modern example of a “queering process.” A term borrowed from Tison Pugh, a queering process is a transition protagonists undergo in which they temporarily adopt non-normative gender or sexual expressions as a means to actually strengthen or justify their inclusion within the normative realm. Thus, texts portraying this kind of “queering process” demarcate sexual and gender transgression as not only essential to,but also a very part of, a larger heteronormative paradigm, blurring and bridging distinctions between Self and Other. In The Old Arcadia, for example, Pyrocles openly transgresses normative masculinity as a means to woo Philoclea and ultimately more securely establish himself as indeed a man. In passing himself as “Cleophila,”however, Pyrocles arouses a number of queer desires in both himself as well as those around him. The tale thus positions Pyrocles’ encounters as a woman, and the sexual object of both men and women, as absolutely essential if Pyrocles is to eventually seduce Philoclea.

Victoria Tumanova
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Procedural Learning Abilities of Adults who do and do not Stutter, and Adults who have Parkinson's Disease.

Using a visuomotor tracking paradigm, we examined the procedural learning abilities of adults who stutter, those with Parkinson's disease, and control participants. Participants were asked to track a moving target with their jaw and their dominant hand. We compared tracking accuracy in simple repetitive movement and complex periodic and aperiodic movements as a way to examine performance in predictable versus unpredictable motor tasks across the groups. The importance of procedural learning for speech and language, and preliminary results of the study will be discussed.

Nan Chen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Size and Surface Properties Determining Nanoparticle Uptake in the Nasal

Purpose: To identify the surface characteristics of nanoparticles which determine their mechanisms of uptake and transport across the nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa. Methods: The in vitro uptake of 20 nm, fluorescently labeled polystyrene particles was investigated using bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory explants. Both carboxylated and amidine-modified nanoparticles were incubated on the mucosal side of the tissue explants for up to 3 hours. Two inhibitors, chlorpromazine and amiloride, were used to investigate the role of endocytotic uptake. Particle size, size distribution and zeta potential of the particles were measured using dynamic light scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize nanoparticle surface composition. Results: Carboxyl-modified nanoparticles showed significantly higher transport into and across the tissue explants than amidine-modified particles. No distinguishable differences of uptake between olfactory and respiratory tissue were observed. Conclusions: The surface properties of nanoparticles play a key role in determining the extent of particle uptake by the mucosal tissue. The inhibition of uptake by amiloride suggests that macropinocytosis plays a major role in the transport of small nanoparticles across the nasal mucosa.

Sharavathi Guddehalli Parameswarappa
Chemistry
Conversion of substituted pyridines to spiropiperidine derivatives via intramolecular dearomatization

Nitrogen containing heterocycles and spirocycles are abundant in naturally occurring and biologically active compounds. While there are many methods suitable for synthesizing these heterocycles, the use of toxic metals and expensive reagents is often involved. Our group is developing novel methods for construction of heterocyclic materials from readily available aromatic substrates using environmentally and economically friendly dearomatization strategies. This study is focused on examining the feasibility of substituted pyridine dearomatization involving intramolecular cyclization for heterocycle synthesis. Spirocycles obtained from this approach are being further manipulated to ultimately afford complex structures.

Stacy Ross
Pharmacy (PhD)
Treating Lung Biofilm Infections: Dispersion and Eradication via Dry Powder Aerosols

Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilms, present in 80% to 90% of cystic fibrosis patients, are the leading cause of mortality among the population. Biofilms resist the host's immune system and treatment by antibiotics. It is our goal to develop dry powder aerosols to co-deliver dispersion and antibiotic compounds to break up and eradicate bacterial colonies.Dry powders were formulated with 10 wt% excipient (L-leucine) and 90 wt% antibiotic (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, cipro) and dispersion compound (glutamic acid, glu) in varying ratios (overall solid concentrations of 0.1625% - 0.5%). The parameters of cipro concentration (0.5-9.5 µg/mL), glu concentration (50-550 µg/mL), overall solids percent (0.05-0.5 wt %), and liquid flow rate (5-14 mL/min) were varied to investigate the resulting powder physical properties. An in vitro bacteria model was cultured to approximately 108 colony forming units per mL and treated with cipro and glu. All powders had tap density values ranging from 0.53 g/cm3 to 0.78 g/cm3 and aerodynamic properties appropriate for tracheobronchial and alveolar deposition (3.50 - 4.77µm). All in vitro treatments significantly (p<0.05) reduced the percent live bacteria cells when normalized by volume compared to the untreated control. This co-delivery system has promise to improve the elimination of persistent infections in the lungs.

Lian Duan
Management Sciences
Finding Maximal Fully-Correlated Itemsets in Large Databases

Finding the most interesting correlations among items is essential for problems in many commercial, medical, and scientific domains. Much previous research focuses on finding correlated pairs instead of correlated itemsets in which all items are correlated with each other. When designing gift sets, store shelf arrangements, or website product categories, we are more interested in correlated itemsets than correlated pairs. We solve this problem by finding maximal fully-correlated itemsets (MFCIs), in which all subsets are closely related to all other subsets. Putting the items in an MFCI together can promote sales within this itemset. Though some exsiting methods find high-correlation itemsets, they suffer from both efficiency and effectiveness problems in large datasets. In this paper, we explore high-dimensional correlation in two ways. First, we expand the set of desirable properties for correlation measures and study the advantages and disadvantages of various measures. Second, we propose an MFCI framework to decouple the correlation measure from the need for efficient search. By wrapping the best measure in our MFCI framework, we take advantage of likelihood ratio's superiority in evaluating itemsets, make use of the properties of MFCI to eliminate itemsets with irrelevant items, and still achieve good computational performance.

Caleb Brown
Linguistics
Full Functional Representation in L2: Evidence from English-German Interlanguage

A central question in second language (L2) acquisition research asks why certain properties are more difficult to acquire in L2 than others. In syntactic theory, a basic distinction is made between the interpretable (meaningful) parts of language and the functional categories (FC) like articles, prepositions, etc; these are widely observed to cause problems for L2 learners (L2ers). The Impaired Functional Representation hypothesis says FC are permanently impaired in L2 after a “critical period” (ie puberty) and new functional categories different from those in the first language (L1) cannot be acquired as an adult, explaining the problems experienced in L2 acquisition. The Full Functional Representation (FFR) hypothesis contradicts this, saying it is possible for new functional categories to be acquired in L2 development, thus accounting for near-native L2ers. This study focuses on differences in word order between English and German, properties due to functional features. Three native English speakers of German and one German native speaker completed a grammaticality judgement task and a sentence completion task. The advanced learners were shown to have successfully acquired the V2 properties of German, supporting FFR and refuting IFR. Is it possible for us to learn a second language the same way as we learned our first? While it may be difficult, our results seem to say yes.

Ying-bei Wang
Comparative Literature
Laughter versus Power: The Language of PTT Villagers

The PTT Bulletin Board of Taiwan is the most popular BBS-based space in Chinese-speaking world and also a major place where Taiwanese young people discuss politics. The PTT's villagers, a sobriquet for the PTT's frequent users, have a very special and almost exclusive language to do their political discussions: jargons are omnipresent, obscene terms are constantly used, and irony, metaphor, pungent parody, and other literary devices play an important role. Consequently, humor becomes the dominant style of their language, which successfully causes laughter from the audience.

By using the literary theories offered by Mikhail Bakhtin, who writes how laughter generated in literary sense suspends hierarchy, I would like to analyze how the PTT villagers create a language of their own to defy people in power. The main object of this research is a board called "Gossip," where the discussions, ironically, mostly focus on politics and assault against political leaders. Speaking a language unknown to the authority, the villagers of the board trigger enormous laughter and pose strong resistance against the rules. Consequently, this unique language, characteristic of its humor, laughter, creativity, and localness, effectively destroys the discourse constructed by the ruling class and switches the structure of power.

Jon Van Laarhoven
Mathematics
The Euclidean Steiner Tree Problem

Imagine you are a civil engineer hired to design a road network connecting several cities.  Keeping the budget in mind, you might ask how to connect the cities using as little road as possible.  This is essentially the Euclidean Steiner tree problem.  The Euclidean Steiner tree problem (ESTP) asks for a tree of minimal length spanning a set of n points (terminal points) in Euclidean d-space, while allowing for the addition of auxiliary points (Steiner points) to shorten the overall length of the network.  The flexibility to add these Steiner points generalizes the "easy" minimum spanning tree problem to the "difficult" (aka NP-Hard) Steiner tree problem.  Steiner trees have applications in network design, circuit layout, and molecular modeling, in addition to having a realization via soap films.  The graph theory literature contains extensive studies of exact, approximation, and heuristic algorithms for ESTP in the plane, but less is known in higher dimensions.  My research focuses on heuristic and exact algorithms for solving this classic NP-hard problem, with emphasis on d>2.

Sangeet Kumar
Communication Studies
The Kuhnian Paradigm, Postcolonial Historiography and the Ghost of Captain Cook

This paper analyzes the translatability of Thomas Kuhn’s idea of a “paradigm” into the humanities through studying a debate about the apotheosis of Captain James Cook in Hawaii. The debate was carried out within the pages of the journal Current Anthropology and was mediated by Robert Borofsky who lamented that dominant scholarly trends rather than rigorous research determined the conclusions of those challenging the view that Cook was received as their God by the Hawaiians. Borofsky argues that “present-day postcolonial concerns” blinkered the view of many anthropologists on the issue. Through a study of this debate my paper claims that in Borofsky’s lament one finds an implicit echo of the Kuhnian idea that scientific research progresses only through challenging and moving from one dominant paradigm to another. In making this argument the paper counters Borofsky’s claim that a postcolonial sensibility is merely a “trend” to be transcended. Since the questions it raises and the lessons it teaches us are perennial it must continuously inform our understanding of the world.

Bridget Draxler
English-Literary Studies
Fresh Threads of Connection: Mother Nature and British Women Writers

"Fresh Threads of Connection: Mother Nature and British Women Writers," an exhibition currently on display in the Humanities Gallery of the Old Capitol Museum, is a joint project sponsored by the UI Museum of Art, UI Special Collections, the UI Department of English, the Old Capitol Museum, and local public libraries, in conjunction with the 2009 British Women Writers Conference, which will be hosted at the University in April. Designed to attract local elementary school field trips, reading groups, families, university classes, and scholars, the exhibit considers changing conceptions of nature within women's literature in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain, and includes rare books and portraits of authors such as Mary Shelley, George Eliot, and Charlotte Bronte. Events held in conjunction with the exhibit include lectures by UI and visiting faculty, a parlour performance of Jane Austen's Emma, and a Peter Rabbit-themed petting zoo.

Anton Petushkov
Chemistry
Synthesis of Nanocrystalline ZSM-5 and Naβ Zeolites

Zeolites are crystalline alumosilicates with a developed pore network. The size and shape of the pores is determined by crystal structure and typically ranges from 0.4 to 1.3 nm. Zeolites have anionic sites that give them ion-exchange capability. The combination of porosity and ion exchange properties makes zeolites a prospective carrier material for a variety of transition metal based catalysts. Since catalytic sites are located in the pores of molecular size, the transport of reacting species is hindered. There is an interest in synthesis of small zeolite crystals, in which external surface area (Ssp) constitutes a significant part of the total Ssp. Catalyst species are then located on the external surface and more easily accessed by reactants.  Zeolites are commonly synthesized via hydrothermal treatment when a mixture of precursors and template is heated in order to induce crystallization. A number of factors such as temperature, reaction time, composition of the reaction mixture and the type of template influence the crystal structure and size of the resulting zeolite.  The objective of this work was synthesis of nanosized ZSM-5 and Naβ particles and the study of optimal synthesis conditions for their synthesis and control of the particle size, namely reaction mixture pretreatment and stirring mode.

Matt Low
English-Literary Studies
Reading the Prairie

In the study of American literature, those texts written from or about the American Midwest frequently take a backseat to the regional literature of other areas of the country.  Similarly, there is a general lack of knowledge or interest in the existence and survival of its prairie landscapes, both by those living within and outside of the Midwest.  Part of this may be due to the fact that, over the last two centuries, the native ecosystems of this region have been increasingly lost to the forces of industrialized agriculture, and so simply finding a native prairie is a difficult thing to do.  Furthermore, just as studies of regional literature tend to focus on coasts, mountains, and forests, so too have most large-scale preservation efforts as initiated by environmental groups in the last fifty years.  The project that I am proposing would seek to address these many issues by creating a literature course with three main objectives: reading texts written from our about the American Midwest, learning about the history and ecology of prairie landscapes, and actively engaging in prairie restoration efforts.  The overall goal of these activities is for students to acquire stronger aesthetic and ethical appreciation for prairie landscapes.

Garett Lee
Chemistry
Measuring Self and Cross Exchange Rates, a Microfluidic Approach

Electron transfer, the mechanistically described kinetic processes of reduction and oxidation between atoms and molecules, occurs throughout the natural world. Some examples include photosynthesis, respiration, oxygen binding and corrosion.  Mechanistically, outer sphere transition metal complexes (e.g., Ru(bpy)32+/3+, Co(bpy)32+/3+, bpy = bipyridal) serve as redox probes for evaluation of self and cross exchange reactions. Traditionally, kinetic measurements are acquired hydrodynamically or spectrophotometrically, where measurements are predicated on achieving a mass transport rate competitive with the kinetic rate, the exchange rate. However, conventional methods, including rotating disk voltammetry, have an upper limit and an analytical method of wider dynamic range and higher precision is needed to establish a data set for more critical assessment of electron transfer events. The goal of this research is to develop an electroanalytical device, based on laminar flow microfluidics, with wider dynamic range and better precision than existing methods. This study involves the design and fabrication of a microfluidic device consisting of PDMS (poly-dimethylsiloxane) based micro-channels and individually accessible microelectrodes, using outer sphere transition metal complexes as our redox probes.

Lauren Hecht
Psychology
Auditory Object-based Attention

Attention is able to select relevant information based on the objects present in the visual input (e.g., Duncan, 1984; Egly et al., 1994; Vecera, 1994), but it is less clear how attention selects information from auditory input. In the current experiments, we examined whether auditory attention could select relevant information based on the auditory objects present in the input. Specifically, we asked if two features of a single auditory object were selected more efficiently than two features of different auditory objects. Participants listened to two simultaneous, spatially superimposed auditory objects and reported two features, either both from the same object (i.e., same-object condition) or one from each object (i.e., different-object condition). Participants were equally accurate for two reports when the features came from the same object. However, participants were significantly worse at reporting two features from different objects, indicating the presence of an object-based effect. Thus, attention is sensitive to not only visual objects but also to auditory objects.

Deborah Pava Singer
Music
Spanish Guitar and the Lament in Seventeenth-Century Italian Opera

Did the Spanish guitar play a role in transmitting and popularizing the descending minor tetrachord, a pattern which became intimately associated with seventeenth-century Italian opera lament? This paper will present evidence of nacent chordal thinking in the early Spanish guitar tutors and in the <em>vihuela</em> tutors that preceded them. It will discuss possible channels for the entrance of Spanish guitar music into Italy, and will highlight the familiarity of that repertoire to Italian opera composers such as Claudio Monteverdi. It will consider the reception and further development of the <em>guitarra espagñola</em> in Italy and will show how the tuning as well as the <em>rasgueado</em> style of Spanish guitar strumming lent itself to the accompaniment of the lament. It will highlight idioms shared by the <em>lamento</em> and <em>cante jondo</em>, historically as well as thematically considerd the &quot;deep song&quot; of Spain. Finally, it will offer some qualified hope for further fruitful research in this area.

Shaowei Wan
Pharmacy (PhD)
Investigating the Utilization and Average Treatment Effect of Survival for Chemotherapy among Elderly Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer

Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the efficacy of chemotherapy to moderately prolong survival for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Yet whether these results can be applied to older patients is unknown because of the underrepresentation of elderly women in these clinical trials. In real practice, more than 50% of all new breast cancer patients are elderly women who are 65 years of age or older. Not all the MBC patients will choose chemotherapy. Therefore, the question of policy relevance is not whether chemotherapy should or should not be used, but how widely it should be used. In addition, MBC is a highly heterogeneous disease in terms of risk and benefit profile due to treatment. Chemotherapy would help some patients live longer while put other patients’ lives at risk. This study will adopt both a risk adjustment (RA) model and instrumental variable (IV) analysis to estimate the treatment effectiveness of chemotherapy on survival among elderly women. The estimate from a RA model answers the question whether chemotherapy improves survival among patients who are treated by chemotherapy; whereas an IV estimate can provide additional evidence to help assess treatment effects and potentially uncover whether chemotherapy is over- or under-used.

Francesco Dalla Vecchia
Music
The forms of Cavalli’s arias

A complete survey of aria forms set to music by Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676), the most representative composer of seventeenth-century Venetian opera.

Lauren Graupner
Biomedical Engineering
Human Response to Single and Combined Vertical Vibration

Task performance has been shown to decline with exposure to combined vertical vibration conditions. In the current study, electromyography was used to capture the muscle activity of the back during single and combined whole-body vertical vibration conditions to try to explain this phenomenon.  Participants were exposed to the following four conditions: non-vibration control environment, vibration at 2.5 Hz, vibration at 5 Hz, vibration combining 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.  It was shown that the participants were able to respond cyclically to the 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz vibration conditions when encountered independently, but only responded to the 2.5 Hz component of the combined vibration condition.  This study has revealed a significant musculoskeletal control system limitation.

Dauna M Kiser
History
“How do I get there?” Practical Lessons on the Vision from Thirteenth-Century Female Mystics.

Medieval scholars have recently become aware that women participated in teaching and learning about religious practices and ways of thinking about God.  One of the ways they did this during the thirteenth century was through the mystical vision.  Because visions do not always occur spontaneously, as Beatrice of Nazareth acknowledged to Ida of Nivelles, mystics taught each other techniques that would assist in bringing visions about.  In my presentation I will argue that women mystics learned and taught others what to expect during a journey and after it was over, and how to initiate a spiritual voyage.  A close examination of the works and vitae of certain Thirteenth-Century mystics and their female mentors can reveal clues to the various ways in which these women both learned and taught methods that enhanced their ability to enable a vision to occur.  This type of instruction was valued in the Thirteenth Century, and shows us the importance of reintegrating women's activities into the medieval educational system as a whole.

