James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2011

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John Kaufmann
Theatre Arts
Teaching Acting Using the S.O.W Method

For the past six semesters I have taught Art ofthe Theatre at the University of Iowa. In consultation with my course supervisor, I have developed exercises and curriculum for the class. In doings so, I have created and practiced an original teaching tool I call the S.O.W. method of actor training.  The S.O.W. method breaks acting down into easily relatable and remembered keys, and has worked well in training students with little or no acting experience. Following the method helps students gain skills and confidence in both theatre and their everyday lives as they explore their sense of Self, their Openness to others, and how they pursue what they Want.

Kisha Lewellyn Schlegel
English-Nonfiction Writing

A personal essay that explores the awkward ways we connect with each other.

Laurie Eckert
Pharmacy (PhD)
Interaction of an Endogenous Neurotoxin, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, and Microglia: Metabolism, Toxicity, and Activation

The cause of dopaminergic cell death for Parkinson's Disease (PD) is unknown, but recent research indicates oxidative stress, inflammation, and the endogenous neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), play roles in PD pathogenesis. DOPAL is generated from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase and oxidized to DOPAC, the acid metabolite, by aldehyde dehydrogenase. The aldehyde is highly toxic to dopaminergic cells and must be rapidly metabolized to avoid adverse effects. Interaction of DOPAL with non-neuronal cells (e.g., microglia), including metabolism, activation, and toxicity is unknown. Microglia are activated via DA-protein adducts, especially in PD-affected areas of the brain. The unknown mechanism of activation could be due to DOPAL or DOPAL-protein adducts. Activated microglia can damage dopaminergic cells through phagocytic activity and ROS and proinflammatory cytokine production. The ability of DA metabolites (e.g. DOPAL) to activate BV-2 microglial cells was shown in this report by TNF-α release. Metabolism and toxicity of DA and DOPAL were determined for BV-2 cells, and it was found microglia metabolize DA to DOPAC via DOPAL. Greater cytotoxicity was observed in cells treated with DOPAL than DA. DOPAL-mediated microglial activation as demonstrated in this study could be a mechanism for inflammation and dopaminergic cell death seen in PD patients.

Jason Whisler
Class in the 1968 Presidential Election

This paper is an early step toward a dissertation in the History department that will address the issue of working-class conservatism in the late-twentieth century.  The focus here is the pivotal 1968 presidential election and attempts to explain the role that working-class consciousness played in voters' choices and in candidates' campaigns.

Vanessa Nakoski
American Studies
Pan's Labyrinth: The Fantastic as Social Commentary

Where do we draw the line between allegory and critique? Can a text, especially a fantastic text, make a statement about culture and society without falling into the trap of allegory? Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth negotiates this careful balance in interesting ways. Through careful editing and narrative structure, this film manages to be in the genre of the fantastic while also expressing powerful social commentary.

Elizabeth Westlake
Urban and Regional Planning
Perception of Driver Distraction Among Teenage Drivers

Teenage drivers have been shown to have some of the highest crash risks.  Crash data can provide insights on some factors related to crash likelihood, but rarely caputre driver distraction due to unavailability or underreporting of data.  The study goal is to assess teenage driver's opinions and perceptions of driver distraction in order to understand what types of distractions may not be captured in crash data but should be considered.  A survey of 1,893 Iowa teenagers was conducted to determine which activities teenage drivers frequently engage in while driving.  These responses were compared to those activities they consider distracting.  A cluster analysis was conducted based on their indicated engagement in distracting activities; three groups emerged, classified in therms of infrequent engagers, moderate engagers and frequent engagers. 

Over 80% of survey respondents in each cluster group considered text messaging to be distracting.  Frequent engagers reported more texting while driving even though they considered texting to be distracting.  Infrequent engagers rarely text messaged.  In general, survey results indicate a large proportion of teenage drivers often engage in activities they know are distracting, potentially putting themselves in danger.  This study investigates teenage perceptions that cannot be obtained through observations or crash data.

Suman Ghorai
Hygroscopic and chemical properties of aerosols studied by single particle Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

Single ParticleScanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Near Edge X-ray AbsorptionFine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS) have been successfully used for the firsttime to study the hygroscopic properties of different aerosols. An array ofinorganic aerosols, namely NaCl, NaBr, NaI, NaNO3, and an organicaerosol (malonic acid) deposited on silicon nitride substrate havebeen characterized using STXM at different relative humidity. The hygroscopicproperties obtained using this novel approach are in excellent agreement withthe Deliquescence and Efflorescence relative humidity (DRH and ERH) valuesreported in the literature. Additionally, NEXAFS was used to demonstrate the existence ofwater-halide complex after the deliquescence. Moreover, the NEXAFS spectra ofmalonic acid aerosols at high relative humidity show an interestingisomerization reaction, which can potentially enhance the warming effect of theatmosphere as well as affect the efficiency of specific atmosphericphotochemical reaction.