Yin Wan
Pharmacy (PhD)
Relationship between Provider Volume and Patient Survival after Treatment for Early-stage Breast Cancer Patients

Background Numerous researches have investigated the relationship between provider volumes and clinical outcome in various surgical procedures. However, this relationship has rarely been examined for the long term survival after breast cancer surgeries.  Objective investigating the relationship between the hospital volume, surgeon volume and long term clinical outcome for early stage breast cancer patients, using current year volumes, lag year volumes and volumes in the 12-month period prior to the surgery as predictors. Method The retrospective study cohort includes women aged over 66 years with early stage breast cancer from the SEER-Medicare data. Multivariate logistic regression is performed. Preliminary Results When using current year provider volumes as predictors, women underwent surgeries with low volume surgeons (&lt;6) are less likely (OR=0.89, P&lt;0.01) to survive than with high volume surgeons (&gt;10); those underwent surgeries with medium volume surgeons (6~10) is less likely (OR=0.92, P&lt;0.05) to survive. Women underwent surgeries in low volume hospitals (&lt;21) are less likely (OR=0.83, P&lt;0.01) to survive than women in high volume hospitals (&gt;80); those in medium volume hospital (21~80) is also less likely (OR=0.88, P&lt;0.05) to survive than high volume hospitals. Conclusion Lower provider volumes are associated with poorer clinical outcomes.

Rachel L Miller
Biostatistics
Intrauterine Growth Restriction Impairs Hippocampal Development

Intrauterine growth restriction has been linked to altered brain development, leading to increased anxiety and reduced cognitive abilities. We sought to define the neurodevelopmental phenotypes of mice with naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).  C57BL/6J mice were grouped, based on their weights at three and twenty-one days post-partum, into three categories: (1) runted (IUGR without catch-up neonatal growth), (2) recovered (IUGR with complete catch-up by day 21), and (3) control (birth weight and weanling weight within one standard deviation of colony mean).  Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at eight months.  Runted male and female mice were more susceptible to Pavlovian fear conditioning and showed increased anxiety upon handling. These runted mice had impaired hippocampal learning and psychological stress-induced hypertension. MRI revealed IUGR mice have decreased hippocampal volumes. Neonatal catch-up growth corrected the neurodevelopmental phenotypes of IUGR male, but not female mice, suggesting female mice might have an earlier window of vulnerability. We conclude that naturally occurring IUGR impairs hippocampal development  and establishes adult psychiatric illness and neurocardiovascular diseaseand amygdale, causing increased anxiety and hypertension.

Marek Mikulski
Occupational and Environmental Health
Screenings for beryllium sensitization in former nuclear weapons workers

The University of Iowa Atomic Energy Commission Former Worker Program (UIA-FWP) in the College of Public Health is part of a nationwide Department of Energy (DoE)program to screen former nuclear weapons workers for adverse effects from DOE operations. The UIA-FWP screens workers for beryllium sensitization, lung disease, and cancers that may have resulted from exposure to ionizing radiation, beryllium and other substances common in manufacture of nuclear weapons at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant in Burlington, IA from 1949 through mid -1975. We screened 1006 former Department of Energy workers. We found 19 (1.9 %) with confirmed abnormal test defined as 1) two or more abnormal results from the same laboratory or from two different laboratories, or 2) one abnormal and one or more borderline result from the same laboratory or again from two different laboratories. The Chi square test of linear trend for degree of beryllium exposure and rate of sensitization to Beryllium was statistically significant. (p < 0.0001). These data support the recommendations for screenings of Beryllium exposed populations.

Peter Likarish
Computer Science
BayeShield: A Conversational Anti-Phishing User Interface

In this paper we present BayeShield, a novel user interface (UI) designed to serve as the front end for an Information Retrieval (IR)-based anti-phishing tool that detects most phishing attacks but may also produce a small number of false positives. In order for the UI to be successful, it must help users distinguish between phishing attacks and false positives without diminishing user trust. BayeShield adopts a conversational approach to partner with users in making such distinctions. We describe the iterative, user-centered development process, discussing BayeShield’s evolution and the design principles followed. We evaluated BayeShield's performance through a user study. The results suggest that: 1) BayeShield protects users as well as the most effective non-IR-based tool (Firefox 2.0) when both detect phishing attacks, 2) BayeShield enables users to interact with legitimate websites after false warnings, and 3) BayeShield provides better protection than no warning (accounting for cases where non-IR-based tools will not detect phishing attacks). In addition, BayeShield received high user satisfaction ratings, and we found users experienced a high level of engagement, as demonstrated by lower perceived than actual task duration.

Chandramouli Krishnan
Physical Rehabilitation Science
Electrically Evoked Tetanic Torque and Activation Level of the Quadriceps Muscle Explain Strength Differences by Side

Side-to-side strength ratios are commonly used to assess knee strength in clinical settings and research on patients with knee disorders. Previous studies have demonstrated that healthy young people typically have side-to-side differences in knee strength of about 10% when the peak torque generated by the stronger leg is contrasted with that of the weaker leg. However, the mechanisms responsible for side-to-side differences in knee strength have not been clearly defined. The current study tested the hypothesis that side-to-side knee extensor strength differences are explained by inter-limb variations in voluntary quadriceps muscle activation (ability to completely activate the muscles in front of the thigh), antagonistic hamstrings activity (activity of the muscles that opposes the attempted movement), and electrically evoked torque at rest. Twenty-two volunteers served as subjects. Side-to-side differences in quadriceps activation and electrically evoked torque explained 69% of the strength differences by side. Antagonistic hamstrings activity did not contribute significantly. The results suggest both central and peripheral mechanisms contribute to inter-limb variations in strength. The results of this study also indicate that knowledge of quadriceps activation levels is helpful in interpreting strength tests and may lead to more valid assessment of muscle function.

Paul Eastling
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Persistent Organic Pollutants found in the 2008 Flood Residues of Cedar Rapids, Iowa

Extreme flooding of rivers may contribute to increased loading of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the Great Lakes, the Mississippi river, and other large lakes and surface waters downstream of industrial and urban areas. This study examines the fate of POPs that were mobilized during heavy flooding of the Cedar River and the small urban city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa during the summer of 2008.  This study focuses on three representative organic pollutant groups: the pesticide chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and synthetic musk fragrances.  We hypothesize that these compounds were mobilized by the flood water and that residues of these compounds remained in the soils and sediments of the residential areas of the city.  To test our hypothesis, soil samples were collected from ~200 of residential locations in the downtown Cedar Rapids area and analyzed for the three compound groups.  Samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE 300) system, and analyzed using GC/ECD, GC/MSD and GC/MS/MS.  This poster compares the results of the study, including a comparison of data collected from both within and outside the flood zone.<br />

Sonia Kpota
Women's Studies
The problematic location of the Self “at Home” or “outside Home”: analyzing the migrant- identity in Brick lane.

The problematic location of the self “at home” or “outside home”: analyzing the migrant- identity in brick lane. In this dissertation, I explore the problematic diasporic subjectivity in Monica Ali's Brick Lane. Indeed, in this postcolonial novel the experience of displacement complicates the definitions of "homeland" and at the same time the definition of identity. Nazneen as a muslim immigrant woman struggles to have an independent voice while facing the twin difficulties of her male-dominated community and the other difficulty of mapping Home. In addition to analyzing the figure of the immigrant, my study will focus on the particular figure of Nazneen, this young girl has an arranged marriage and must depart from her little village and her sister to live with her husband in England. Thus I will analyze the metamorphose Nazneen undergoes within her identity though the light of the notion of the old and the new home as well as the notion of hybridity. Nazneen lives in Brick lane, a geographically boarded community that located in the margin of the London. Thus we can easily notice the gap created between the self and “the others” which is accentuated by the spatial division, the “spatialized culture” of foreign Indian community. However I will demonstrate that home can be destabilized as it contains multiple connotations.

Salil Desai
Pharmacy (PhD)
Ortho Substitution Effects in the Acidic and Alkaline Hydrolyses of Formanilides

Formanilide hydrolysis is a primary chemical stability determinant for a number of important drugs. The susceptibility of this amide moiety is dependent on properties of the phenyl substituents. Our work was focused on elucidation of ortho substitution on hydrolysis kinetics. Formanilide hydrolyzes in acidic solutions by specific acid catalysis and results were consistent with AAC2 mechanism. Fujita-Nishioka analysis of ortho effect indicated that steric retardation of hydrolysis occurs however it is not substantial due to the flexible nature of the amide bond. The groups capable of hydrogen bonding showed an increased hydrolysis rate possibly due to anchimeric catalysis. In alkaline solutions a nonlinear relationship was observed and the rate law was consistent with the BAC2 mechanism where the amide gets attacked by hydroxide ion to form a tetrahedral intermediate which can then degrade either to products via a catalyzed or uncatalyzed pathway, or to starting materials. Hammett plots for the first order pathway had a slope of -0.22 indicating very limited dependence on substituent effects. The second order pathway showed a nonlinear Hammett plot consistent with a change in mechanism. Ortho substituted formanilides showed a decrease in rate with increase in steric bulk of the substituent.

Juan Carlos Martinez Belda
Spanish
Intonation patterns in two dialects of Spanish: Castilian Spanish and Mexican Spanish

This paper focuses on the intonation patterns in two sentence types in the Spanish corresponding to Spain and Mexico: declaratives and wh- or yes/no questions. While Mexican Spanish may select its standard form to utter a declarative sentence, the same melody may be used to express a wh- question in Castilian Spanish. The goal of this investigation is to provide evidence that speakers of Mexico Spanish and Peninsular Spanish have different selections of intonation contours available to express equivalent ideas. I am suggesting that there is variation in the distribution of meaning. Thus, we are facing a pragmatic issue in which meaning is conveyed in different ways.

Brett Janecek
Theatre Arts
Dramaturgy-What!?

What is dramaturgy?  An often unknown and ambiguous term, I will use this presentation to describe the historical context of dramaturgy, roles of dramaturgy in the American theatre, and emerging models of dramaturgy in the 21st century.  By examining dramaturgy etymological, historical, theatrical, and theoretical lenses, I plan to pose a central question: How can scholars and artists extend the implications of their work in the 21st century?  My process of using new media (wiki, facebook, myspace) in the art of theatre creation will be detailed to give examples of ways that dramaturgy inhabits American society and ways that the academy can spread research for the people to the people.

Andrew P. Saito
Playwriting (MFA in Theatre Arts)
No More: A Ten-Minute Play

This short play is an experiment, an exploration, me having fun with words and bodies, me pushing myself and scaring myself with language and imagery. I have a growing fascination in the possibility of pain and discomfort leading to spiritual ecstasy or revelation. I ask these questions: What is pain? Why do we fear it? How can we move past it, or through it? Does the antidote to pain lie in being entirely concentrated on the pain itself, entirely present with it? I hope this play will lead performers and audience to engage with these questions for themselves.

Chao Wei
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Modeling the Effects of Heterogeneous Chemistry on Tropospheric Chemistry

Heterogeneous reactions on aerosols are important for atmospheric chemistry models. But most models treat them as pseudo-first order kinetic reactions with fixed reaction probability without considering the complexity of heterogeneous reactions. And most models only consider that heterogeneous reactions remove gas phase species through adsorption and uptake and/or through reaction thereby converting one gas phase species into another. A box model has been developed to assess the effect of relative humidity on heterogeneous reactions and investigate the impacts of the heterogeneous uptakes of gases on aerosol optical properties and the photochemical oxidant cycle. This box model includes gas chemistry, atmospheric radiation, and an aerosol module to deal with the chemical interactions between gases and particles. Heterogeneous chemistry is included and the effects of aerosol aging on them are considered into the model. The aerosol module also calculates the optical properties of particles. The importance of heterogeneous chemistry on the photochemical oxidant cycle is shown in the box model studies. The model is also used to explore the data from field experiment.

Karletta White
Sociology
It's Not Always "The Blacker the Berry...": The Effects of Skintone on Police Contact

The purpose of this study is to explore the relation between skintone and police contact, in particular, the effect of Blacks and Latinos skintone on their experienced number of police stops and arrests.  Society’s perception of physical appearance has always favored lighter skin, and in the case of African Americans and Latinos lighter skin tone is a culturally valued status marker. Evaluations of outsiders lead to perceptions that Blacks and other racial minorities are threatening and more hostile than those with lighter skin. By using data collected from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) I am able to examine whether or not these perceptions have had an effect on why police stop some individuals more than others? Although all police stops do not result in an official arrest, preliminary analysis indicate that darker skinned individuals are still experiencing more police contact than lighter skinned individuals. This leads me to the hypothesis that the darker the skintone of Blacks and Latinos the more likely they are to be stopped by the police.

Eric M. Koehn
Chemistry
A Novel Flavin-Dependent Mechanism of Thymine Biosynthesis

Thymidylate synthase (TS) activity is essential to all living organisms because it catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) to form 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), one of the building blocks of DNA. Classical TSs, encoded by the thyA gene, are present in most eukaryotes, including humans, and their catalytic mechanism has been extensively studied. A recently discovered class of TSs, the flavin-dependent thymidylate synthases (FDTSs), is encoded by the thyX gene and has been found primarily in prokaryotes and viruses, including many human pathogens. These enzymes share no structure or sequence homology with classical TSs, and thus present a promising target for antibacterial/antiviral drug development. Through the use of point mutation, isotopic labeling and experiments using halogenated substrate derivatives we have been able to elucidate the differences between the mechanisms of the FDTS and classical TS catalyzed reactions. Our results indicate that the mechanism of FDTS seems to be very different than that of classical TS. These findings suggest that selective inhibition of FDTS should be feasible.

Stephanie A. Mueller
Spanish
Conflicting Urban and Rural Nationalist Ideologies in the Spanish Costumbrista Writings of Ramon de Mesonero Romanos and Antonio de Trueba

The Spanish costumbrista writer Ramon de Mesonero Romanos (1803-1882) observed and portrayed Madrid's rapidly changing society, helping to shape Spanish national identity. While claiming political objectivity, Mesonero upheld Madrid's bourgeoisie as representative of true Spanish character, thereby promoting a centralizing moderate liberalism that worked to wipe out Spain's peripheral cultures. Like Mesonero, Antonio de Trueba (1819-1889) dedicated his literary career to depicting the population surrounding him, in his case the Basque region of northern Spain. Ideologically, Trueba's work clashes with Mesonero's, specifically in its attacks on liberalism, praise of the Church, identification with rural laborers, and Carlist support. Also unlike Mesonero, Trueba has not been kindly received by literary critics; Trueba, along with Basque Carlism as a whole, is generally accused of promoting neocatholicism, patriarchy, and backwards traditionalism. Through a comparative analysis of the costumbrista writings of Mesonero and Trueba, I will demonstrate that the ideology underlying Trueba's work is far more paradoxical and ambiguous than has been previously recognized, reflecting the deep contradictions among Basque Carlist sympathizers who were fearful of the powerful centralizing tendencies of Spanish liberalism.

Christina Jenkins
Biology
The effect of resource limitation on reproductive ability in sexual vs asexual P. antipodarum

All else being equal, the higher rate of daughter production by asexual females, which make only daughters, vs. sexual females, which make both sons and daughters, should result in the extinction of sexual populations. However, the predominance of sex suggests an inherent advantage in reproducing sexually or a disadvantage to reproducing asexually. One such disadvantage to asexuality could be the increase of ploidy level that is nearly always associated with asexuality, and the subsequent increase in cellular nucleic acid content. Nucleic acids are notably phosphorus (P) -rich, and bodily P and dietary P requirements are tightly linked. In this case, the higher P content of asexual polyploids should lead to reduced fitness of asexual vs. sexual females in a phosphorus-limited environment. I utilize an experimental approach comparing the fitness of sexual diploid vs. asexual triploid female Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail, to determine if this is indeed the case. Specifically, I compared reproductive output under different food quality (as a function of phosphorus content) and quantity treatments in sexual vs. asexual female P. antipodarum. If asexuals need more and/or higher quality food than sexuals, then they will be more sensitive to low food quantity and/or quality.

Reygan Freeney
Chemistry
Heterogenous Wetting in Nanometer-sized Pores in Oganically-Modified Silica

With the broad applications of nanomaterials in science and technology, there is an increased interest in the understanding of transport and dynamics at the nanometer dimensions. Recently, much discussion has occurred regarding the diffusion and sorption processes of a variety of silica-based materials, which have broad applications in many fields such as drug delivery, catalysis, and chemical separations. The interest in mesoporous silica is due to its ability to offer tunable diameters, pore sizes, volumes, and surface modifications. These silica particles are also strong and stable, offer a large surface area, do not shrink or swell, resist pH changes and yield highly reproducible results. The porous silica particles are durable, inert, and compatible to biological applications. To better understand the process of diffusion out of nanopores, an investigation of the transport of Rhodamine 6G, a fluorescent cationic dye, is used as a molecular probe for the nanostructured silica material. Through surface modification, the mesoporous silica beads contain a monolayer of octadecylsilane and possess a nominal diameter of 10 µm with an average pore size of 10 nm. These particles were loaded with R6G through a method of immersion; molecular diffusion of the dye was monitored using confocal microscopy.

Douglas Grane
Geography
Evaluating publicly engaged scholarship and learning

Governments, non-profit social service providers, schools, health care providers, and other partners of service learning and public scholarship often have unmet information needs. Research institutions and institutions of higher education struggle with how to evaluate public scholarship in terms of its impact. Decision makers in post secondary education struggle with how to assess the learning impact of service learning. In addition there is no evaluation on the impact for underrepresented clients, stakeholders, beneficiaries, or consumers of the community partners of academic public engagement. Meeting information needs will allow the partners of academic public engagement to improve their operations. Meeting information needs also can help decision makers in higher education and research institutions to make sound judgments on the worth and merit of academic public engagement. This project proposes to collaborate with academics doing community engagement and their community partners to integrate rigorous evaluation designs into their projects. An evaluator would guide community and academic partners in framing evaluation questions that would help to answer their most important information need, and all parties would collaborate in implementing a data collection design to be used in evaluating the academic engagement project.

Ben Postlethwaite
Management and Organizations
What Can Be Learned From Service Learning Projects at The Univeristy of Iowa?

This poster describes efforts to engage undergraduate students using service learning projects in classes across the University of Iowa campus.  First, selected service project guidelines are outlined and issues related to identifying and enlisting community partners are discussed.  Next, examples of particularly noteworthy student projects are presented.  Finally, qualitative and quantitative feedback collected from students 2-3 months after they completed a course with a service learning component is analyzed.   The analysis suggests that many Iowa students find service learning experiences to be beneficial, memorable, and engaging, particularly when projects are closely connected to course objectives.

Daniel A. Morris
Religious Studies
Searching for Marx in Montgomery

Scholars, reporters, and politicians have frequently suggested that Martin Luther King Jr. was heavily influenced by Marxism. In the past, this suggestion often carried the implication that King was a Communist, so as to discredit his social and political activism. Given the prominent role that economic ethics played in King's late career, there might be legitimate grounds to think about King in these terms. But is it really accurate to call King a Marxist? Was his theological critique of American capitalism built on a foundation of Marxist philosophy? With this question in mind, my presentation examines the two theological traditions that shaped King's perspective most: black prophetic Christianity and "Personalism," the school of liberal Protestantism associated with Boston University in the early twentieth century. Reading King's economic ethics in the context of these two theological traditions, I argue that identifications of King's work cannot legitimately be described as "Marxist."

Leah Leone
Spanish
Borges in Drag: Translation as Gender Impersonation

Jorge Luis Borges translated into Spanish two works by Virginia Woolf, each of which would become corner-stone texts of major branches of cultural studies. Both in English and in Spanish, A Room of One's Own (1929, translated 1935) has long been central to feminist literary theory, while Orlando (1928, translated 1936) has become essential reading in Sexuality Studies.

This paper will consider how heterosexual male translation of feminist- and queer-identified texts may be viewed as writing in drag. Such an approach reveals the gender constructs--in the form of the stylistic and thematic features--the translator understands to constitute feminine/queer writing. At the same time, it reveals the privileged position from which the translator may impose his anxieties and expectations onto the text under the guise of gender impersonation.

Anna Volkert
Chemistry
Stabilizing Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Extreme Biological Conditions

Noble metal nanoparticles exhibit novel size dependent properties that warrant their use in many chemical and biological applications. The function of these materials depends on many parameters including their shape, size, stability, and surface chemistry. For instance, the stability of nanostructures is highly influenced by local pH and ionic strength conditions of the nanoparticle solution. In this presentation, the stability of varying sizes of gold nanoparticles with like functionalities will be investigated in a wide range of pH and ionic strength conditions and will be quantified by calculating a flocculation parameter for each. These data will be correlated to the optical and physical properties of the nanoparticles which will be measured using transmission electron microscopy, extinction spectroscopy (i.e. sum of scattered and absorbed light), and zeta potential measurements. We will demonstrate that the stability of these nanoparticles is inversely proportional to the nanoparticle diameter. We expect that a better understanding of the stability of noble metal nanoparticles in extreme pH and ionic strength conditions will provide important insights into the behavior of the nanoparticles for their integration in various biological applications.

Josh Eklow
Art
The Reality of Love

What some might call a guilty pleasure, I call research. In watching every reality show that has been made by production company 51 Minds, and aired on Vh1, I have developed an admiration for the more sucessful contestants. I view all the shows as one show, as one game with its own rules, and as a contest not of strength or intelligence, but rather one of understanding of narrativity and storytelling. The game is the MetaGame and the object is to become famous. To win, one must self-produce, writing one's own story and creating one's own character. Being a reality tv star has been called the "business of being watched", but in modern reality TV, that is not quite enough. One must be worth watching. The Reality of Love examines the goals, strategies, winners, losers, and cultural effects of the MetaGame.

Julie Shanahan
American Studies
From “I am a Chinese” to “He Chinese no more!” : Racial Indeterminacy and Sexuality in the Short Fiction of Sui Sin Far

Sui Sin Far was a a journalist and an author known for her portrayals of the Chinese American community during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Scholars of Sui Sin Far generally agree that the writer produced journalism and short fiction that responded to and resisted the Sinophobic and racist literary, political, and popular discourses of her time. Drawing upon the scholarship on issues of race in Sui Sin Far’s journalism and short fiction, this essay explores the portrayal of race and racial identification in three short stories. Several central questions inform this essay: How does Sui Sin Far portray race and biraciality in these three important pieces? How do issues of gender and sexuality interact with questions about race in these works? And, is it possible to trace in them a unified message or commentary on race and racism in North America? In exploring these questions, I argue that Sui Sin Far’s critique of racism in turn-of-the-century America is at its most powerful, and most complicated, when it intersects with issues of gender and sexuality.

Colleen M. Kummet
Biostatistics
Gender and Age OHQoL Differences in Children with Ectodermal Dysplasias

The aim of this study was to measure Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHQoL) in children with Ectodermal Dysplasia (ED) ages 6-19 years with respect to age and gender, and compare the child and caregiver assessment of the child OHQoL. Data were collected in a prospective cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 90 children affected with EDs and their caregivers. Child and caregiver surveys had 23 common questions (scores range 0-92) with median scores of 16 for children and 26 for caregiver's assessment of child OHQoL. This child-caregiver difference was significant for total, functional limitations and emotional domains. Females reported higher scores in the total and all domains with a significantly higher emotional domain score. There was an ascending gradient of median scores as age increased; with a significant increase in emotional scores. Gender and age differences exist in the OHQoL of children affected with ED, particularly with respect to emotional well-being. OHQoL scores increase (QoL decreases) with age and scores are higher (quality of life lower) in females. Caregivers of children with ED report significantly higher OHQoL scores than do the affected children. Child-caregiver agreement was slight; correlations of total OHQoL scores were modest, but increased with age. 

James Lambert
English-Literary Studies
Joy in Literature: Taking Literary Performance Into the Local Community

As part of a planned service learning course, this poster attempts to outline a literature class that focuses on affective "joy" and how it manifests itself in poetry. The course will use some of those ideas to allow students to perform poems and scenes in public libraries and the Iowa Children's Museum. The poster diplays the project in process.

Suzanne Bentler
Health Management and Policy
The Aftermath of Ischemic Stroke in Older Adults

We prospectively investigated the effect of stroke on the discharge destination, mortality, and functional and cognitive status of older adults in the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) linked to Medicare claims.  There were 325 post-baseline ischemic strokes among the 5,511 self-respondents.  Mean age at stroke was 83, 50% were white women, 33% experienced paralysis, and 10% required a feeding tube.  Forty-one percent of patients were discharged to their homes, 35% were discharged to a nursing facility and 6% died in the hospital.  Declines in functional status ranged from 36% on the fine motor skills scale to 49% on the depression scale.  Mean declines in function included 3.8 Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), 2.2 depressive symptoms and 2.2 mobility and gross motor skill abilities.  Cognitive declines included a worsening of immediate and delayed word recall and cognitive status scale scores of 1.9, 2.2, and 2.3.  Characteristics of the stroke, socioeconomic status, and age were significantly associated with discharge destination.  These older adults experienced serious functional and cognitive declines and were less likely to return home after a stroke.  Age, characteristics of the stroke, and pre-stroke functional status were significantly associated with mortality.

Susan C. McKernan
Dental Public Health
Design and Development of a Dentist Workforce Model for Use in State Planning

The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between county characteristics and primary care dentist supply in Iowa and develop a conceptually valid and data-supported framework that can be used by researchers and policy-makers to identify dentist shortages.
Secondary county data were collected from public sources and categorized into four domains of demographic, economic, health status, and healthcare infrastructure characteristics. Relationships between county characteristics and dentist-to-population ratios were analyzed to examine how closely individual variables were related to workforce supply.
Over 100 candidate variables were screened; 28 county characteristics showed significant relationships with dentist ratios in bivariate analyses; 15 of these were used to build the final model. The final regression model accounted for approximately 31% of the variation in Iowa dentist-to-population ratios; three variables emerged as significant predictors of variation in dentist supply: pharmacists per 10,000 population, county non-white population, and population without medical insurance. The relationship between pharmacist and dentist distribution has not been reported in previous research. Further study should explore this, as well as the relationships between county ethnic composition, employment opportunities, and dentist workforce.

Matthew J. Benus
Science Education
Pre-service Elementary Teacher’s Questioning as They Learn to Analyze Videocases for Science Teaching

Eleven pre-service college students piloting a computer-based curriculum called Videocases for Science Teaching Analysis (ViSTA) took part in this study, which analyzed online responses submitted after students watched a fifth-grade classroom learning about how plants live and grow. In their responses they were asked how they felt about the instruction they watched and how they might question and organize student learning in their own classroom in support of a science content story-line approach. The notion of how a pre-service teacher elicits a student's story of the content by way of questioning was mostly framed around their own need to convey her/his (or the scientific community's) own story rather than asking students to describe their own ways of understanding a scientific idea. This awareness of difference - whose story matters - seems to be a critical missing link in helping these pre-service teachers understand the nuances of the science content story-line lens approach.

 

Christopher Harris
Informatics
The Use of Classification Codes in Patent Invalidity Searches

Searches on patent collections to determine prior art violations are often cumbersome and require extensive manpower to accomplish successfully. When time is constrained, an automatically-generated list of candidate patents to potentially invalidate a targeted query patent will decrease search costs and improve search efficiency. We examine whether semantic relations between patent classifications can contribute to the recognition of related patents. We explore similarity measures for hierarchically-ordered patent classes and subclasses for this purpose using a similarity measure that has demonstrated its effectiveness when applied to WordNet ontologies.

Molly Fleming
Urban and Regional Planning
Decorah WE CAN: Sustainability in Rural Iowa Begins at Home

As crises of climate change, global economic uncertainty, and environmental degradation converge on Middle America, small towns in Iowa are increasingly struggling to adapt to their changing worlds.  The Decorah Water and Energy Community Action Network (Decorah WE CAN), a partnership between University of Iowa Urbanand Regional Planning students and the City of Decorah, recognizes that small towns throughout the state have the capacity to craft more sustainable futures for their current citizens and for future generations.   The Decorah WE CAN sustainability initiative relies on empowering the community base towards making household efficiency improvements in stormwater collection and energy usage.  Small changes in daily habits, a new light bulb here or a rain barrel there, aggregate in dramatic ways for the city as a whole.  As our motto goes, “It all begins at home.”  We think that if we can encourage residents to make these small changes in their own homes, there will be potentially profound impacts on collective outcomes.  By this margin, Decorah WE CAN has a twofold objective: ensuring a more sustainable Decorah and empowering the community to determine its own future.  

Jennifer Hagedorn
American Studies
"Do I Belong to the U.S. or to ‘Them’?” – Naturalization through Military Service

The military is a country’s enactment of the binary 'us versus them,'in which an imagined national community defends itself against an opposed ‘Other.’ How do immigrant and minority communities come into play in this discourse? From newly incorporated Mexicans in the Mexican-American War to Arab Americans in the Gulf Wars, immigrants and ethnic minorities have shown a special readiness to participate in the U.S. armed forces. Do enlisted immigrants transcend what Diana Taylor labeled the “cultural doubleness” of living in the borderlands between two cultures? The paradoxes of the U.S.military’s growing transnational composition are an increasing concern of its public communication strategies. One paradox revolves around the racial/ethnic composition of immigrant soldiers, most of whom come from post-colonial, developing nations, thus complicating the ideal of the volunteer army in relation to the notion of the‘poverty draft.’ My research focuses on the representation of the U.S.’ “Military Multiculturalism” (McAlister) through analysis of a 2009 active duty members’ naturalization ceremony. I examine the way in which the ceremony enacts a discursive link between the “ideal citizen” (Amaya) and the soldier in this military performance. My methodology is located at the interdisciplinary crossroads of discourse analysis, performance studies, and borderlands studies.

Sonia K. Johnson
English-Literary Studies
Structural Mimesis: Gaddis’s J R and the Nixon Shock

The only real critical consensus on William Gaddis’s J R(1975), is that it is a novel about disorder. Beyond that, critics are divided on Gaddis’s engagement with this disorder, on the role of the reader within such chaos, and the cultural and political import the novel. I propose that Jean-Joseph Goux’s terms gold-language and token-language can bridge these critical impasses. However, this approach would seem to continue another failing within critical readings of the text: the failure to consider the novel within its economic context. Most readings that deal explicitly with money call on older and/or a historical theories, such as Marx, Shaw, and Freud. But, since Goux’s terms are firmly rooted in the specific historical moment of the 1920s, to deploy them in reading J R would fail once more to connect the novel to anything material. However, the Bretton Woods Agreement pushed the date of transition from gold money to token-money in America forward to 1971, when Nixon suspended gold convertibility of US dollars in the “Nixon Shock.” In this context, gold-language and token-language link J R to the historical conditions of its production. Further, I claim that this mode of linkage, what I shall term structural mimesis, enables J R to be historically engaged without being limited to a strictly local historical interest.

Regina C. Range
German
“Good to have you here, folks” America and the American Exile in Marta Feuchtwanger’s Oral History

Despite decades of critical blindness to her work, Marta Feuchtwanger (1891-1987) was much more than the wife of German Jewish émigré writer Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958). Besides her memoirs, Nur eine Frau: Jahre, Tage, Stunden (1983), Feuchtwanger authored several prefaces, afterwords, speeches and essays; and she was an important interviewee in the Oral History Research project at the University of California. My presentation concentrates on Marta Feuchtwanger's descriptions of America and her American exile experience in this particular project. In her descriptions, stories and anecdotes, Marta Feuchtwanger focuses always on specific people (for example Brecht, Eisler, Werfel) and their mutual relationships. She offers very interesting and unique descriptions of places and an idiosyncratic discussion of America. I examine especially how Marta Feuchtwanger employs specific American cultural narratives, such as the archetype of pioneer womanhood as well as the Native American trope of the vision quest in this particular context. Her use of these narratives, I argue, is an attempt to inscribe herself into a longstanding history and tradition of U.S. women, a means of claiming and legitimizing her existence as a full-fledged member of American society.

Alejandro Muzzio
Anthropology
Iowan Meatpacking Workers: experiences, education and empowerment

Meatpacking in Iowa has fundamentally changed the demographics of rural towns.  In a state that is 90% white there are towns that are have increasing populations of Latinos and other immigrants.  This research seeks to provide representations of the experiences of meatpacking workers interviewed in and around a small meatpacking town in Iowa.  From these interviews a testimony of the lives of workers emerges, which speaks to the positive and negative aspects of working in the meatpacking industry.  Many workers are not aware of the rules and regulations which are meant to protect them, and efforts to solve this issue have led to workers taking active roles in educating and empowering their peers.

Kari Lane
Nursing
Discussion of a Hearing Aid Adaptation Intervention for Elders

Hearing loss is a major issue for elders today affecting more than 30% of individuals over 65 years of age. Hearing loss in the elderly can be devastating. Currently there is no standard of care, or best practices guiding optimal adaptation to hearing aids. Nurses are ideally placed for intervening and providing education and support. This presentation will discuss a prototype intervention aimed at facilitating adaptation to hearing aids in an elderly group who has already failed at adapting.

Sanghag Kim
Sociology
Are the Married Happier than the Single? A Cross-National Study on the Marriage and Subjective Well-Being

The previous studies on the relationship between marriage and subjective well-being (SWB) have mainly focused on the issue of the causal direction between the two because they have generally accepted the existence of the positive relationship. In this paper, I examine the relationship between marriage and SWB with 72 nation data collected during the last 10 years. The results indicate that the positive relationship is reproduced only in the 33 nations when life satisfaction is used as the dependent variable and in the 38 nations when happiness is used as the dependent variable. Further analyses show that the positive effect of marriage is stronger in a society where the economy is highly developed and the secular-rational values are dominant. In this society, marriage is regarded as a choice rather than a responsibility. Finally, in the two different groups of nations, one of which reveals an overall positive effect of marriage, and the other of which does not, the patterns of the effect of marriage on SWB are different depending on respondents' age. In the former nations, the positive effect of marriage disappears from the 40 year old group. In the latter nations, the positive effect of marriage does not appear even in the youngest group.

June Melby
Nonfiction Writing
Take a break for a delicious Sno-cone

This is a piece of literary nonfiction excerpted from a memoir, "Little House on the Astroturf." It is about the author's family-run 1959 hand-built miniature golf where she grew up in Wisconsin, and the loss of the course in 2003.

Lisa Leaverton
Theatre Arts
Naysayers' Picnic

NAYSAYERS' PICNIC expresses theatrically, the unique charge that occurs when individuals voice their views in the presence of others with opposing or like views.  The play is comprised of three conceptual layers, the play-script itself, which I’d describe as a linguistic backdrop, or a canvas, primed for questions, along with another theatrical layer of information, or “crumbs”, that get passed and read by the hungry picnickers and audience as they await the “food” itself. The play relies upon audience' playful experience of disjuncture, between “what is said” and “what is heard.” The play questions how political engagement is reinvigorated by social exchange.

Zhe Wang
Biology
Stress-induced seizure behavior in three wild Drosophila species resembling bang sensitive mutant behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

Bang-sensitive behavior of Drosophila melanogaster mutants is characterized by a loss of movement control under environmental stresses such as vortexing or low temperature. Using the same criteria, three wild Drosophila species, D. robusta, D. macrospina and D. funebris show very similar bang-sensitive behavior. Under electroconvulsive stimulus, they also show similar physiological properties to D. melanogaster mutants while not the other non-bang-sensitive wild species. All these data suggest that the commonly known bang-sensitive response to stress, which is generated in the lab, may also exist in the wild and share the common physiological mechanism.