Yi-Lung Kuo
Educational Psychology
Psychometrician’s Personality Traits: A University of Iowa Scaling Study

The purpose of this study was to investigate which personality traits are important for success as a psychometrician at a testing company. Involving 32 graduate students in educational measurement and educational psychology programs at the University of Iowa, given a paired comparison technique, two scaling procedures were conducted: (1) the unweighted least squares estimates of scale values under the Thurstone's law of comparative judgment; and (2) the non-metric multidimensional scaling. Twelve personality characteristics, including Discipline, Carefulness, Cooperation, Striving, Stability, Order, Savvy, Creativity, Influence, Sociability, Optimism, and Goodwill, from ACT WorkKeys Talent Assessment were used to investigate graduate students' views of what personality traits make a successful psychometrician in the workforce. The results show that Discipline, Carefulness, and Cooperation are considered the three most important personality characteristics. In contrast, Goodwill, Optimism, and Sociability are considered the three least important personality traits. Also, two unique types of psychometrician's personality traits, peripheral and core traits are discussed. The contribution of this study is to inform university educational measurement educators the importance of personality traits, which might lead to career success in the field of psychometrics beyond expertise.

Stephanie A. Mueller
Conflicting Urban and Rural National Ideologies in the Spanish Costumbrista Writings of Ramon de Mesonero Romanos and Antonio de Trueba

Spanish costumbrista writer Ramon de Mesonero Romanos (1803-1882) spent his life observing and portraying Madrid's rapidly changing society, and in the process helped to shape Spanish national identity. Mesonero upheld Madrid's bourgeoisie as representative of true Spanish character, promoting a centralizing moderate liberalism that attempted to wipe out Spain's peripheral cultures. Like Mesonero, Antonio de Trueba (1819-1889) dedicated his lengthy literary career to depicting the population surrounding him, in his case the Basque region of northern Spain. Ideologically, Trueba's work clashes with Mesonero's, specifically in its attacks on liberalism, praise of the Catholic Church, identification with the rural working class, promotion of Basque foral rights, and Carlist support. Also unlike Mesonero, Trueba has not been kindly received by literary critics; Trueba, along with Basque Carlism as a whole, is generally accused of promoting neocatholicism, patriarchy, and backwards traditionalism. Through a comparative analysis of the costumbrista writings of Mesonero and Trueba, I will demonstrate that the ideology underlying Trueba's work is far more paradoxical and ambiguous than has been previously recognized, reflecting the deep contradictions among Basque Carlist sympathizers who were fearful of the powerful centralizing tendencies of Spanish liberalism.

Andrew Hanson-Dvoracek
Classic Rock Radio and the Dual Masculinities of Freddie Mercury

The death of Freddie Mercury, like Rock Hudson's before him, brought the reality of the AIDS epidemic into the lives that had yet to engage with the disease. In America, it was primarily white middle-class heterosexual males who had, in most cases, grown up listening to the music of Queen on classic rock radio stations around the country. It was the combination of these institutions that lead Mercury's death to have such resonance with this demographic. In this paper, I will describe how classic rock radio and other methods of transmission constructed Freddie Mercury as a symbol of AIDS to a population who was ignorant or dismissive of the disease.

Katha Sheth
Biomedical Engineering
Controls-Based Motion Prediction

It is always exciting to watch movies like ‘avatar' and contemplate where science fiction is headed. However, there are considerable challenges in predicting and controlling human-like motion of even a "virtual avatar". In our current work, we try to solve some of these challenges using Model Predictive Control (MPC). This approach permits a virtual human to react online to unanticipated disturbances that occur in course of performing a task. Success of this approach would be based on how realistically the virtual avatar can react to disturbances found in nature while performing a task. In particular, we predict the motion of the virtual avatar in response to two different types of real world disturbances: impulsive and sustained. This stands in contrast to prior approaches where all such disturbances need to be known a priori and the optimal reactions must be computed off line. We validate this approach using a planar 3 dof serial chain mechanism to imitate the human arm. The response of the virtual human arm to various inputs and external disturbances is determined by solving the Equations of Motion (EOM). The control input is determined by the MPC Controller using only the current and desired states of the system.

Nikhil Sikka
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Self Selection Bias in Driver Distraction and It's Effect on Crash Type Modeling

Over the last decade, driver distractions, such as cell phone use and texting has become a significant contributor to roadway crashes. States have acknowledged this by considering legislation that severely restricts or bans driver activities deemed distracting. Many policies and engineered countermeasures are based on self-reported crash data. This raises the issue of potential bias and when not controlled for in analysis supporting policy decisions can lead to poor commitment of public resources.
In this study, we explore the impact of self-selection bias caused by self-reporting driver distraction has on the likelihood estimates of being involved vehicle crashes. Using the method suggested by Heckman (1979), we test for selection bias, control for the bias when present, and interpret their impact on conclusions draw by other studies.
We find that selection bias is present in the national database, a database often used to help evaluate policy and engineering options. We show that previous studies underestimate the likelihood of being involved in rear-end crashes because selection bias is not taken into account. As a result, the forecast of potential savings of countermeasure policies or in-vehicle devices will be underestimated. This may lead to inefficient allocation of public resources.

Angela Lickiss
Aspects of dance and improvisation in Ross Edwards's Solo oboe works

Ross Edwards (b. 1943) is a Australian composer who has written two works for solo oboe, "Yanada" and "Ulpirra". Both of these works illustrate Edwards's aesthetic of portraying his Australian hertiage through his use of aboriginal titles, dance aspects, and improvisation. There will be a brief explanation of these traits with a performance following.

Tim Paschkewitz
Electrochemical Ammonia Production from Polymer-Immobilized Nitrogenase Enzymes

The majority of power generated worldwide is from combusting fossil fuels. Alternative fuels and power generation systems are needed to mitigate increasing taxes tied to increasing energy demands. Ammonia shows promise for use in power generation, however it is costly to produce (via the Haber-Bosch synthesis) and very few methods of using it as a fuel are developed. This research aims to design and test a device that enzymatically generates ammonia and small amounts of hydrogen. The proposed ammonia-generating device consists of an electrode modified with a polymer that contains nitrogenase enzymes harvested from Anabaena variabilis, a blue-green algae. The biochemical process of fixing nitrogen to produce ammonia requires a significant amount of cellular energy. In this system, the electrode will supply much of the energy required to drive the reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. Based upon biological and electrochemical methods, the device should catalytically generate ammonia and hydrogen from atmospheric nitrogen and is called a bioelectrocatalytic device. Ideally, the energy expended in powering this reaction will be significantly lower than that of commercial ammonia cracking technology. Preliminary studies have shown that chemically altering the cell media improves the yield of ammonia by more than a ten-fold increase.

Heung Chan Lee
Hydrogen production using light on magnetically modified p-Si electrodes

P-Si electrodes modified with composite of magnetic beads and Nafion were used for photoelectrosynthetic hydrogen evolution generation. Photoelectrosynthetic hydrogen evolution on semiconductor electrodes has been intensively studied as a sustainable energy source. But slow kinetics of hydrogen evolution on a semiconductor surface have been major limitations for silicon as an energy conversion material. It has been demonstrated that modification of electrodes with magnetic beads improves kinetics in certain electrochemical systems. In this project, potential sweep voltammograms were used to evaluate current potential profile of hydrogen evolution on magnetically modified p-Si in Nafion, Nafion only coated p-Si, and bare p-Si electrodes under illumination produced by a solar simulator. Various photoelectrosynthetic were also measured such as a pH dependence, a crystallographic a plane effect, a doping level effect, a magnetic particle loading effect and open circuit potentials (Voc) and, finally, magnetically modified electrodes were compared with a platinum electrode. Maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.2% was achieved on a magnetically modified electrode. This enhancement could be due to improved heterogeneous electron transfer kinetic or restrained surface recombination rate or combination of them under magnetic field.

David G. Anderson
Pharmacy (PhD)
Oxidation and Nucleophilic Reactivity of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a Toxic Intermediate of Dopamine Metabolite

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deathof dopaminergic neurons in the brain and intraneuronal protein aggregates, whichleads to loss of both motor and cognitive functions. Dopamine and its metabolites are believed to be involved in the disease pathogenesis, as they aretoxic to relevant cellular models. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is aparticularly toxic compound capable of forming protein cross-links and reactingwith primary amines such as N-acetyl lysine. The auto-oxidation of dopamine toa quinone is known to contribute to its toxicity. However, the role of a DOPALquinone species in PD is not established. This led us to hypothesize that DOPALis also capable of an oxidation that results in increased reactivity withcellular nucleophiles and proteins. Here, I have shown that DOPAL does undergosuch an oxidation, and that the oxidized species demonstrates increasedreactivity with thiols and enhanced cross-linking of a model protein, ascompared to non-oxidized DOPAL. I have also demonstrated the involvement of an oxidationstep in the mechanism of reactivity with primary amines. These experiments supportthe potential role of a DOPAL quinone species as relevant to PD.

Kristi Law
Social Work
Enrich Yourself and Your Community: Engage With Your State Legislator!