Gayani Nisansala Perera Dedduwa Mudalige
Chemistry
Synthesis and Characterization of gold coated silver nanoparticles

Since Michael Faraday first synthesized them in the 1850s, gold nanoparticles have been used as enhancing substrates for biological species via surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) but are limited by inherently low signals. Silver nanoparticles, however, exhibit larger SERS enhancements versus gold but lack biocompatibility. Therefore, methods to synthesis hybrid nanoparticles in which silver seeds are covered with a thin gold layer are sought as these structures are hypothesized to simultaneously exhibit both biocompatibility and more intense SERS signals versus bare silver or gold nanoparticles. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold coated silver nanoparticles with a defined silver core and variable gold shell thickness is demonstrated. The optical properties and morphology of these core-shell nanoparticles are characterized by extinction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. These results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of gold thickness. Finally, these hybrid materials are incubated with 2-naphthalenethiol for SERS analysis. Further studies will investigate the stability of these structures in biologically relevant environments.

Harb Harb
Public Health (MPH)
Overcoming Obstacles: Healthcare Accessibility for Palestinian Refugees in the West Bank

The matter of Israel and Palestine has resonated throughout the world. Focus on initiatives such as peace and co-existence have overpowered other important issues such as healthcare. This cross sectional analysis provides evidence of the achievements the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) has accomplished as well as identifying issues that can be potentially addressed. 750 surveys were completed through interviews in order to assess these obstacles and develop context. Questions included reason of visit, purchase of additional insurance, and obstacles to healthcare (transportation, Israeli occupation, economic plight). For Palestinian refugees, primary care is accessible through UNRWA health clinics free of charge. Consequently, 74% of the population does not face any obstacle to healthcare. Palestinian refugees that do face obstacles to healthcare, the primary factors hindering accessibility are transportation and the Israeli occupation. Furthermore, 94% of the rural population faced some obstacle to healthcare while 18% of the urban population faced an obstacle. Not only does this research highlight healthcare for Palestinians, but in a broader context, the human rights violations against Palestinians living under occupation. UNRWA and other organizations can address these issues in order to improve healthcare accessibility and quality of life.

Vanessa L. Nakoski
American Studies
A Sweet Surprise: The High Fructose Corn Syrup Debate

Is High Fructose Corn Syrup healthy? Is it a safe substitute for sugar or honey? Who should be in charge of answering these questions? Whose responsibility is it to educate the public on the safety of “artificial” sweeteners like HFCS? These are all questions prompted by the “Sweet Surprise” advertisements and website created by the Corn Refiners Association that promote HFCS as a safe and healthy food additive. My study will attempt to place these advertisements in the context of this larger conversation about nutrition and public health as well as the recent debates over the corn industry prompted by texts such as King Corn.

Ashley Meredith
Social Foundations of Education
Café Symposium: From Coffee to College

Café Symposium is an after-school program that engages high school students in philosophical discussion on topics of their choosing.  Through this challenging and complex social interaction, students gain a variety of skills important to success in their lives, including critical thinking, interpersonal communication, and the ability to appreciate diverse perspectives and ideas. Additionally, the skills and mentorship developed through this program will assist students as they begin to apply for and attend higher education institutions.

Sarah Jane Eikleberry
Health and Sport Studies
"Cliques," Caddies, and Color Lines at Shinnecock Hills Golf Club

The rise of modern sport that occurred within the US during the latter half of the nineteenth century has been characterized by many structural and social elements. During this rise different sports were relegated as vice and deemed disreputable while others were crafted to reflect sensibilities of the elite. Despite legal segregation and Jim Crow laws that permeated US culture, multiple accounts exist of racial minorities participating in the formational decades of professional baseball, cycling, and horseracing. Oftentimes informal exclusionary practices known as “gentlemen’s agreements‚” barred racial minorities during critical moments in institutional developments of particular sports. The inaugural years of national competition and the formation of state or national governing bodies often articulated with the declining participation minority athletes. This paper intends to examine the initial yet temporary crossing of the color line in professional golf at the second US Open at Shinnecock Hills Golf Club in Southampton, NY in August of 1896.

Joanne Reiland
Pharmacy (PhD)
Analysis of Mitoxantrone Uptake and Efflux in Mammary Epithelial Cells Using Flow Cytometry

Analysis of active uptake and efflux mechanisms in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells was done using flow cytometry. Intracellular accumulation of mitoxantrone, a fluorescent BCRP and P-gp substrate, was measured in the presence and absence of a general metabolic inhibitor or specific inhibitors for BCRP and P-gp. Data analysis was performed using SAS with a mixed effects model. The metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol, reduced intracellular mitoxantrone accumulation in both uptake and efflux studies through inhibition of an active uptake transporter. The BCRP specific inhibitor, FTC, decreased intracellular accumulation of mitoxantrone while the MDR1 specific inhibitor, verapamil, increased intracellular accumulation during both uptake and efflux studies. FTC inhibition results indicate either a limited role for BCRP in this cell line or the presence of a higher capacity uptake transporter which can also be inhibited by FTC. Verapamil showed the expected effect of increasing mitoxantrone intracellular accumulation in both uptake and efflux studies, likely as a direct result of the inhibition of MDR1.

Edugie J. Ekuase
Pharmacy (PhD)
The Human Hydroxysteroid Sulfotransferase hSULT2A1: Structure-Activity Relationships for Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Sulfation of steroids, bile acids, catecholamines, and xenobiotics is catalyzed by sulfotransferases (SULTs). Environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been implicated in a variety of adverse health effects, and metabolism by cytochrome P450 yields their hydroxylated forms (OHPCBs). These OHPCBs have been shown to interact with phenol (family 1) SULTs. Our hypothesis is that OHPCBs also interact with hSULT2A1 as substrates or inhibitors based on predictable structural characteristics. Of the fifteen OHPCBs examined, seven were inhibitors of the hSULT2A1-catalyzed sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone and seven were substrates of hSULT2A1. The most potent inhibitors were 4’-OHPCB 6 and 4’-OHPCB 9. In general, OHPCBs without chlorine atoms on the phenolic ring were inhibitors. Chlorine atoms in the 2 and 4 positions of the non-phenolic ring also affected inhibition. Both of the catechol-OHPCBs studied were also inhibitors. As seen in four of the OHPCBs that were substrates, a 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxy substitution pattern was favorable for sulfation. One OHPCB, 4’-OH PCB 36, did not show any significant interaction with hSULT2A1. These and future studies on structural characteristics important for OHPCB-interaction with hSULT2A1 will aid in assessing potential roles of the enzyme in metabolism and toxicology of OHPCBs.

Heidi A. Schwanz
Pharmacy (PhD)
Characterization of Intermolecular Associations of Novel Quinolone-like Gyrase Inhibitors

Drug resistant bacteria are responsible for increasing incidences of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. In order to advance the science of combating mutation-induced bacterial resistance to antibiotics, novel approaches to drug design are needed. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotics that exert their effects by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV through the formation of a ternary complex with DNA. Resistance to FQs is primarily due to mutations in the genes encoding these two target enzymes. Recently, it has been shown that certain FQs promote chromosomal fragmentation and rapidly kill cells in the absence of ongoing protein synthesis, while other FQs do not. In addition, newer quinolone-class gyrase inhibitors have been found to possess activity against FQ-resistant bacteria, including those having mutations in DNA gyrase. Because structural differences of FQ analogues provide differences in potency, degree of chromosomal fragmentation, rate of lethality, and activity against gyrase mutants, the exploration of the intermolecular interactions between these compounds, as well as with gyrase and DNA, is needed. In this presentation, we describe the ongoing studies which characterize the intermolecular interactions of these novel quinolone-class gyrase inhibitors.

Oksana Zagorodna
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Investigating 2DG sensitivity and oxidative stress in murine T cell lymphoma cells.

2-deoxyglucose (2DG) is a glucose analog. Cancer cells have been proposed to have increased sensitivity to 2DG due to dysregulation of glucose metabolism. 2DG has also been reported to interfere with N-linked glycosylation and protein folding. Therefore, we hypothesize that 2DG-induced cell killing in murine T cell lymphomas is caused by N-linked glycosylation and metabolic oxidative stress. Tumor cell lines were derived from Lck-Bax driven murine lymphomas (Bax TCLs). The sensitivity of these cell lines to 2DG was determined by Guava ViaCount dye exclusion assay. Mitochondrial functioning (JC-1 staining) and ROS levels(DHE) were examined. Antioxidant scavengers were used to inhibit oxidative stress. Bax TCLs showed to be sensitive to 20 mM 2DG treatment. 2DG-caused cell death was not blocked by qVD-OPh suggesting caspase activity was not required to initiate cell death. 2DG led to 2-3 fold increases in DHE oxidation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization that preceded cell death. Adding PEG-SOD and PEG-Cat did not protect from 2DG-caused effects. Surprisingly, both the increase in DHE oxidation and cell killing were temporarily reversed by exogenous mannose, an important molecule in the N-Linked glycosylation pathway. Reversal of 2DG-induced increases in ROS and toxicity by mannose suggests a link between N-linked glycosylation, ER stress, and metabolic oxidative stress.

Victoria Tumanova
Speech and Hearing Science
Langauge Dissociation in Preschool Children Who Stutter

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible presence of dissociations between receptive and expressive language performance of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Participants were 25 CWS between the ages of 3:5 and 7:1 (years: months) and 18 CWNS between the ages of 4:0 and 6:3 (years: months). Children responded to six standardized speech-language tests designed to assess both language production and comprehension. Results indicate that there is no difference between the performance of CWS and CWNS on any of the six speech-language tests used in the study. However, the dissociation analysis revealed that, unlike CWNS, CWS exhibited a significant mean difference between their receptive and expressive language performance, with receptive language performance being stronger than expressive. The results are taken to suggest that there may be an imbalance in language abilities of CWS, which may contribute to fluency disruptions in their speech.

Charlotte Ridge
Political Science
Community and Women in Elective Office

In this paper, I examine the gender dynamics of community participation and the relationship of that participation to town council representation in rural communities.  I find that where groups of people are excluded from socializing with their neighbors, the town councils have lower percentages of women in office.

Isaac Sullivan
Art
Skinsignia

This performance is more about desire than it is about understanding. How, then, not to be a Romantic? Or, what kind of object is produced by the desire to desire without an object? My primary activities are photography, writing, and drawing with pen, pencil, and colored marker. These practices constitute a process of questioning and recognition. Given this approach, the use of installation and performance to consolidate and present bodies of work functions as an attempt to execute the wish for a unified context. When the desire to understand (and its aegis of epistemological problems) has generated a wildly varied plurality of constituents, what happens when those constituents are given cohesion through structural, thematic, or aesthetic unities? A point is a pure act of will, not of the understanding, says Weber--- and maybe so is a community. My aim in this performance is to develop a shared ground of questioning by engaging the entanglements of language, image, and body.

Rachel F. Marek
Civil and Environmental Engineering
A Comparison of Blood PCB Concentrations in Industrial and Rural Communities: East Chicago, IL and Columbus Junction, IA

On the southwestern edge of Lake Michigan sits East Chicago, a heavily-industrialized community.  Bisecting the area is the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) which is known to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is designated as an Area of Concern by the International Joint Commission, and which flows near to residential areas and schools.  Although the fate of these IHSC PCBs in relation to human exposure is still unclear, we hypothesize that residents of East Chicago have elevated levels of PCBs in their blood.  In contrast, demographically-similar residents of the rural Columbus Junction, Iowa have no known PCB exposure from current or past industrial sources.  We have analyzed blood from children and their mothers in East Chicago and Columbus Junction for all 209 PCBs as part of an ongoing, four-year project through the Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program called the AESOP Study (Airborne Exposures to Semi-volatile Organic Pollutants).  We present our methods for sample collection and analysis and the results of the first six months of blood analysis.

James Dyer
Spanish
Emulating the Western Free Press Without Going Soft, Sensational or Bankrupt: A case study on Spain’s El País

During its 30-year existence, when radical and often disastrous changes affected other major newspapers around the world El País has remained resolute to its original mission: to provide a steadfast and progressive focus on salient content and on the exchange of crucial ideas that have historically shaped other Western free press newspapers early on in their democratic country's struggle for freedom. It has remained firm in that mission and always steered away from decisions that might threaten it, including its rejection of the growing practices - sensationalism, bias, infotainment, corporate governance, conflicts of interest with shareholders, maximization of profits, downsizing and consolidation of newsrooms - that began to surface during the 1980s in newspapers and media chains around the world, particularly in the United States. This paper will explore the political, social and historical reasons why Spain's newspaper of record has flourished while most other national papers of record around the world, even those it had emulated, have not.

Jiang Qiu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Evaluation of Lipopeptide (Daptomycin) Aggregation and Aggregation Role on the Ionization and Hydrolytic Degradation

Peptide and protein aggregation plays an important role in the pharmaceutical properties and bioactivity. Daptomycin is a novel cyclic 13-membered anionic lipopeptide antibiotic approved by FDA for the treatment of complicated skin infections and bloodstream infections (bacteremia/endocarditis). The daptomycin aggregation induced by calcium ions is regarded as the essential step to disrupt the bacterial membrane through the formation of trans-membrane channels. To better understand daptomycin action mechanism, daptomycin aggregation and the effects of aggregation on its pharmaceutical properties have been investigated. The critical aggregation concentrations (CAC) of daptomycin in various pH aqueous solutions were first identified by using intrinsic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and confirmed by light scattering and NMR spectroscopy. Due to containing six ionizable side chains, the net surface charge of daptomycin varies with pH and directly affects daptomycin aggregation. Daptomycin aggregation is very sensitive to pH value and dependent on concentration. The apparent pKa values varied as a function of daptomycin aggregation. The distinctions of the aggregation effects on the hydrolytic degradation of daptomycin in alkaline and acidic solutions were elucidated.

Anna Kolesnikova
Second Language Acquisition
Utilizing New Technologies for Russian Language Learning

My program “Russian Alphabet Bricks” is a computer-based program available to the learners of Russian on the web. This program presents a new type of a reference tool and a self-guided study tool for practice in reading, writing, and typing Russian characters. This multimedia program includes four modules that present learners with basic knowledge of the Russian alphabet in the areas of general facts, reading basics, a writing guide, and a typing guide. The first module presents the learner with the factual information about the letters, paired vowels and consonants, soft and hard sets etc. The reading module includes explicit reading rules and multimedia files with a variety of recordings of native speakers of Russian. The writing module includes a controlled animated guide that shows step-by-step writing techniques. The typing module introduces the learners to the basics of typing in Cyrillic. All modules include practice that develops the target skills. The multimedia allows for learner control and easy navigation. This program is an innovative multimedia project which can be used both in class and for self-study by beginner learners of Russian.

Deandrea Leigh Watkins
Chemistry
Increased Light Extraction of InAsGaSb LED through Wet Chemical Etching

Near infrared spectroscopy is under development for measuring glucose and other bio-molecules in biological fluids at wavelengths between 2.0 and 2.5 µm. High quality spectra are needed to successfully extract analytical information from near infrared spectra collected from clinical samples.  A solid-state near infrared spectrometer would advance the field by providing a means for collecting high quality spectra under non-laboratory conditions.  We are developing solid-state light emitting diode (LED) sources from unique InAsGaSb semiconductor materials. Physical geometry of the LED region is a critical parameter and the physical geometry depends on many factors associated with the etching process, such as composition of the etching solution, relative concentrations of the etching components, and time of the etching reaction.  This presentation will focus on the optimization of the etching solution to produce LED’s with high radiant powers.  Results indicate that the depth of etched piece and the angle of the etched sidewalls can be optimized by controlling the etching conditions. Our experiments demonstrate promising results in increasing the depth of the etch by a factor of 3. The original etch depth was 18.2 µm while the etch depth of an optimized solution was 60.4 µm.

Rania Hamed
Pharmacy (PhD)
Evaluating the Role of Mucus Physicochemical Properties on Bioaerosol Formation in the Lungs

The emergence of new infectious diseases and re-emergence of diseases considered under control has spurred increased attention to the development of new strategies to halt the transmission of infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine key physicochemical properties of lung mucus that control the formation of exhaled bioaerosols within the upper respiratory tract. Towards this goal, a physiologically-relevant in-vitro model of tracheal mucus was developed. Surfactant was spread on the mimetic surface to alter surface properties. The bulk and interfacial rheology, and surface tension of mimetics, and the size distributions of bioaerosols generated from mimetic surfaces were determined. Three mucus mimetics with varying degrees of crosslinking have been developed. Changes in mucus physical properties correlated to significant differences in the size distribution of bioaerosols. Data showed that lowering the surface tension of mimetic has a significant effect on interfacial rheology. In addition, bulk and interfacial rheology, and surface properties of mimetic play a major role in determining the size distribution of bioaerosols. These studies will guide the development of simple aerosolizable substances to suppress bioaerosol formation and/or transmission from the lungs of infected individuals.

Dejan-Kresimir Bucar
Chemistry
Towards the Synthesis of Metallosupramolecular Capsules with Nanometer-sized Cavities Based on Ligands Derived from the Solid Stateom the

Metallosupramolecular chemistry has attracted tremendous attention in material sciences in the last 25 years. Recent advances in this area gave rise to functional materials, which were successfully used for gas-storage and separation purposes, as well as in catalysis. Interestingly, the research in this area is exclusively based on organic ligands that contain backbones based on five- and six-membered rings (e.q. benzene). At the same time, metallosupramolecular assemblies based on ligands that have a cyclobutane ring as backbones remained virtually unexplored. <br />
With this in mind, we have developed a methodology that allows the synthesis of cyclobutane-based ligands predetermined for the design and construction of metallosupramolecular assemblies with nanometer-sized cavities and voids. The synthesis of such ligands is based on post-synthetic modifications of synthons derived from a template-directed synthesis in the solid state. In particular, bromo-stilbazoles were used to obtain bromo-phenyl-containing cyclobutane derivatives, which were subjected to palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions to yield ligands with extended pyridine handles. In this contribution, we present the solid-state synthesis of several bromo-phenyl-containing cyclobutane derivatives, the products of their post-synthetic modifications, and their potential applications in metallosupramolecular chemistry.

William Barbour
Art
Finding the [art] [drama] Literature of New [inter] [multi] [trans] Media: Dramaturgy In [of] the Machine.

It can be said that how we look at, listen to, and respond to new (inter/multi/trans) media is the same as how we look, listen, and respond to media texts (film, television, novels, etc.). Our first response might be to say no, new media is slippery in its presentation, and it can not be defined, unlike the structural and theoretical definitions foundations found in media texts. Or insist that they are different animals, they can’t be compared, and… just what do you mean by new media? “That would be the right question... detective.” This paper seeks to discover if art, drama or truth can exist in the dramaturgy and the rhetoric created in and by new media. In turning to the dramaturgy found in media texts to examine if new media can serve the same aesthetic functions by creating rich personal interactions experienced by contact with media texts. It has been said that the “Citizen Kane” of new media has yet to be created. Is this true? Can it ever be true?  Can new media do what media texts do for the human experience? Can we find the [art] [drama] literature of new media?

Quinn Kellerman
Psychology
Shared Decision-Making in the Context of Chronic Disease Management: Focus on Applications to Diabetes Care

The emergence of patient-centered care has sparked considerable interest in the psychological underpinnings of preferences for treatment and how involvement in the decision-making process is related to outcomes. "Shared decision-making" has been coined as the approach that lies between the traditional paternalistic model, wherein the physician is responsible for all health care decisions, and the informed choice model, that promotes empowerment by giving patients full responsibility for decision-making. Understanding the effects of the collaborative effort emphasized in the shared decision-making approach has been the focus of much empirical attention, specifically with regard to life-threatening illness decisions. More recently, the applicability of this approach to chronic disease management has been of interest to researchers in the field. This review examines and integrates the empirical literature on shared decision-making in the context of chronic physical illness, with specific focus on diabetes due to its increasing prevalence and presentation in primary care. The feasibility of a shared decision-making approach is delineated, as well as the utility of this approach in improving patient satisfaction and health outcomes. Challenges to implementation in clinical care and recommendations for future research are offered.

Ricardo A. Pena Silva
Pharmacology
Serotonin Produces Monoamine Oxidase-dependent Oxidative Stress in Human Heart Valves

High levels of serotonin (5HT) from carcinoid tumors and drugs (fenfluramine-phentermine interactions) may contribute to development of valvulopathies and pulmonary hypertension.  We tested the hypothesis that 5HT induce oxidative stress in human heart valves, and examined mechanisms that may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).  Superoxide (O2•-) was measured in heart valves from explanted human hearts that were not used for transplantation.  Superoxide levels (lucigenin-enhanced chemoluminescence) were increased in homogenates of cardiac valves and blood vessels after incubation with 5HT.  Inhibitors of 5HT1 (GR55562) and 5HT2 receptors (ketanserin), and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine), did not prevent increases in 5HT-induced superoxide.  Diphenyl iodonium (DPI-a non-specific inhibitor of flavin-containing enzymes), tranylcypromine and clorgyline (inhibitors of monoamine oxidase-MAO) prevented the 5HT-induced increase in O2•-.  Apocynin (an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase) did not prevent increases in O2•- during 5HT treatment.  Addition of 5HT to human recombinant MAO-A generated superoxide, and this effect was inhibited by an MAO inhibitor.   In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby MAO-A can contribute to increased oxidative stress in human heart valves and pulmonary artery exposed to serotonin.

Claudiu S. Brumaru
Chemistry
Wetting of Nanoporous Hydrophobic Silica Particles using Anionic Surfactant Solutions at Atmospheric Pressure

Interaction of the solid particles with water is a process with implications in areas like mineral processing, environmental protection, food industry. In the case of materials permeated by interconnected nanometer sized pores, the molecular transport processes like wetting, diffusion and adsorption processes are governed by different laws comparing to the micrometric scale. The goal of the study was to investigate the wetting process of the hydrophobic nanopores of C18 derivatized silica particles using supra-micellar aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate at atmospheric pressure. By using an electrophoretic method, the amount of surfactant adsorbed on particles was estimated. We showed that, even in the absence of pressure as driving force, the hydrophobic domains confined in nanometer-sized spaces can be wetted completely in the presence of surfactants. We demonstrated also that, although counterintuitive, the process did not require the presence of a compact uninterrupted monolayer of SDS adsorbed on C18 layer (coverages around 10%). The study has practical implications in the field of preparing phantom tissues of biological samples for spectroscopic experiments by offering simple protocols to achieve selective wetting of either the total available surface of the hydrophobic particles (the outer surface plus nanopores) or only their outer surface.

Carlos Mario Mejía Suárez
Spanish
Beyond the grasp. João Guimarães Rosa's "Grande sertão: veredas" and the myth of Faust

João Guimarães Rosa sets his version of the myth of Faust (the man who sells his soul to the devil) in the backlands of Brazil. I identify the elements Rosa keeps from the Faustian tradition and how he transforms them. The relationship with Goethe's and Thomas Mann's versions reveals an emphasis on how this myth functions as a way to interpret the reality of Brazilian backland conflicts. The structure of the demonic pact in Rosa's novel questions how the city grasps the vastness of the backlands in order to subject it to a urban culture.

William M. Ames
Chemistry
Investigating imidazole ligand orientation in Cu(II) model protein complexes with DFT calculations of EPR parameters

Calculations of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters for Cu(II) diethylenetriamine imidazole complexes were calculated using density functional theory.  The orientation of three different types of imidazole ligands, imidazole, 1-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole, were investigated by rotating the ligand about the Cu(II) imidazole bond.  The calculated <i>g</i>- and copper <i>A</i>-tensors show little variation between the different imidazole complexes or the dihedral bond angle.  The values calculated using the B3LYP density functional show the best agreement with the experimental <i>g</i>- and copper <i>A</i>-tensor.  Calculated values for the EPR parameters of the remote nitrogen atom on the imidazole ligands are in good agreement with experimental electron spin echo envelope modulation data.  The best agreement is achieved when an explicit water molecule is located near the remote nitrogen atom.  The electronic configuration of the remote nitrogen is approximately the same as 1-methylimidazole for all complexes studied in the absence of the explicit water.  The calculated EPR values indicate that the imidazole ligands studied occupy an orientation of ±45° with respect to the ligand plane.

Patrick Fitzgibbon
Music
Giant Steps, Diminished Fourths: The Aesthetic of Experiment, Seventh-Chord Proximity, and the Coltrane Changes

Among the many compositions and arrangements that manifest a harmonic sequence known colloquially as the Coltrane Changes, “Giant Steps” is widely regarded as the most critically significant. Previous analytical literature has generally cast the tonal organization of “Giant Steps” in light of a major-third cycle. Yet the piece’s key shifts embrace both ascending and descending major-third modulations, thus undermining the implication that unidirectional cyclicity governs harmonic motion. My analytical discussion therefore attends to immediate chord-to-chord succession rather than an abstract complex of key areas. I construct two generalized models of seventh-chord relations: one diatonic, the other chromatic. Drawing on recent theoretic work in efficient voice leading, the models arrange four common seventh-chord classes according to optimal conjunctness. Upon offering several examples from the jazz literature that illustrate the models’ broad applicability, I conjoin the two voice-leading spaces to account for the modulatory joints of “Giant Steps” as hybrid (i.e. collapsed chromatic-diatonic) seventh-chord transformations. I close by considering how my analytical narrative reflects Coltrane’s contemporaneous aesthetic concern with “experiment.”

Manza B.J. Atkinson
Chemistry
Rapid cocrystallization via solvent-free and solvent-assisted grinding: general application of mechanochemistry to template-directed assemblies

Supramolecular chemistry involves the construction or self-assembly of single or multiple components based on non-covalent interactions.  Intrinsic to their design, these architectural frameworks exhibit properties that are different from the individual components while preserving the structure of the molecules. They are increasingly important with potential applications as materials, catalysts, pharmaceutics, data storage and processing. Toxic or hazardous solvents are generally used as a medium to construct these self-assembled structures. A ‘greener’ approach to producing these self-assembled structures has been achieved by reducing or eliminating the use of solvent via mechanochemical methods (e.g. solvent-free and solvent-assisted grinding), however, fundamental aspects of this process have not yet been explored. Using principles of supramolecular chemistry and mechanochemistry, we have demonstrated here the rapid formation of cocrystals based on resorcinol (res) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene ) (4,4’-bpe). With this in mind, we aim to eliminate the use of solvent by establishing fundamental principles of applying mechanochemistry to the construction of self-assembled structures.

Jonathan Rattner
Art
ICSCTV's "Linn Street Intergenerational Collective" - Collaborative Television with University of Iowa Students and Iowa City Senior Citizens

An extension of my artistic practice is civic engagement. Since 2005, I have been the creative director of Iowa City Senior Center Television (ICSCTV) where a dozen crewmembers, ranging from sixty-five to eighty years in age, create six hours of television each month for the Internet and three public access channels. In 2006, I launched the "Linn Street Intergenerational Collective," a series of short and long term collaborative video projects with the Senior Center video crew and students from the University of Iowa. For these collaborations, which have resulted in programs about race, gender, sexuality and politics, I act as a facilitator, producer and teacher rather than a filmmaker. The ultimate goal of the "Linn Street Collective" lies not only in the videos that the intergenerational producers create, but also in the conversations that occur and the personal reflections that result while making the videos. This collective has offered an opportunity to individuals who have traditionally been socially segregated by age to share their personal stories and, in doing so, gain a renewed sense of who they are and the society in which they live. Since it's launch, this project has produced over forty videos with graduate and undergraduate students from five different departments.

Andrew P. Saito
Playwriting (MFA in Theatre Arts)
Voices on the River

In response to the alarming news that the Iowa River is the third most endangered river in the country, MFA playwright Andrew P. Saito proposes to conduct oral histories of farmers and other residents from various communities in the Iowa River watershed.  The oral histories will shed perspectives on both the current, polluted state of the river, contributing behaviors, and ideas for concrete actions that can be taken to alleviate the situation.  The oral histories will serve as primary texts for the creation of a play, which will be performed in the communities of origin, serving as a springboard for engaged cross-community, regional dialog about what can be done.

Ellen van der Plas
Neuroscience
Side of cleft matters: The effects of unilateral clefts on brain structure and related behavior

Isolated cleft lip and/or palate is associated with abnormalities in brain structure; however, it is unknown whether laterality of unilateral clefts has biological significance. To evaluate potential abnormalities in brain structure in individuals with unilateral clefts, we compared brain volumes in boys with right clefts (n=14) and left clefts (n=19) and matched healthy boys (n=57). Structural measures were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and volumes of various tissue types and various brain regions were evaluated.Total white matter was significantly lower in boys with right clefts compared to the other groups. Gross regional analyes demonstrated that reductions in white matter were evident in both the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Within the cerebrum, white matter volumes were particularly low in the frontal lobes and the occipital lobes. Post-hoc analyses evaluated the hypothesis that lower white matter volume would result in slower processing speed, as measured with timed components of the NEPSY (Neurology and Psychology). A negative correlation between total white matter and processing speed (r = -.21) was confirmed. Consistent with the previous findings, boys with right clefts were slower compared to boys with left clefts and comparisons. These results suggest that laterality of a birth defect may have a significant impact on a developing organism.

Kristopher G. Phillips
Philosophy
On the Ontological Status of Species

In the longer version of this paper argue for three distinct claims, all of which I take to be fairly controversial, but when put together I think offer compelling evidence against the claim that ‘species’ can have genuine, mind-independent, ontological existence. I offer a modal objection that brings into question any sort of realism about species.  I then consider Ghiselin’s (1974) and Hull’s (1970, 1976, 1978) suggestion that species should be understood as spatio-historical individuals.  I argue that ultimately this description of species ends up ushering in the very essentialism that motivated the move away from classes to individuals in the first place.  The aim of this paper is ultimately to give reason to believe that, regardless of what Mayr may suggest, realism about species qua mind-independent classifications is a position that is wholly unjustified.

Uche Maduka
Pharmacology
Investigating the Role of CaMKII binding to NR2B in Models of Acute and Persistent Inflammatory Pain

Spinal cord plasticity, a process that underlies chronic pain development, is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity. CaMKII binding to the NR2B subunit of the N-Methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) allows CaMKII to remain persistently active, and targets CaMKII to the postsynaptic region where it phosphorylates other downstream targets. We hypothesized that impaired binding of CaMKII to NR2B would reduce hypersensitivity in models of inflammatory pain, which are NMDAR-dependent. We tested our hypothesis by using mice with mutations preventing binding between CaMKII and NR2B (KI). Contrary to our hypothesis, WT and KI mice did not differ in the degree of hypersensitivity developed in models of inflammatory nociception. There was a slight delay in the development of hypersensitivity in the capsaicin and formalin models of nociception suggesting that CaMKII/NR2B binding may play a limited role in early events that lead to persistent pain. Collectively, these data indicate that CaMKII binding to NR2B is not a critical component of spinal cord plasticity in models of inflammatory pain. Thus, drugs that target CaMKII/NR2B binding are unlikely to be effective treatments for inflammatory pain conditions.

D. Jesse Damazo
Film and Video Production
Constructing an Unsolvable Mystery: Notes on a Rough Cut of Rocket

Rocket is an experimental narrative fiction movie about trying to construct the story of a person's disappearance. Rocket has two main characters: Charlie, who disappears, leaving behind a series of clues in the form of voicemails, text messages, and images; and Narrator, who attempts to put those clues together in order to form a narrative of Charlie's disappearance. Narrator acts as a detective, reconstructing the past by piecing together the recorded clues. However, complete reconstruction fails, because Rocket is built in such a way that the construction of a complete story-world (the fabula) is impossible on the basis of the work itself (syuzhet). Articulation, both in the sense of “to say” and “to put together” is impossible for both Narrator and viewer.

Rocket is currently a work in progress, a movie at the rough cut stage. As the creator of Rocket, I am in a position similar to Narrator – trying to assemble the various elements I am working with into a coherent (or coherently incoherent, if that makes any sense) movie.

Alice M. Phillips
Art History
Mirrors of Harlequin: Romanticism and the Artist as the Tragic Performer

Romanticism’s reaction to the Enlightenment’s logical nature involved regressing to past fascinations with the bizarre and the supernatural. Romantic artists and writers found that the Commedia dell’Arte embodied such qualities, and aligned themselves with Harlequin and Pierrot to emphasize comic despair and the grotesque. Initially, this paper investigates how Commedia dell’Arte-inspired characters such as E. T. A. Hoffmann’s mad composer Johannes Kriesler may signify their authors. Through characterization and mirroring devices, these writers infuse their own personality into their stories, mixing performance, art, and life—a synthesis that resurfaces in the visual arts. Several paintings of Commedia dell’Arte figures emphasize how the Romantics and their followers aligned themselves with theatrical personalities. Cézanne painted self-portraits as Harlequin, and Picasso created grim portraits of himself and others as performers. These characters’ continued popularity as different aspects of artists’ personalities signifies their sacrificial isolation from society while weathering the shifting tide of popular favor. Offering examples of the Commedia dell’Arte’s continuing iconography in nineteenth and early twentieth-century art, my research examines how Romantic philosophical and esoteric motifs come full circle from Enlightenment-era exile to modern disillusionment.

Tommy Ekamitra Sutarto
Civil and Environmental Engineering
A Physical Based Approach to Simulate Stream Bank Erosion in the Clear Creek Watershed

The main goal of this research is to simulate the interaction between in-stream and floodplain physical processes which will allow a more reliable output from stream bank erosion modeling. This study is comprised of three subsequent tasks: (1) performing field and laboratory measurements to collect input data used for CONCEPTS (CONservational Channel Evolution and Pollutant Transport System) simulations; (2) simulating bank erosion using CONCEPTS; and (3) conducting model validation using observed erosion rates. Field work includes collecting   required input data, i.e. upstream flow & sediment discharge, downstream rating curve, bank  stratigraphy, groundwater table, bed and bank erodibility parameters, soil hydraulic conductivity, pore water pressure, and vegetation related data. Soil and sediment samples will be collected from each representative stream cross sections to be tested in laboratory. The tests mainly focus on determining the sediment and soil physical properties. In-stream and floodplain processes will be simulated using CONCEPTS, a physically based computer model capable of simulating open-channel hydraulics, sediment transport, and channel morphodynamics.

Marie Carmelle S Pierre
Chemistry
Synthesis and Characterization of Internally Etched Silica-Coated Gold Nanoparticles for Reproducible SERS Detection

Control over the composition, shape, size, stability, and local dielectric environment of metallic substrates is vital to consistent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancements. Because of their inherent instability, bare nanoparticles can undergo uncontrolled aggregation when target molecules are added to a solution. Recently, we developed a novel method in which silica stabilized gold nanoparticle are made SERS-active by etching away silica that is nearest to the metal core. In this presentation, these internally etched silica-coated gold nanoparticles (IE-AuSiO2 NPs) will be synthesized in a three step process: core formation, silica shell formation, and shell etching/membrane formation. Their optical, structural, and porosity characteristics will be evaluated using extinction spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gas adsorption isotherms, respectively. The surface area (BET), the structure and porosity of these composite structures as well as SERS responses of 2-naphthalenethiol will compared. Kinetic responses of the SERS signal intensities will be shown to correlate with the structural morphology observed with TEM and BET measurement. These results indicate that the extent of silica membrane etching greatly impacts the observed SERS signal in a predictable and reproducible manner.