Multicultural community organizing requires that the community organizer understands and value the cultures and social location of multiple community groups in order to address social justice and oppression (Gutiérrez, Alvarez, Nemon & Lewis, 1996).  Policy making occurs with input from lobbyists, business leaders, educators, and others interested in issues.  Community members must engage with this process if progressive change is going to happen, because they are the experts!  If properly skilled community members can be a catalyst, policy change will be progressive.  This project's purpose is to connect community members who possess a wealth of knowledge pertaining to issues on the ground with the decision makers who ultimately make the policy decisions directly impacting their communities.  From a curriculum designed to garner support around an important issue, like child care assistance, community members of the Broadway Neighborhood Association will acquire skills to advocate on behalf of their community.  Self advocacy will allow them to have direct impact and influence with their local decision makers in the Iowa State Legislature ultimately improving their quality of life.

Nikolas Dickerson
Health and Sport Studies
Last Dance with Mary Jane: Phelps, race and the nation

In the summer of 2008 OlympianMichael Phelps captivated the hearts of many as he became the first Olympian,to capture eight gold medals in a single Olympics. In February of 2009 Phelpsexperienced a slight slip from grace, when he appeared on the cover of aBritish tabloid smoking a bong. Historically, drug use is an aspect of sociallife that has been adapted by right-wing rhetoricians to symbolize theirresponsible, and deviant “soft body” “of the non-White urbanite” (Andrews,1996, p.131). This paper uses newspaper and magazine coverage, as well as blogsto explore the narratives of race, gender, and nation that are mapped onto thebody of Michael Phelps before and after his now famous photo. In thecontemporary political sphere the Obama administration has restricted theability of federal agents to raid medical marijuana dispensaries, and there hasbeen a fair amount of discussion regarding the legalization of pot inCalifornia to help solve the states budget crisis. Thus, this paper intends touse articulation to explore the connections between conflicts over medicalmarijuana, state legalization, and the narratives of professional athletes thatadmittedly or allegedly engage in recreation marijuana use.

Evelyn Bottando
Communication Studies
Google Books and the Nature of Academic Production: The Promise and Perils of Digitization

With the advent of the world wide web and widespread use of digital technology, university libraries face the need to digitize in a world where copyright restrictions can make this process difficult and shortages of funding leave digitization projects with long completion timelines. Google's offer to partner with libraries seeks to fill the gap by offering libraries digital copies of their holdings gratis. While tempting, Google Books presents the intrusion of a private company into a great public good - the library system. This paper will examine the promise and perils of Google's book digitization project to better understand the implications for knowledge production in the twenty-first century.

senthilkumar PK
Human Toxicology
A Hidden Novel Mechanism Of Suppression Of Telomerase And Erosion Of Telomeres By PCB Congeners And Its Synthetic Mixture

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), a group of 209 different congeners, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are classified as probable human carcinogens. We hypothesized that exposure of PCBs can affect the telomerase activity, telomere length and cell cycle distribution. To explore this possibility we exposed immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCat) to PCB congeners 126, 153 and a synthetic Chicago Air Mixture (CAM) at a concentration of 5uM for eight weeks. Cells were trypsinized, counted, and re-seeded at low density every sixth day. The remaining cells were used to measure cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry and telomerase activity and telomere length by RT-PCR. The cell cycle distribution was similar in all treatment groups except PCB126, where a doubling of cells in the S-phase was observed. CAM produced a significant reduction in telomerase activity from week three to eight. PCB126 and PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity from the first week on, reaching an almost 50% reduction of activity by week eight. In PCB126- and PCB153-treated groups telomeres began to shorten at week five and lost 40% of its mean length in week eight. In summary, PCB congeners and the CAM reduced telomerase activity and telomere length, indicating that constant exposure to these compounds could lead to premature senescence, genomic instability and cancer.

Jong Sung Kim
Human Toxicology
In vitro Dynamic Exposure Model (IVDEM) for Air Delivery of Nanomaterials to Cells

In vitro exposure of cells to nanoparticles is usually performed in submerged culture media. However, such exposure systems have some limitations: nanoparticle agglomeration and dispersion problems, interaction between nanoparticles and media, not mimicking alveolarepithelium condition in vivo. Thus, establishing an in vitro exposure system that overcomes these limitations is needed to more accurately and efficiently assess nanoparticle toxicity. In this study, we developed a reproducible dynamic exposure model (IVDEM)capable of generating NP aerosols and depositing nanoparticles directly onto cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). An IVDEM was validated by evaluating efficiency and distribution of particle deposition and effects of exposure conditions in the system on viability of A549 cells (human alveolartype-II-like cells). Deposition efficiency of fluorescein particles was 71.30 ±2.35% with 1.25 ± 0.09 µg (2 h) deposited per transwell. Polystyrene particleswere observed to be evenly deposited on the entire membrane. Thus, an IVDEM to assess nanoparticle toxicity allows efficient, uniform, dosing control of particle deposition. This model can provide a dynamic and continuousair-exposure of lung cells to nanoparticles without mechanical damage of cells.Therefore, the exposure of lung cells at the ALI has a significant potentialfor screening nanoparticle toxicity.