Khirin Carter
Sociology
The Black/White Gap in the Influence of Parental Education on Academic Achievement: Evaluating the Roles of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Capital

A common finding that points to the continuing significance of race, even for relatively socioeconomically advantaged African Americans, is that the effect of parental education on adolescent educational achievement and attainment is considerably smaller for African Americans than whites (Gosa and Alexander 2007). Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, my research evaluates potential explanations for why highly educated black parents are less able to confer their educational advantages to their offspring by examining the potential role of neighborhood disadvantage. Social disorganization theory is useful in examining neighborhood effects in adolescent outcomes because it helps explain the differences in social controls that help shape social networks and educational achievement. This analysis, therefore, examines the roles of both structural neighborhood disadvantage and collective efficacy in explaining the differential effect of parental education. In part, this is one way of assessing an oppositional culture explanation, which would predict that black sons and daughters of highly educated parents are less likely than their white counterparts to select high achievers as friends.

Zhen Wang
Chemistry
Investigating the Dynamics-Kinetics Relationship: Kinetic Isotope Effect Studies of E. coli Thymidylate Synthase

Thymidylate Synthase catalyzes the biosynthesis of 2’-deoxythymidine-5’-mono­phosphate in nearly all eukaryotes including humans. The enzymatic mechanism is a complex kinetic cascade, which involves two different C-H bond cleavages (a rate-limiting C-H-C hydride transfer and a non-rate-limiting C-H-O proton abstraction). This provides an excellent model system to examine the physical nature of different bond activations along one enzymatic reaction. The temperature dependency of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) is believed to be a good measure of the degree of contribution of quantum mechanical tunneling to an H-transfer step, which is associated with protein motions, the active site vibrations, and other environmental fluctuations. The intrinsic KIEs and their temperature dependencies have been previously measured on the hydride transfer of E. coli TSase [Agrawal et al., Biochemistry,43, 1998-2006, (2004)]. Now we report the same measurements on the proton abstraction step. Our results suggest that E. Coli TSase has evolved to enhance the rate-limiting step of the catalytic cascade via dynamic effects, but not as much to a non-rate-limiting step. These findings may shed light on the relationship between enzyme structure, dynamic motions, and rate enhancements in the catalyzed chemical transformations.

Michael Ivanov
Chemistry
Implications of Covalently-Functionalized Nanoparticles on Separations of Parkinson's Disease Biomarkers

Capillary electrophoresis coupled with nanoparticles has been shown to improve detection of analytes, facilitate the separation of nanoparticles, and dramatically improve the resolution of target molecules. Despite advances, little research performed correlates the separation of analytes to nanoparticle attributes such as surface chemistry and stability. In this work, we will demonstrate nanoparticle influence in the capillary electrophoresis-based separations of four potential Parkinson's disease biomarkers: dopamine, epinephrine, pyrocatechol and uric acid. To develop a structure-function understanding of the role of nanoparticles as additives in the separation buffer, gold nanoparticles will be thoroughly characterized using extinction spectroscopy, NMR, TEM, and zeta potential prior to separation experiments. Next, varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles will be included in the run buffer during the separation of the biomarkers. It will be shown that the separation of the Parkinson's disease biomarkers is dictated by nanoparticle concentration and stability as well as by attractive and repulsive interactions between the nanoparticles and each individual biomarker. We envision the integration of capillary electrophoresis with nanoparticles for enhanced bioanalysis and separation of samples in applications relating to Parkinson's and other disease diagnosis

Zhihong Hu
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Circularity Comparison of the Clinical Optic Disc and Automatically Segmented Neural Canal Opening in SD-OCT Volumes


Purpose: To investigate the hypothesis that the neural canal opening (NCO) segmented in SD-OCT tends to be more “circular” than the disc margins delineated on the stereo fundus photographs.Methods: 68 SD-OCT volumes with glaucoma and corresponding fundus photographs were obtained. The NCO was automatically segmented using a graph-theoretic approach on a flattened OCT volume. Manual planimetry was performed by glaucoma experts to delineate a reference standard (RS) for the disc margins on the fundus images. The 68 scans were divided into the more and less circular groups based on the average of the RS disc circularity ratio. The circularity ratio and area correlation of NCO and optic disc were investigated. Results: The circularity ratios of NCO for the 68-scan, the less circular, and more circular group were 0.909 ± 0.011, 0.906 ± 0.011, and 0.912 ± 0.010 respectively. The circularity ratios of optic disc for the three groups were 0.889 ± 0.017, 0.873 ± 0.013, and 0.902 ± 0.007 respectively. The area correlations of NCO and optic disc for the three groups were 0.77, 0.75, and 0.86 respectively. Conclusions: The NCO in SD-OCT volumes is significantly more circular than the optic disc on fundus images. The more circular group has greater area correlation between NCO and optic disc than the less circular group.

Min Huang
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Impacts of Transported Background Ozone on California Air Quality during ARCTAS/California Period --A Regional-Scale Modeling Study

Background ozone (O3) together with photo-chemically produced ozone contributes to surface O3 levels. Previous work reported a wide range of background O3 in North America, and indicated its increasing trend. As a receptor of pollutants from eastern Pacific Ocean,impacts of transported background O3 on California air quality have attracted attention. This study focused on coastal site Trinidad Head, three northern Californian and a southern Californian inland site. Two resolutions and various boundary conditions sensitivity studies were applied to STEM chemical transport model simulations. O3 measured during ARCTAS/California experiment were used to evaluated and improve model performance as boundary conditions. In addition, meteorological fields was also concluded to be an influential factor in simulating O3 transport from both oceanic background to inland and inland from upwind to downwind areas. With observations and model results generated with high quality meteorological fields, pollutant transport patterns were analyzed. We compared the whole campaign period and a shorter period when California received strong Asian inflows and the situations of northern and southern California. Back trajectories, source contribution analyses and correlation calculations were used for analyses.

Marie Gernes
Language, Literacy and Culture
Literacy as Social Justice

This poster will present a proposed syllabus for a teacher-education course that examines teachers and literacy within the context of social justice movements.  It was developed as part of my fellowship in the Obermann Institute.

Zsofia Ildiko Laki
Linguistics
DP Structure and Possessor Constituents in L2 Hungarian

This paper investigates the two major factors that influence L2 acquisition: the L1 grammar and the accessibility of the Universal Grammar (UG) with its principles and parameters. The research focuses on how these two components can be observed in L2 acquisition by testing English native speakers who are L2 learners of Hungarian.

The two properties tested are related to noun phrase (DP) structures. In Hungarian, as opposed tp English, a possessor can co-occur with determiner within the same DP. Secondly, there is a restriction in Hungarian that allows only one possessor constituent in a DP. Therefore, an English speaking L2 learner has to acquire two properties: the possibility of a possessor and an article appearing in the same DP, and the ungrammaticality of two co-occurring possessors.

The study is based on a Grammaticality Judgment Task focusing on possessor-article co-occurrence and the restriction on possessors in focus. The participants were three native speakers of English who had studied Hungarian for different amount of time and in different circumstances. The L2ers were compared to a control group of five native speakers of Hungarian.

The results suggest that the learners had built their acquisition of the second language grammar on that of their native language; and also that they had re-formulated it by using universal grammatical structures accessed from UG.

Dimitrios Dermisis
Civil and Environmental Engineering
An Innovative Study on the Effects of Land Management Practices on Rill Erosion Using an Instantaneous Profile Laser Scanner

Rill erosion is a major form of soil and nutrient loss that affects the productivity of agricultural lands and threatens our environment.  In this study, laboratory experiments are currently being conducted to identify the effects of different land use management practices on soil surface roughness, which in-turn affects rill erosion processes.  Identification of the role that management practices has on erosion processes will lead to more sustainable agriculture practices, thus avoiding the loss of vital nutrients and reduction of the soil's water-holding ability.  A state-of-the-art laser scanner technique is utilized to determine the soil surface roughness, providing an accurate spatial resolution of 0.5 mm.  In this technique, a laser beam is projected vertically onto the bed surface while an infra-red camera detects the light spot reflected from the surface.  Knowledge of the bed topography allows us to determine the associated drainage networks, flow direction, and stream segmentation via GIS (Geographic Information System) modeling.  Data sets obtained from this study will be used as input files to simulate the development of rills using a newly developed 1-D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model namely, RILL1D, which handles transcritical flows over abrupt changes in rill bed and predicts changes in rill bed elevation.

Lydia M Mexas
Pharmacy (PhD)
Toxicity, Protein Modification, and Adverse Functional Consequences in Dopaminergic Neurons Mediated by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde

Parkinson's Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Dopamine (DA) undergoes catabolism to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). DOPAL is a reactive intermediate, and therefore, it has the potential to interact with proteins containing DA-binding sites. Currently, the identity of these target proteins and the effect on function are unknown. Therefore, it is hypothesized that DOPAL modifies and inhibits enzymes that are important to dopamine biosynthesis and trafficking. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in DA synthesis, converting tyrosine to L-DOPA. TH activity was studied using PC6-3 cell lysate. Lysate was treated with either tyrosine or tyrosine and DOPAL and the formation of L-DOPA was followed using HPLC. Results showed a smaller increase in L-DOPA formation when DOPAL was present, compared to controls. To study DOPAL metabolism and toxicity, PC6-3 cells were incubated in the presence of DOPAL for 2 hours. HPLC analysis of aliquots indicated metabolism to both the acid DOPAC, and the alcohol, DOPET. Furthermore, toxicity studies showed a decrease in cell viability with increasing concentrations of DOPAL. Overall, these results indicate that DOPAL may adversely affect not only cell viability, but the function of important DA biosynthesis enzymes, such as tyrosine hydroxylase.

Karoline Jarr
Educational Measurement and Statistics
Relationships between prewriting strategies and writing performance on standardized writing assessments

This study investigated the relationship between prewriting and writing performance in four writing domains.  Results indicated students who employed lists, graphic organizers or combinations of strategies performed better on the writing assessment than those who employed only written rough drafts or no strategy at all.

Samrat Dutta
Chemistry
Ultrafast dynamics of enzyme: A new mid-IR probe

Ultrafast dynamics in femtosecond to picosecond timescale of enzyme is a relatively unexplored area spectroscopically. We have synthesized a mid-IR probe to explore the fast dynamics of enzymes. The probe was found to bind with several enzymes. In this report, we present its binding constants, activity and spectroscopical charactersitics with the enzymes as a guide for future studies.

Daniel Bulger
Film Studies
School Shooting: Wounds, Narrative, and Morals in Iowa City

18 years after the shooting on November 1, 1991, when University of Iowa graduate student Lu Gang killed three faculty members, a university official, a fellow grad student, and himself, we are left today with several "wounds" on our campus. Borrowing from Mark Seltzer's concept of "wound culture" as well as from Hayden White's work on the morality of historical narrative, this paper seeks to understand the process of remembering here in Iowa City and complications presented for the scholarship of loss. Ultimately, I argue that the tragedy on November 1 becomes a question of morals, which has ramifications not only for conclusions we may draw from the events that day, but for the academic work seeking to understand it. At a graduate conference at the university where this crime was committed, I think it is important to rethink power relations between a university and its students, and the manner these have been deployed in the Lu Gang incident. Rather than inserting my own alternative history (with my own morals), though, I take November 1, 1991 as an insightful case that helps us to understand the extent to which commemoration is an historicizing project.

Tsering, Nangyal
Journalism
Imagining Tibet Online: Discursive Construction of Nation on Diasporic Website, Phayul.com

This paper will analyze the leading Tibetan diasporic website, www.phayul.com, and how the website constructs symbols of nation on the Internet. The web portal has become an important media for the geographically dispersed and marginalized population of Tibet, helping create an imagined community in exile. Thanks to technology, the Internet had allowed members of the community to invent and imagine of symbols of nation. As the land of Tibet fades further into memory, this paper will investigate how new media technology plays a critical role in reviving nationalist consciousness.

Ann Pleiss Morris
English-Literary Studies
A Community of Voices: Using Literature to Explore Trauma

War, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, immigration issues, economic meltdown - in times like these, one might wonder why we study literature. But as those who have worked in the trenches of these traumatic events will tell you, the art of sharing stories becomes essential in these times. In this proposed general education of literature course, my students will examine texts which speak to how the act of storytelling provides catharsis for those who are both directly and indirectly affected by traumatic events. This course will partner with a local non-profit agency in order to allow students the opportunity to witness first hand personal stories of struggle in their own community as they serve as volunteers for the organization. As they pursue their work, they will begin to collect stories. Through their own encounters and through conversations they have with staff members and other volunteers, students will piece together a literary picture of the agency. In partnership with the agency, students will determine a creative way to synthesize their collected stories. The finished collection will be an archive for the community partner to use as an asset for fund raising, grant writing, and volunteer recruitment.

Marie Carmelle Serviane Pierre
Chemistry
Synthesize and characterization of Internally Etched Silica-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

Internally etched silica-coated gold nanoparticles (IE-AuSiO2 NPs) are synthesized for the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of target molecule. These IE-AuSiO2 NPs are synthesized in a three step process. First, bare gold nanoparticles are seeded using a metal salt and reducing agent. Next, these nanoparticles are coated with a silica layer which stabilizes their optical properties by preventing electromagnetic coupling between adjacent metal cores. Finally, basic conditions induce the formation of silica membranes surrounding these gold-silica nanostructures via selective etching of the silica layers nearest the gold core. Extinction spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to characterize the optical properties of the gold cores and to observe the formation of the silica membrane. In these studies, the etching process has been stopped at 5 distinct times. The structure and porosity of these composite structures as well as SERS responses of 2-naphthalenethiol were compared. Kinetic responses of the SERS signals have been correlated to the structural morphology results from TEM. These results indicate that silica etching time greatly impacts the observed SERS signal in a predictable and reproducible manner.

Kate Kauper
Social Studies Education
Understanding Social Inequity: Action and Community-Based Research for Pre-Service Teachers

Prior to entering the profession, pre-service teachers take a required course devoted to understanding the implications of diverse student populations in their future classrooms. This presentation describes a curriculum that uses action research and service learning as methods to help teachers analyze the socialization processes beyond the school walls. Using participant observation and other data collection techniques during their time of service in community-based programs, pre-service teachers then analyze their data and determine a course of action to address the sources of limited educational opportunity. Participation in community-based programs better allows pre-service educators to see school institutions as component of society, rather than a stand-alone operation devoid of context.

Analia Alegre-Femenias
Dance
The Truth About Cardboard

As one gets older our standards might change, transform, and even sometimes, sadly lower. In this work three women amplify the behavior towards a dream that somebody wonderful might still be out there. It is only human to even after having great disappointment to continue to believe in that special somebody. These three women find themselves in that situation, one full of hope, despair and cardboard.

Ashish Datt
Chemistry
Interaction of small drug molecules with Mesoporous and Zeolitic systems

Mesoporous silicas (MS) are inorganic materials which are synthesized in the presence of surfactants as templates. They are porous materials whose pore size can be varied from 2-15nm by adjusting the time, temperature and the choice of the surfactant. Zeolites are crystalline, inorganic materials with narrow pore size distributions and have silicon, aluminum and oxygen atoms in their framework. They have a highly ordered pore structure and the size of the species entering the pore depends on the dimensions of the channels which are formed by the framework elements. Synthetic zeolites have advantages over naturally occurring zeolites in that they can be obtained in pure form and also their morphology can be controlled. Due to selectivity, zeolites can be used for ion exchange, adsorption processes and catalysis. Owing to their high surface area and porosity, both mesoporous silica and zeolites have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of drug delivery. The objective of this work was to study the interaction of small drug molecules such as ibuprofen, fluoracil and aspirin with mesoporous silica and zeolite Y.

Daniel L.S. Taradash
Health and Sport Studies
Same game, different rules: basketball and the imagined community

When Native American activist and author Vine Deloria reflected on the ideological differences of the Black and Native civil rights movements of the 1960s, he saw the issue of land as a philosophical wedge that separated the two groups.  As Deloria understood it, having (or lacking) a physical and spiritual connection to a specific homeland greatly affected the worldview and goals of a people.  We see these diverse interpretations not just in the political and social actions of each group, but also within their respective basketball cultures. What are the effects of a centralized homeland on basketball culture?  How does basketball culture reflect the psychic energies of a people who have or lack a homeland?  What happens to that culture when home is not a stable and fixed idea, but constantly shifting?  Analyzing these forces allows us to search for answers across a wide variety of sources.  Histories, journalism and works of fiction provide us with the Black and Native perspective and allow us to see that poverty alone does not necessarily make the experiences of diverse groups of people in any way identical.  It is the responses, understandings and interpretations of these conditions that are as diverse as the people who experience them. Basketball allows us the opportunity to see how many of these feelings, desires and reactions to larger forces are expressed.

Elke S. Nelson
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Activators of Vinculin Increase Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion

Sites where cells adhere to the extracellular matrix are rich in integrins, the major cell surface adhesion receptors. Integrins are coupled to the actin cytoskeleton by a series of actin-binding proteins including vinculin. Maintenance of a connection to the underlying actin cytoskeleton is critical for integrin function and interruptions in this linkage contribute to the formation and progression of diseased states including cancer, leukocyte adhesion deficiency, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, and some muscular dystrophies. In spite of the critical role of integrins, effective targets for manipulating integrin function are still lacking. We have recently identified a short vinculin activating peptide (VAP) that increases integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin or collagen. The increased adhesion is both vinculin- and integrin-dependent. Using a series of VAP truncation mutants, we have mapped the residues required for vinculin binding, localization in focal adhesions, and increased integrin-mediated adhesion. We are investigating the mechanism by which the vinculin activating peptide increases adhesion with an emphasis on how it regulates integrin activity. These studies provide novel insight into how vinculin activation regulates integrin function and will uncover novel therapeutic possibilities.

Michael Ivanov
Chemistry
Influences on the Separation of Neurotransmitters in the Presence of Covalently Functionalized Nanoparticles

To improve conventional medical devices, advances must be made for quicker response times, miniaturization, more accurate results, cheaper costs and enhanced detection capabilities for specific target biomolecules. My research goal is to develop next generation medical diagnostic devices which integrate capillary/microchip electrophoresis with nanoparticles for improved separation and enhanced detection of samples for diagnosis, management, and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Capillary/microchip electrophoresis will be utilized for small sample volume requirements, excellent separation capabilities, and fast analysis times. Gold nanoparticles will serve a dual role to both enhance detection and separation efficiencies of the targeted biomarkers. Initial investigations have focused on the mechanism of nanoparticle-assisted separations in capillary electrophoresis. Currently, we have demonstrated the effective surface charge of nanoparticles impacts interactions with analytes, the capillary wall and other nanoparticles. This research will increase the understanding of nanoparticle-assisted separation and detection of potential PD biomarkers with the long term goal of engineering a clinical tool for the early diagnosis of PD.

Sara Stasik
Psychology
Examination of the Symptom Structure of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and its Relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders

Research has demonstrated that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains, each having distinct neural correlates, comorbidity patterns, and response to treatment. Despite a large number of studies, the factor structure of OCD symptoms is still uncertain. One problem is that analyses have been limited to extant measures of OCD, which assess different content and classify symptom domains idiosyncratically. This study examined the symptom structure of OCD using a newly developed and more comprehensive model, thereby measuring a broader range of OCD symptoms than has previously been utilized. An exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinctive symptom dimensions (Rituals, Intrusive Thoughts, Exactness, Contamination, Hoarding), representing a unique grouping of items. Furthermore, these five factors showed specificity in their relations to a range of disorders with important links to OCD, such as body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis, tic disorder, trichotillomania, and dissociation. Results from this study suggest that OCD is comprised of multiple symptom dimensions that may not be adequately measured on existing instruments and that evidence differential patterns of comorbidity. It is important to identify and assess these dimensions accurately, as we gain meaningful information by examining them separately.

Kevin Marks
Pharmacy (PhD)
Influence of Substituents on Lethality of Fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antimicrobials that trap gyrase and topoisomerase IV on DNA.  The resulting ternary complexes block DNA replication, RNA synthesis, and growth.  Rapid cell death has been correlated to chromosome fragmentation and can occur by two pathways: one which requires ongoing protein synthesis and one which does not.  Moxifloxacin and PD161144, each with an N-1 cyclopropyl and a C-8 methoxy substituent, cause rapid lethality in cells; molecular modeling and SAR suggest that these substituents arrange in a relative trans configuration.  Previously, we have attempted to confirm this hypothesis using analogs of levofloxacin and ofloxacin, which contain a ring between the N-1 and C-8 positions with an exocyclic methyl group.  The reduced activity of these compounds is thought to be related to the N-1 and C-8 substituents being limited in three dimensional flexibility.  Recently, we have begun to investigate analogs of ulifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone with a 2-methyl-[1,3]thiazetidine ring between the N-1 and C-2 positions.  Additionally, modeling data suggests that C-2 <i>S</i>-methyl and C-2 <i>S</i>-phenyl may impart antimutant activity due to the interaction with gyrase.  Also being investigated is the effect of the thiazetidine ring on lethality. Here, we attempt to determine the effect of the C-2 <i>S </i>substituents on the lethal activity of C-8 methoxy fluoroquinolones.

Amber O'Harrow
Art
The Nature of Metal

I make art to express my passion for the captivating forms and exquisite colors and textures I find in nature and the world around me. I incorporate found objects, fiber and metal with traditional and non-traditional textile and metal techniques, to create sculptures and jewelry. In creating designs that make dramatic use of materials and form, as well as technique, I hope to capture the beauty of my subject and to surprise the viewer into appreciating something they see everyday in a new way.

Nikolas Dickerson
Health and Sport Studies
White like the ice: Sidney Crosby, neoliberalism, and Canadian identity

Sidney Crosby is a young, incredibly talented NHL hockey player, and as well as his on ice achievments his plethora of endorsments and media attention is increasing his status as a celebrity. As products of the media celebrities can become sources of cultural identification through which individuals negotiate their own lived experience (Andrews & Jackson, 2001). This paper explore the construction and  consumption of the NHL hockeystar and his co-articulation to the performance of communal nation-hood in Canada. As the celebrity-hood of Crosby has increased ober the past few years so has his imagined position as a represenative figure of white, heterosexual, masculine Canadianess. As we witness Crosby's star power, we are admist an era of neo-liberalism that is cutting social welfare programs, refusing to recgonize diversity, and removing any space for critical dialogue (Giroux, 2004). The representation and consumption of contemporary Canadian identity through the white, heterosexual, male hockey player is one way in which to homogenize the diverse nation of Canada to all viewers and also reinforce neo-liberal ideology. Thus this paper looks to add to the discussion on the danger of neo-liberal politics, and how they are manifested in the nation of Canada.

Craig Webster
Film and Video Production
The Fibonacci Sequence

The Fibonacci Sequence is a short video that explores dream-like narration; that critiques and celebrates cinematic manipulation; and that performs a splitting of the mind.

Saikat Dutta
Chemistry
Effect of Modified Handles on Self-assembly and Photoreactivity in Template-directed Solid-state Synthesis

High stereocontrol of reactivity, formation of unique products, and a solvent-free environment have made solid state an intriguing medium for target oriented covalent syntheses. Unfortunately, controlling reactivity in the organic solid state has remained a challenge owing to the structure demands of close packing. Previously, we reported that that a resorcinol based linear template could circumvent effects of close packing by preorganizing reactant olefins within discrete supermolecules suitable for undergoing [2+2] photocycloadditions in solid state. In particular, templates based on resorcinol and pyridine functionalized olefins have been shown to offer a reliable means to synthesize molecules in solids using the strength and directionality of hydrogen-bonds. This modular approach led to the synthesis of a variety of synthetically-challenging targets (e.g. cyclophanes, ladderanes) stereospecifically, quantitatively, and in gram amounts. In order to establish this method as a general way of performing targeted synthesis in solid state, we have undertaken a series of experiments to modify the handles. Here, we show the effect of ortho substituents on the pyridine handles in terms of both self-assembly and photoreactivity. Our studies demonstrate that substitution is tolerated, providing an increase in generality and synthetic viability of our approach.

Melissa C. Ramos
Chemistry
Adsorption Studies of Aqueous Molybdenum Solutions on Functionalized Zeolites

Functionalized silicalite-1, a purely silacious zeolite with a crystal size of 30 nm, and functionalized commercial ZSM-5 were used to study the absorption of molybdenum. Both zeolites were externally functionalized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to form an aminopropyl surface.  Molybdenum adsorption from aqueous solutions onto the aminopropyl surface was conducted under acidic conditions, at a range of pH values. Molybdenum metal was effectively adsorbed onto the surface of the aminopropyl functionalized zeolites. Molybdenum was most effectively removed from the aqueous solutions under acidic conditions with a pH of about 2.  Both silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 were compared in this study and results illustrated that the smaller crystal size silicalite-1 removed approximately two times as much molybdenum compared to the functionalized commercial ZSM-5.  The results of previous Cu(II) adsorption studies show that the adsorption rate plateaus after two days.  This research indicates that removing aqueous molybdenum from naturally occurring sources is possible by using functionalized zeolite materials.

Christine Darr
Religious Studies
The Compromise of Democratic Capitalism: Novak and the Possibilities of Economic Integrity

As the global recession continues to unfold, many have asked what policies should be adopted in order to diminish in its impact.  However, such discussions rarely pay sufficient attention to the moral underpinnings of capitalism.  Rather than focusing on how to get the system working as usual, it is time to consider how the system might be reformed in ways that promote the flourishing of human as well as non-human life.  As a small step in that direction, this paper will undertake a religious ethical reflection on the virtues and vices of capitalism in order to challenge the ways in which we traditionally think about the role of morality in the economic realm and hopefully to open up the conversation to greater ethical possibilities. 

andres martinez
Civil and Environmental Engineering
fate of pcb congeners in an industrial harbor of lake michigan

The international Joint Commission has designated the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) as an Area of Concern. A gradient flux model to estimate the fluxes and the emissions of PCBs from sediment to water and from water to air was developed for this system. Results show that the net emission from the air/water interface and the sediment/water are 9,800 and 10,500 g yr-1, respectively. The model assumptions include a constant gas transfer velocity for CO2, estimated monthly air concentrations of PCBs, fix water and sediment PCB concentrations during the year, and meteorological data obtained from Calumet Harbor, IL, station (NOAA). These results strongly suggest that IHSC is a source of PCBs into Lake Michigan and into the surrounding atmosphere. However, no sensitivity analysis of the model has been carried out, which we think is relevant due to the many assumptions and constants that are used in the construction of the model.

Amy Lee Scott
English-Nonfiction Writing
What Is Left After Everything Else Is Said: Mythmaking in nonfiction writing

My presentation will investigate the role of mythmaking in creative nonfiction writing. Pairing examples from my own essays with other relevant historical essays, I will argue that mythmaking allows the writer to both explore and complicate issues of identity and place. As a writer constantly at odds with my own beginnings--I was adopted from Korea as an infant and raised in a white, middle class family--I will attempt to respond to questions such as, How do we constitute mythmaking--a form of fiction-writing--as nonfiction? What is lost or gained by the use of such a loaded literary device? Does mythmaking make sense in a post-postmodern society? In looking at these issues alongside my personal narrative, I hope to insert my dialogue into the larger conversation concerning both the cusps and the extending horizons of contemporary nonfiction.

Arlecia D. Simmons
Journalism
"The Haunt of Direct Selling by Radio": Unearthing the Homegrown Commercialism of Rural Independents, 1924-1929

As the network system of early radio developed, rural independent stations confronted how they would remain competitive and finance their fledging enterprises. For small business owners with radio stations, selling their products on air was the proverbial stone to kill two birds. Unable to secure sponsorships from local businesses or engage in payola, the stations marketed everything from baby chicks to overalls, which could be purchased via mail order or their brick-and-mortar stores. This model of commercialism was called “direct selling.” While embraced by some listeners, the tactic proved problematic for citizen groups like the Iowa Radio Listeners’ League. The two stations at the center of the direct selling controversy, “the haunt of direct selling by radio,” were based in Shenandoah, Iowa. This paper uses the cases of Shenandoah-based KFNF and KMA to examine how the direct sales model was embraced and challenged during the infancy of commercial broadcasting. The model used by the two farmer stations and other independents helped refine the business model still used to finance radio and other mass mediums.

Daniel Ashwood
Pharmacy (PhD)
Embarrassment and Purchasing of Contraceptives: A Study of Access and Provision of Information in Pharmacies

Objectives: (1) Describe where and what types of contraceptives were purchased (2) Explore if embarrassment concerning purchase of contraceptives vary by age, marital status, education, insurance coverage, income, race, and rural/urban (3) Explore if embarrassment is related to contraceptive availability or information in pharmacies. Methods: Design. Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional telephone survey. Subjects. 796 woman age 18-30. Data Collection. Purchasing was measured using partially closed ended items. Embarrassment was measured using a dichotomous item. Availability and information were measured using 4-point Likert scales. Analysis. Descriptive statistics quantified where and what types of contraceptives were purchased. Chi-square determined if embarrassment varied by demographics as well as availabiliy of contraceptives and information. Results: The most frequent place to purchase contraceptives was drug store/pharmacy (37.7%). The most frequently purchsed were pills (36.4%) and condoms (30.5%). Women with some college education were more embarrassed to purchase OTC (31.7%) and prescription (33.3%) contraception(p<0.001,P<0.001). The most embarrassment in purchasing prescriptions was found with good availability of contraceptives (p=0.01). The most embarrassed to purchase OTC were found with fair availability of info (p=0.031).

Eric Kaiser
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Characterization of CGRP actions in hRAMP1 transgenic mice: a novel migraine animal model

Migraine is a neurological disorder affecting 11% of Americans. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, a significant role for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is emerging. CGRP is involved in nociception, vasodilatation, and neurogenic inflammation; furthermore, elevated levels of CGRP have been implicated in migraine. The CGRP receptor is an unusual receptor consisting of the receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), which is a subunit required for CGRP binding. To study the effects of heightened sensitivity of a mouse to CGRP, we used a cre-mediated activation strategy to generate transgenic mice that overexpresses human RAMP1 (hRAMP1) in the nervous system. Previous work has established that hRAMP1 transgenic mice demonstrate greater photophobia, a common symptom in migraine, following intracerebroventricular injection of CGRP. Consequently, our hRAMP1 mice likely represent a novel migraine model. We hypothesize that CGRP actions are centrally mediated in the nervous system. To localize CGRP actions, we plan to combine neuroradiographic, pharmacologic, and genetic approaches. We will use microMRI and microPET to scan hRAMP1 mice in order to correlate with clinical studies to further validate our model and provide specific regions to target. Ultimately these efforts will provide further elucidation for the role of CGRP in migraine.

Vinicius Lima
Art
VIRTUAL INTERIORS: THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGIES IN INTERIOR DESIGN PROJECTS

This is a research project that aims to apply Virtual Reality and Computer-Aided Design Technologies in real-time experiences of Interior Spaces. The final prodcut were two designs, one for a bookstore booth and the other for a restaurant located in Iowa City, IA. Virtual Reality technology allows the user to experience the built space around him different from traditional presentation modes such as models and drawings. The user can interact and walk through the interior as desired and also has the option of sound and video playing as the experience occurs.

Amanda Keller
Political Science
Determining Donations: Why People Give Money to Candidates and Campaigns

Previous research has focused on the individual level factors that make people more likely to donate money to candidates or political parties.  This study looks at election specific factors that make people more or less likely to make political donations.  To this end, I hypothesize that state contexts that engage people in an election will make them more likely to donate money.  Using 2006 Cooperative Comparative Election Survey (CCES) I find that increasing the number of initiatives and the competition between parties make people more likely to make political contributions.  More initiatives and party competition engage people in the election, causing them to be more likely to donate money. This is a new finding in the literature.

Jong Sung Kim
Human Toxicology
Sub-acute Inhalation Exposure Study of Copper Nanoparticles in Mice

Due to the expanding use of nanoparticles, the risk of human exposure has increased rapidly. The most critical concern over health and environmental effects occurs when nanoparticles are aerosolized. Airborne nanoparticles are highly mobile and can enter the human body <em>via</em> inhalation. We examined pulmonary inflammatory responses, oxidative stress biomarkers and host defense mechanisms (assessed by <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> challenge) in mice following inhalation sub-acute exposure (4 hr/day, 10 days) to commercially manufactured copper (Cu) nanoparticles. Concentration and aerosol size distribution for sub-acute Cu exposures were 3.5 mg m<sup>-3</sup> and near 200 nm of geometric mean diameter, respectively. The amount of Cu measured in lungs of Cu-exposed animals was 31 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> lung (dry weight). Immediately following sub-acute exposure, Cu-exposed mice showed increased inflammation compared to sham exposed animal as indicated by the number of total cells and neutrophils, levels of total protein, and LDH activity in lung lavage fluid. Bacterial clearance from the lung was found to be significantly higher in Cu-exposed mice than sham-exposed animals. We conclude that inhalation sub-acute exposure of Cu nanoparticles in mice produces inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. Increased lung bacterial clearance may be associated with antimicrobial activity of Cu.

Oscar W. Garza, MBA
Pharmacy (PhD)
Identifying Barriers to Providing Medication Therapy Management Services

Objective: To use two studies designed to identify the barriers encountered by pharmacists providing pharmaceutical case management (PCM), a comprehensive medication therapy management (MTM) service, to: (1) qualitatively study barriers to providing PCM to Medicaid beneficiaries and (2) survey pharmacists about barriers to providing PCM to privately insured beneficiaries. Methods: In study 1, 15 pharmacists were faxed and asked to participate in semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory method.  In study 2, 59 approved pharmacists were faxed a survey measuring 16 potential barriers rated on a 7-point Likert scale. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: In study 1, nine pharmacists were interviewed. Open coding produced 55 categories of comments. Axial coding produced four barriers:  processes, systems, information, and people/organization.  Implementing a valuable SOAP note was the primary theme. In study 2, 32 responses were analyzed and five barriers were identified: time, staffing, dispensing intensity, patient demand, and the usability of the documentation system. Conclusions: Pharmacists reported barriers in processes, systems, information and people/organization. Efficient workflow and system processes are critical to providing PCM services; thus more research is needed to identify best practices for MTM processes.

Donald Ephraim Curtis
Computer Science
Vaccination Strategies for Healthcare Workers using Social Networks

The use of contact network epidemiology to understand the spread of nosocomial infections has been limited, likely due to the absence of reliable data from which to infer epidemiologically meaningful contact networks. We propose an approach that uses spatial data along with the login data generated by Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems used in most modern U.S. hospitals to construct hospital contact networks. Based on EMR login data from the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) we construct a variety of social contact networks and use these networks to investigate the e ectiveness of targeted vaccination policies.

Janelle Beadle
Neuroscience
Aging and Social Decision-making: Younger and Older Adults Perform Differently on the Ultimatum Game

The question of how social interactions and relationships change as a function of aging has become a central issue in the psychology of aging. Here, we examined whether there are age-related differences in social decision-making. The Repeated Fixed Opponent version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) was used to measure social decision-making in a sample of adults ranging in age from 25 to 81 years. In this game, one player must split a sum of money with another player who has the choice to either accept the offer (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject the offer (whereby neither receives the money). We found that older adults rejected offers in which they received less than their partner (what are commonly perceived as “unfair” offers) at a higher rate than younger adults. In follow-up analyses, we found that higher rejection rates were associated with poorer perspective taking ability (an aspect of “cognitive empathy”) in our sample. Together, these findings can be taken to suggest that because of lower cognitive empathy, older adults have a greater proclivity to be “tough” in their social decision-making interactions, with less concern or regard for how their behavior affects those with whom they are interacting.