Tatiana Mishanina
Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase: Studies of Kinetic and Chemical Mechanisms

The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) to form 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), one of the DNA nucleotides. The well-studied classical TSs, encoded by thyA gene, carry out thymidylate biosynthesis in eukaryotes, including humans. Many human pathogenic organisms, however, utilize the recently discovered flavin-dependent thymidylate synthases (FDTSs) for dTMP production [Myllykallio et al., Science 297, 105-107 (2002)]. FDTSs, encoded by thyX gene, follow a mechanism distinct from that of classical TS, thus presenting a promising target for antibiotics with low human toxicity. An unusual FDTS mechanism has been proposed in the recent issue of Nature [Koehn et al., Nature 458, 919-924 (2009)]. The current work presents the effort towards trapping, isolation and characterization of any intermediate(s) in FDTS-catalyzed reaction, which will illuminate this enzyme's chemical mechanism and assist in inhibitor and drug design. Furthermore, by analogy to other flavoproteins, FDTS can act as an oxidase catalyzing the reduction of O2 to produce H2O2. Kinetic studies, utilizing FDTS's oxidase activity to reveal the order of substrate binding and product release during its synthase reaction, are presented.

Randye Jones
Approaching the Negro Spiritual in Perfrormance

The American Negro spiritual is a folk music that served as a means for its creators—peoples stripped of their native lands and cultures—to survive and thrive despite the indignities and deprivations of slavery.  Their songs expressed abiding faith, deep sorrow in loss, and great joy in the hope for freedom.  Decades after slavery officially ended in the United States, composers began using these spirituals as source material for songs intended for concert performance.  Early settings reflected the composers’ goal to retain as much of the “feel” of the original spiritual as possible.  Over the years, however, compositions have become more tonally and rhythmically complex and reflect a wider range of stylistic influences.

When programming a spiritual, the vocalist must consider whether the song suits the musicians' skills as well as the framework of the rest of the program.   The singer may select from a growing body of settings of familiar and lesser-known spirituals that present a variety of musical and interpretative challenges. This lecture-recital will demonstrate three different approaches to the famed spiritual, "Let Us Break Bread Together," by composers William Lawrence, John Carter, and Moses Hogan, and address each setting's impact on a concert--or a church service.

Elham Kateeb
Oral Science
Does (ART) have a place in the US dental schools curricula? A survey of pre-doctoral Pediatric Dentistry programs

A dearth of data exists regarding the training provided to dental residents about Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in the US.  The extent of clinical training in ART provided in US Pediatric Dentistry Residency programs was investigated using a survey of Pediatric Dentistry Residency Program Directors. Directors were asked about their attitude towards ART and the amount of training they provide to the residents about the use of ART with pediatric patients. We asked Directors throughout the US to complete an online survey in May, 2010. Sixty-one of the 76 Directors surveyed completed the survey for an 80% response rate, with no significant response bias. Seventy five percent (n=43) of the responding programs provided clinical instruction on ART. Of these, 30% (n=18) provide this training often or very often. The training provided included single surface cavities in primary teeth (43%), interim treatment in primary teeth (57%), definitive treatment in primary teeth (24%), and in multi-surface cavities in primary teeth (15%). ART was rarely taught for multi-surface cavities for permanent teeth (4%) or for definitive treatment in permanent teeth (2%). Analysis of attitudes indicates that directors who spend more time in direct patient care are more negative about ART, while directors who believe that the age and behavior of children is important in treatment decisions are more positive about ART. Directors who believe ART can be effective in treating very young children or those with limited resources teach ART more.

Samantha Shune
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The association between dysphagia severity and survival in patients with head and neck cancer

Background: Dysphagia is a common, potentially life-threatening occurrence in patients with head and neck cancer that can result in malnutrition, compromised pulmonary function, social isolation, and depression – all indicators of decreased quantity and quality of life. The goal of this study was to determine risk factors for dysphagia and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival.

Methods: Billing data were used to identify which patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January, 2001, and April, 2003, had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia.

Results: Almost half of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumor site. The most severe dysphagia (NPO status) was the strongest independent predictor of survival.

Conclusions: Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and post-treatment care. Because of dysphagia’s high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions. 

Daniel C. Faltesek
Communication Studies
Seven and a Seventh

Fellini, Shatner, Skateboard, Swordfight.  Words that are rarely seen together.  This seven minute film pushes the long take to the limit.