Jennifer Delfs
Anatomy and Cell Biology
TNF-α and Thrombin Differentially Activate Nox1 Trafficking in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

Nox1 is a transmembrane protein that is activated and upregulated in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) response to injury, growth factors, or cytokines. Under these conditions, VSMCs exacerbate vascular disease by contributing to neointimal formation and arterial occlusion. In this study, we compared the trafficking of Nox1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and thrombin, two agonists present during vascular disease states that are important in VSMC activation that signal via Nox1. In VSMCs cultured from murine aorta, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Nox1 is primarily localized at intracellular membranes. Additionally, SMC surface proteins were labeled with biotin and cells were stimulated with TNF-α or thrombin. Surface biotin was cleaved and the cell lysate subjected to streptavidan immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting for Nox1. These data showed that in response to TNF-α, but not thrombin, Nox1 is internalized. These results suggest that in quiescent SMCs, Nox1 is primarily an intracellular protein that depending on the agonist can either be internalized into a signaling endosome or remain within intracellular compartments, both pathways resulting cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Agonist-dependent differences in trafficking of Nox1 may provide specificity in Nox1 signaling.

Brent Hickman
Economics
Effort, Achievement Gaps and Affirmative Action

I use a strategic model of competitive bidding to analyze the effects of Affirmative Action policies on effort choice and racial achievement gaps.  I also compare the performance of different implementations of Affirmative Action; namely, quotas and bid-subsidies. I show that these policies have very different effects on average effort and achievement gaps. The model provides theoretical evidence that additive bid subsidies (such as those previously used in undergraduate admissions at The University of Michigan) are unambiguously bad for effort choice. Quotas seem better with some positive and some negative effects. Both policies widen the achievement gap among the most able competitors.

emma rainey
English-Nonfiction Writing
Transformation through the Imagination

Two years ago I began volunteering in the Four Oaks facility that houses homeless teens ages 11-17 in Iowa City. Though I was initially asked to teach yoga, in the back of my mind brewed a far more ambitious plan: I wanted the impassioned peers in my graduate writing program at UI to work with these teens. Why? As overworked and underpaid we graduate students feel to be, we have much to contribute and learn by working iwth marginalized populations. I was convinced that not only would at-risk teens gain invaluable reading and writing skills, but by working with writers/artists the teens would be given the opportunity to channel their energy into an artistic field that potentially engenders a postitive identity. Last spring six graduate students from various writing programs partnered with Four Oaks to teach weekly creative writing and reading workshops. It sounds romantic. It was not. Some of us worked in the evening and some during school hours, coordinating our assignments with the in-house teachers. One week a nine year old girl worte, "I want to be a writer when i grow up and that would be just great for me." At the end of the semester we created a 24 page book of their work.

Brett Janecek
Theatre Arts
Dramaturgy-What!?

What is dramaturgy? An often unknown and ambiguous term, I will use this presentation to describe the historical context of dramaturgy, roles of dramaturgy in the American theatre, and emerging models of dramaturgy in the 21st century. By examining dramaturgy etymological, historical, theatrical, and theoretical lenses, I plan to pose a central question: How can scholars and artists extend the implications of their work in the 21st century? My process of using new media (wiki, facebook, myspace) in the art of theatre creation will be detailed to give examples of ways that dramaturgy inhabits American society and ways that the academy can spread research for the people to the people.

Ann Batenburg
Elementary Education
Davidson Fellows: Case Studies in Science Talent Development

The Davidson Fellowship is a national talent award competition founded by the Davidson Institute in 2001, which awards money to students under the age of 18 who have "completed a significant piece of work" in one of six academic areas. Science winners did projects in alternative energy, AIDS research, nanotechnology, breast cancer research, alternative power sources, and technology to prevent wildfires, among others. Studying how talent develops and what impacts the lives of eminent individuals is a prominent area of gifted education research. One model of talent development in gifted education is the Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT). The DMGT portrays competence or giftedness as the result of the interactions among natural abilities, and environmental and interpersonal catalysts along a developmental process. The main research question for this study is how have the different facets of the talent development process interacted to produce such a high level of competence in science at such a young age in the Davidson Fellows? A multiple-case study procedure will be used to investigate the lives of these students. Interviews will be conducted with the students, their parents, and the mentor for their Fellowship project.

Scott D. Easton
Social Work
Factors that Influence the Long-Term Mental Health of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

O'Leary, P., Coohey, C., & Easton, S.D. (2010).

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts survivors at risk for numerous mental health problems during adulthood.  However, very little is known about which factors are related to poorer long-term outcomes.  The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between abuse severity, disclosure and mental health symptoms.  The sample consisted of 172 adults (80.2%; male=19.8%) who completed semi-structured phone interviews.  The hierarchical regression model found that several factors were related to a greater number of mental health symptoms: incest (.20, p<.05), multiple abusers (.17, p<.05), injury (.17, p<.05), telling someone (.21, p<.01), and not discussing the abuse within one year (-.15, p<.05).  There was a surprising relationship between age and mental health problems: respondents in their 30s and 40s reported more symptoms than those in their 20s or over 50 years of age (.21, p<.01).  The findings buttress previous research on abuse severity and mental health problems for CSA survivors, but offer preliminary insight on the role of disclosure and age.  To identify clients with a higher risk of mental health symptoms and to focus therapeutic interventions, clinicians should incorporate factors such as abuse severity, age and disclosure history into assessments.

Varsha Dhamankar
Pharmacy (PhD)
Localization of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Enzymes in Bovine Olfactory and Respiratory Mucosa

Purpose: Cytochrome P450 is the major family of drug metabolizing enzymes present in the nasal mucosa and their action can limit the systemic bioavailability of drug compounds administered intranasally. The aim of the present study was to characterize the expression of three CYP450 isoforms (2A6, 3A4 and 2C) in bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa using immunohistochemical techniques. Methods: For immunofluorescence studies, formalin fixed and paraffin embedded sections were treated with HIER, blocking, incubations with primary and secondary antibodies against CYP isoforms and examined under a confocal laser-scanning microscope. Results: Immunofluorescence revealed the presence of proteins reacting with anti-CYP antibodies in several regions. The nasal epithelium showed intense staining in the cytoplasmic region of the pseudostratified columnar epithelium and the basal cells. In the submucosal layer, the cells of Bowman's glands were immunopositive. Conclusions: Our immunohistochemical studies showed the presence of CYP 2A6, 3A4 and 2C in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium, the basal cells and the cells of Bowman's glands in bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosa. This distribution pattern indicates that drug molecules may encounter metabolic barriers both when crossing the nasal epithelium and within the submucosal region prior to transfer to systemic circulation.

Erik Asp
Neuroscience
Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Increases Religious Beliefs

In recent years there has been a significant attempt to understand the neuroanatomical basis for religiosity.  To continue this endeavor in human lesion subjects, we developed the Iowa Religiosity Questionnaire, in which we included the Religious Belief Scale (which measured current religious beliefs and change in religious beliefs) and the Revised Religious Fundamentalism Scale, and applied these instruments to patients with bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC). Characteristically, such patients have difficulties with cognitive flexibility and become more reliant on rote responses. This suggests that VMPC damage may act to reduce critical religious thinking, leading to an increased susceptibility to dogmatic doctrines and resulting in increased religious beliefs and increased religious fundamentalism. Congruent with this postulate, we found that VMPC patients reported greater current religious beliefs, significant increases in religious beliefs following their medical event, and greater current religious fundamentalism, compared to medical comparison patients. To account for our findings, we offer a neuroanatomical framework to Spinoza's belief procedure, hypothesizing that the prefrontal cortex is a critical neural structure for the falsification of cognitions.

Daniel Ashwood
Pharmacy (PhD)
Reducing Unintended Pregnancies via Community Pharmacies: Development of Intervention Messages and Materials

Objective: To use data to design social marketing messages/materials for a pharmacy intervention to reduce unintended pregnancies. Methods: Pharmacy Access Partnership social marketing materials were supplemented with 5 Iowa-specific data sources. Data were obtained through (1) advisory board of consumers and pharmacists, (2) 52-item pharmacy fax survey, (3) individual pharmacist phone interviews, (4) four consumer focus groups of 18-30 year olds, and (5) 89-item telephone survey of Iowa women. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Main themes were identified using content analysis of focus groups and phone interview data. Results: The social marketing materials will consist of posters, section signs, educational brochures and shelf-talkers that pharmacists will display. An example of a shelf-talker (5" by 3" sign on shelf next to products) message is "Did you know?" with facts such as "there are more choices than pills and condoms," or "50% of pregnancies in Iowa are not planned." Pharmacists indicated a desire to have materials suggest consumers talk with them. Consumers indicated availability of pharmacists to discuss pregnancy prevention and a private area were important. Conclusion: New social marketing messages were developed for future pharmacy intervention.

Donald Ephraim Curtis
Computer Science
Budgeted Maximum Coverage with Overlapping Costs: Monitoring the Emerging Infections Network

We model the problem of monitoring a listserv, as a type of budgeted maximum coverage problem that we call Budgeted Maximization with Overlapping Costs (BMOC).  Even though BMOC seems superficially similar to the budgeted maximum coverage problem considered by Khuller et al., our problem is fundamentally different from an algorithmic point of view, due to its cost structure.  We observe that the greedy algorithm providing a constant-factor approximation to the budgeted maximum coverage problem can be arbitrarily bad for BMOC and present a reduction to the k-densest subgraph problem indicating that a constant-factor approximation for our problem might be quite challenging.  Nevertheless, experimental runs of the greedy algorithm on the EIN data show that greedy performs remarkably well relative to OPT.  We identify a feature of our EIN data, that we call the overlap condition, and show that the greedy algorithm does indeed yield a constant-factor approximation guarantee if the overlap condition is satisfied.  Using an implementation of the greedy algorithm for BMOC on the EIN data, we identify small sets of ``bellwether'' users who are good predictors of important discussions and provide evidence to show that tracking just these users reduces the cost of monitoring the EIN significantly without causing any important discussions to be missed.

Robert Williams
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Modeling the Nonlinear Anisotropic Behavior of Woven Fabrics

Modeling the mechanics of woven textiles is essential to analyzing the physical performance of clothing systems that consist of layers of woven fabric that are cut and sewn together into desired shapes that conform to the body of the wearer.  An essential aspect of modeling the mechanics of clothing is capturing the stress-strain behaviors of woven fabrics, which invariably feature highly nonlinear, anisotropic, and hysteretic behaviours.  Constitutive models that represent this mechanical behaviour must be properly formulated for invariance under large deformations and rigid body motions.  The objective of this research is first to experimentally measure the mechanical behaviour of clothing fabrics, and secondly to develop realistic yet robust and efficient constitutive models that can be employed in whole-body shell finite element clothing simulations.

Anton Petushkov
Chemistry
Framework Stability of Nanocrystalline NaY in Aqueous Solutions at Varying pH

Nanocrystalline zeolites are emerging as important materials for a variety of potential applications in industry and medicine. Reducing the particle size to less than 100 nm, results in advantages for nanocrystalline zeolites relative to micron-sized zeolite crystals, such as very large total and external specific surface areas and reduced diffusion path lengths. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of zeolite nanocrystals is imperative for further development and application of nanocrystalline zeolites. In this study, the framework stability of nanocrystalline NaY zeolite with a crystal size of 66 nm and Si/Al=1.74 was investigated at pH = 7.4, 4, 2 and 1. As the acidity of the medium increased, the framework stability of nanocrystalline NaY decreased. Treatment of the zeolite samples at pH = 1 resulted in complete degradation of the zeolite framework after 1 h. An increase in Si/Al was also observed suggesting selective removal of aluminum at low pH.

We also discuss the framework stability of nanocrystalline NaY zeolite, whose surface was functionalized with chloropropyl and polyethyleneimine groups. The functionalized zeolite samples were treated in a phosphate buffer at pH = 7.4 for up to 10 days. The presence of organic groups on the external surface of the zeolite crystals resulted in a lower release of silicon and aluminum from the zeolite framework.

Sarah Snydacker
Music
Body Alignment: A Singer's Preparation for Practice & Performance.

Great singing results from musicality and artistry built on the foundation of a healthy instrument. The entire body is a singer’s instrument. Proper body alignment must be achieved and maintained for the health of the singing mechanism. Elements from movement methods, such as the Alexander Technique, Laban Movement Studies, Bartinieth Fundamentals,Feldenkrais Technique, and Yoga and Pilates methods, can be combined to create an individualized routine to suit a singer’s alignment needs. With proper alignment, a singer may be able to enhance aspects of the voice, including breath management, freedom in movement of the larynx and the release of tension throughout the body. Other benefits of alignment exercises for singers include the promotion of body awareness to decrease the occurrence of injury to the voice, the management of performance anxiety, and the encouragement of focus and visualization in a singer’s performance.

Tony O. Pomales
Anthropology
A Manifesto for Interrogating Male Heterosexuality and Hegemonic Masculinity

In his essay, The Missing Gamete? Ten Common Mistakes or Lies about Men’s Sexual Destiny, Matthew Gutmann challenges scholars of gender and sexuality to find new ways of unsettling “the myth of men’s sexual destiny." In order to accomplish this feat, he proposes that we begin by “extending and developing the feminist and queer literatures on sexuality…so that if male heterosexualities are no longer seen as compulsory, neither will they be necessarily and generally understood as compulsive."  While Gutmann has not looked to feminist studies of empire or (post)coloniality in proposing his challenge to scholars of gender and sexuality, and has only engaged with a select group of queer theorists, I contend that the works of interdisciplinary scholars such as Anne McClintock, Ann Laura Stoler, Judith Halberstam, Juana María Rodríguez, and José Esteban Muñoz do offer insightful theoretical and analytical tools from which to interrogate the vantage point of male heterosexuality and hegemonic masculinity. They also provide invaluable strategies for deconstructing complex relations of power across time and space by destabilizing the bonds between men and masculinity and between women and femininity. The paper ends with an account of interrogating male heterosexuality and hegemonic masculinity from my fieldwork experience in San Jose, Costa Rica on the practice of vasectomy.

Elisabeth Erickson
Health and Sport Studies
Do Girls Stay on the Run?: An Examination of Healthy Behaviors Following Girls on the Run Participation

Girls on the Run-Johnson County isin its third year of offering girls in the Iowa City Community School Districtan opportunity to learn about themselves, their teammates, and their communitythrough a program that helps them train to complete a 5K race. More than 200girls have completed a season with GOTR-JoCo, but what do they remember threemonths after their season ends? How are they living out the lessons that theylearn about healthy eating, being a good friend, and staying physically active?Through a questionnaire, an interview, and the use of the draw-and-writetechnique, we will examine what GOTR-JoCo alumni internalize and how they livethose lessons in their daily lives after their season ends. Additionally, wewill give GOTR-JoCo the results in a format that will be easy to use whenapplying for grants or visiting with current and potential donors. 

Meredith Petrie
Geoscience
Microstructures and Mineral Chemistries of the Whitestone Anorthosite, Grenville Province, Canada

Fluid-rock interactions within deep orogenic crust are investigated using microstructures and mineral chemistries from the Whitestone Anorthosite (WSA), an anorthositic-leucogabbroic sill deformed in an upper amphibolite facies shear zone in the Grenville Province of southern Ontario. During orogenesis ca. 1160 Ma, the WSA was metamorphosed to granulite facies before sustaining deformation along its margins due to shear along the Parry Sound Shear Zone, a 1-3 km wide ductile shear zone separating high grade lithotectonic terranes. The undeformed core of the WSA preserves relict igneous textures and the granulite facies assemblage. Deformed margins comprise planar fabrics of centimeter- to meter-scale anastomosing shear zones. Least deformed rocks exhibit two morphologically and chemically distinct types of hornblende after clinopyroxene. A monophase hornblende rim surrounds a hornblende-quartz symplectitic core. Rim hornblende are enriched in Fe and Al relative to core hornblende. Moderately- to highly-strained rocks exhibit similar Fe and Al hornblende chemistries morphology. In moderately- to highly-strained rocks plagioclase shows a correlation between recrystallization and Ab content. Reconstruction of the relative timing of the microstructural and chemical evolution between high-and low-strain zones provides evidence for fluid-rock interactions unrelated toactive strain.

Erin MG Allen
Pharmacy (PhD)
The Structure-Activity Relationship of Dieldrin, an Organochlorine Pesticide

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive disorder that leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons inthe substantia nigra. This neurodegeneration has been shown to correlate with anumber of environmental factors, including exposure to pesticides such asdieldrin (DI). This pesticide is ranked one of the twelve most persistent,bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals by the US EPA. Previous studies found anincreased concentration of DI in the brains of PD patients, and that DI adversely affects a number of cellular processes known to increase the likelihoodof developing PD. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for DI-mediated cellular dysfunction has not been defined. The hypothesis of this study is that the toxicity profile is unique for each analog of DI, indicative of astructure-activity relationship. In order to test this hypothesis, analogs of DIwere used in various cellular assays using dopaminergic PC6-3 cells. These experiments assessed mitochondrial activity, the cytotoxicity of each compound, and quantified extracellular dopamine metabolites. The results of these experiments indicate astructure-specific effect that will be very important for elucidating the mechanisms of DI toxicity as they relate to PD.

Jeffrey R. Yager
Biomedical Engineering
Increased choline measured with MR Spectroscopy in cancer patients with delirium.

Cancer patients undergoing a bone marrow transplant (BMT) are at high risk for developing delirium andProton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) could lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology. Methods Fourteen BMT patients and 10 controls completed 1H-MRS within 48 hours of delirium onset or at study end if no delirium occurred. Results A statistically significant NAA/Cho decrease was found in the BMT-delirium group, in contrast to the controls (p=0.01). Both Cho/Cr increase and NAA/Cho decrease were found compared to the BMT-no delirium group (p<0.05; P=0.04). Conclusions Elevated choline may indicate increased phospholipid turnover in delirium. Further research is needed to separate the choline peaks and determine whether increased choline is a function of the delirium process or cancer treatment effects.