Danny Kang
Korean Nominal Phrase Structure

Phrases, such as noun phrases or prepositional phrases, are a basic unit of language. It is said that phrases have a hierarchical structure where larger units embed smaller ones. In this study, I examine the noun phrase of Korean and propose its structure. In doing so, I assume the principles of Noam Chomsky’s (1995) Minimalist Program. I focus on two aspects of the noun phrase: (i) possible elements within the phrase; (ii) syntactic facts necessary to determine structural positions of these element. Regarding the first aspect, the answer to the question What is in the phrase? reveals an array of modifiers that either precede or follow the noun, the central element of the phrase. Relevant syntactic facts include linear position, positional flexibility, scope relation, and structural ambiguities among these modifiers. The findings include, first, that the nominal taN, which has been studied little, is the rightmost element in the phrase and is analyzed as a universal quantifier. Second, the numeral modifier, also known as floating quantifier, does not “float”; its original position is either before or after the noun. Third, modifiers following the noun constitute larger categories that subcategorize the noun, while those that precede the noun are part of the noun phrase.

Vanessa Nakoski
American Studies
Frustrations on the Frontier: A Close-Up Look at "Duel in the Sun"

Was Duel in the Sun a successful attempt to disrupt patriarchy, racism, or imperialism? Certainly not. However, this does not mean that we can ignore the potential of Melodrama to challenge the stereotypically oppressive conventions of the Western.  We also cannot ignore the possibility that this film was upsetting in potentially constructive ways to contemporary viewers.  Women in the audience were invited to identify with Vashti, Laura Belle, Helen, and Pearl and then, through that identification, suffer the frustrations of constrained womanhood.  Through its use of bodily expression, dramatic irony, and woman-driven plots, Duel in the Sun provides a variety of possible readings, and does meaningful cultural work, however unintentional.  

Adam J. Case
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Perturbation of mitochondrial superoxide flux inhibits ferrochelatase in hematopoietic stem cells to cause an erythropoietic protoporphyria-like phenotype

Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a disease characterized by anemia, photosensitivity reactions in the skin, and liver dysfunction. Inactivation of the heme synthesis enzyme ferrochelatase (FECH) is the acknowledged cause for the disease. While approximately 90% of all cases of EPP present with a known FECH mutation, the remainder have no identified etiology. Furthermore, severity of the disease varies among different patients with the same mutation. These data suggest other contributing factors in the pathogenesis of EPP. Because iron-sulfur containing enzymes including FECH are sensitive to inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial superoxide may be an undiscovered factor in EPP. To test this, we used a manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) knock-out mouse with deletion targeted to the hematopoietic system. Conditional loss of SOD2 led to increased hematopoietic superoxide concentrations, which caused significant pathology including disruption of heme synthesis, erythrocyte damage, excess non-metalated porphyrins, and skin and liver dysfunction. Inactivation of FECH was identified as the mechanism underlying the pathology. Moreover, mitochondrially-targeted superoxide-scavenging anti-oxidants were able to rescue the observed phenotype. These findings suggest a potential novel role for superoxide in the pathogenesis of EPP, and present viable new anti-oxidant therapies for these patients.

Andrew J. Leman
Social Foundations of Education
“This used to be a great school”: Urban Gentrification and the Remaking of a Midwestern High School

Urban gentrification has resulted in families leaving urban schooling contexts to integrate into other parts of their original cities, or leaving altogether for new locales.  Faced with increasing minority populations, school districts are confronted with a wide array of challenges in dealing with new families and students.  This case deals with a principal’s failure to react to an influx of students who do not share the same cultural values as the school that they are thrust into due to a new district policy.  The principal is terminated and his replacement is confronted with numerous dilemmas including: a frustrated constituency, bad press, fragmented faculty, and a student body that is somewhat fearful for their own safety.

Melissa McAninch
Mathematics Education
A Closer Look at Saxon Course 3: An Alignment with the Common Core State Standards

       Alignment of curriculum is important in our efforts to improve student achievement in mathematics.  Currently, each state has adopted content frameworks with assessment designed to measure student mastery of the expectations outlined in the frameworks.  School districts are most likely to adopt textbooks closely aligned with these frameworks.  Saxon textbooks have been used in schools throughout the United States with the goal of improved achievement.  With the release of the Common Core Standards, assessment in the United States will soon be changing.  Will our textbooks also need to change?

       This study will use the content focus criteria of categorical concurrence, outlined in Webb’s Criteria for Alignment of Expectations and Assessments in Mathematics and Science Education (1997), to judge the alignment of Saxon’s Course 3 textbook with the Common Core Standards for eighth grade.  Categorical concurrence is achieved if topic headings and subheadings of content appear in both.  A following study will compare the depth of knowledge present in the Course 3 textbook to the expectations set forth by the Common Core Standards, which will later allow for judging alignment with new assessments.

Mieke Eerkens
English-Nonfiction Writing
The Memories We Don't Have: Inheriting My Father's War

In World War II, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, a former colony of the Dutch, along with many Asian nations in the Pacific. Little known to many people in the West is that the Japanese established concentration camps and interned hundreds of thousands of people during their occupation, and that an estimated 3 to 10 million people died at their hands. My father, a Dutch citizen, was 10 years old at the time, and considered by the Japanese to have reached the age of a man. He was separated from his family during the war and put into a men's labor camp. Over one third of his campmates died, but though he nearly starved to death, my father survived through a remarkable display of resilience and self-reliance. In this creative essay, I explore the psychological effects this period had on him, and how it carried over into my own life growing up in a household that carried unexpressed war trauma. Through external research and several taped interviews with my father, I attempt to document his experiences as a vital part of world history, but also as a personal journey to understand my father and ultimately, myself.

Angela Lickiss
The Meeting of Pärt and Bach in "Collage über B-A-C-H"

Arvo Pärt's Collage über B-A-C-H written in 1982 represents the height of Pärt's obsession with Bach. Collage is solidly situated in Pärt's post-modern aesthetic utilizing his tintinnabuli style and
serialist techniques, however all three movements, Toccata, Sarabande, and Ricercare, carry certain connotations referring to older music. The Toccata's compositional process is simple and clear, like both the Baroque style and Pärt's tintinnabuli. The Sarabande contains the most overt reference to Bach and his music. Pärt includes the B-A-C-H motif throughout the movement and lifts entire sections of Bach's Sixth English Suite, orchestrated from the original solo harpsichord into a more typical Baroque instrumentation. The Ricercare is the movement that closest resembles the early definition of a ricercare, a polyphonic work utilizing contrapuntal imitation. This blending of the old and new material and techniques gives this work a feeling of disjuncture while still maintaining two distinct voices. As Lyn Henderson states in “A solitary genius: the establishment of Part's technique (1958-68),” “far from undermining the serial element, [tonality] will be required to cohabitat with it, in a free association of styles.”

I will first break down the inherent meanings to the titles given to each of the movements and identify specific examples, in each movement, of the blending of old and new compositional styles. I
will also examine Collage to identify compositional practices more commonly associated with Pärt's post-1964 style. Then I will compare one of Bach's, the Adagio from Bach's Easter Oratorio BWV 249, instrumentation examples that is similar to Pärt's Sarabande. I will then use both of these results to demonstrate how the juxtaposition of Baroque and modernist aesthetics re-contextualizes both on an audible level.

Anna L. Bostwick Flaming
Recording and Preserving Women's History

It all began with a simple question.  What have women at Iowa done?  The result was Women at Iowa, an oral history program airing on the university television station UITV.  Now in its third season, the program interviews women about their work, experience, and history.  Episodes have featured Civil Rights activists, an organizer of the Iowa Women’s Music Festival; a doula and midwifery advocate; a law professor who helped South Africa to draft its constitution; and a former president of the University of Iowa’s graduate student labor union.  The show uses trained oral historians to inform community members about the work and lives of Iowa women and to preserve the history of women for future generations.  My 2011 Obermann Institute project is to create a how-to handbook for Women at Iowa that we can use to respond to inquiries from other higher education institutions about creating a similar program and to ensure the continuation of the program after key participants graduate.  With suggestions from other institutions about what sorts of information will be most useful to them, the handbook will analyze our successful alliances with the Iowa Women’s Archives, with UITV, and with activists in the community.

Imali Ama Mudunkotuwa
Citric Acid Adsorption on TiO2 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions

With the increasing use of nanoscale TiO2, recent studies show convincing evidence of its presence in the environment. Citric acid is a common organic acid in nature and plays an important role as a stabilizer in nanomaterial syntheses. Surface adsorbed ligands affect the surface chemistry of nanomaterials and ultimately determine their fate and transformation in the environment. Therefore, this study is focused on the adsorption of citric acid onto TiO nanoparticles (d=4 nm) at circumneutral and acidic pHs. The primary focus of the studies is given on the details of the surface chemistry of citric acid on TiO2, including measurements of surface coverage, speciation and its impact on nanoparticle behavior. Using macroscopic and molecular-based probes, citric acid adsorption and nanoparticle interactions are measured with quantitative solution phase adsorption measurements, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, DLS techniques and zeta-potential measurements as a function of solution pH. The results show pH dependent surface coverage which decreases with increasing pH. Surface speciation differed from the bulk solution. After equilibration, the fully deprotonated citrate ion is present on the surface regardless of the solution pH indicating lowered pKa values of surface adsorbed species. Nanoparticle interactions probed through aggregation measurements show complex interactions depending on the detailed interplay between pH and citric acid coverage. 

Sabine U. Vorrink
Human Toxicology
Aberrant Promoter CpG Methylation is a Mechanism for Lack of Hypoxic Induction of PHD3 in a Diverse Set of Malignant Cells

The prolyl hydroxylase domain family of enzymes (PHD) controls cellular responses to hypoxia, meaning reduced oxygen availability, by catalyzing the oxygen dependent hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors leading to its proteolytic degradation. Disruption of this process can lead to upregulation of factors that promote tumorigenesis. In a number of cancer cell types, expression of PHD3, a hypoxia-inducible isoform of PHD, is low or absent during normoxia and unable to be induced during hypoxia, leading to the hypothesis that PHD3 may be suppressed by an epigenetic mechanism. Using bisulfite sequencing and methylated DNA enrichment procedures, we identified human PHD3 promoter hypermethylation in various human carcinoma cell lines. Hypermethylation of the PHD3 CpG island was detected in malignant cell lines that failed to express PHD3. Non-transformed prostate and breast epithelial cells were devoid of methylated cytosine and responded normally to hypoxia by upregulating PHD3 mRNA. Only treatment of cell lines containing PHD3 promoter hypermethylation with the demethylating drug 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly increased the expression of PHD3. We conclude that aberrant CpG methylation of the PHD3 promoter silences its expression and results in failure to upregulate PHD3 mRNA normally seen in response to hypoxia.

Britnie R. James
Immunotherapy-induced Alteration of Myeloid Cells in a mouse model of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are immature, activated myeloid cells that can suppress T cell function via multiple mechanisms and dampen antitumor immunity. Using an orthotopic model of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), in which lung metastases arise spontaneously from the primary renal tumors, we have been evaluating the efficacy of an antitumor therapy consisting of a recombinant adenovirus encoding TRAIL (Ad5TRAIL) combined with CpG ODN. In the present study, we examined the extent to which MDSC suppress antitumor immunity after Ad5TRAIL/CpG ODN therapy. We found a high frequency of CD11bhiCD11loGr-1+ cells at the primary tumor site; these MDSC suppress T cell proliferation in vitro. Ad5TRAIL/CpG ODN therapy given at the primary tumor site decreased MDSC numbers at the primary tumor site, metastatic lung, and spleen, and also induced clearance of primary RCC tumors and lung metastases. Subsequent analysis revealed that CpG ODN alone is able to modulate MDSC frequency, phenotype, and function at the primary tumor site, metastatic lung, and spleen. Current studies are investigating the mechanism by which CpG ODN, either alone or in combination with Ad5TRAIL, modulates the frequency and function of MDSC. We are also investigating the ability of Ad5TRAIL/CpG ODN, administered in combination with MDSC-depleting anti-Gr-1 mAb, to further reduce tumor progression and MDSC numbers.

Kira Horel
The Music of The Lord of the Rings Films: Examining Leitmotifs Associated with the Shire, Hobbits, Frodo and Gollum

Musical leitmotifs signify a specific person, place, and event in The Lord of the Rings film Trilogy based on the three-volume book by J.R.R. Tolkien.  The acclaimed film score by Howard Shore (b.1946) contains more than 80 leitmotivs in its three films, The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Two Towers (2002) and The Return of the King (2003).  Two important leitmotif—Hobbits and Gollum—appear throughout the trilogy and change as the characters’ state of mind alters.  The first leitmotif represents the Hobbits and the Shire.  Employing the bassoon and string pizzicatos, a jovial staccato motif mimics the free-spirit of a Hobbit.  This theme is first heard in The Fellowship of the Ring as Bilbo Baggins describes a Hobbit’s peaceful life in the Shire.  Entitled, “Concerning Hobbits” this theme includes a folk-like melody presented first in a pan flute followed by a solo fiddle.  Representing both the Hobbits and the Shire, this melody also contains elements of nostalgia, hope and friendship.  The Hobbit leitmotif organically morphs into Frodo’s theme, “In Dreams.”  This theme played by the strings, contains a lush lyrical melody and ascending lyrical lines.  Though Frodo is the protagonist of the film and the protector of the Ring, he often longs for the Shire and dreams of returning home.  The second leitmotif represents Gollum (Smeagol) and is referred to as “Smeagol's Theme” or “The Pity of Gollum.” This theme consists of a slow minor figure in the violins, which represents pain, loneness and suffering.  This leitmotif transfers into “Gollum's Theme” or “Menace of Gollum,” which utilizes the cimbalom or hammered dulcimer.  Although the Hobbit and Gollum leitmotifs may sound completely different, the two are more closely related.  The motifs are similar in their texture, instrumentation and accompaniment.  This reflects the similarities between Frodo and Gollum, for Gollum was once a Hobbit himself. 

Yi-Tzu Huang
Second Language Acquisition
Overview of Chinese heritage language curriculum in the U.S. universities

With relatively higher oral proficiency and poor literacy, it is apparent that Chinese heritage (CHL) learners’ needs in Chinese language learning are different from non-heritage learners. How to help CHL learners to advance their Chinese proficiency has become a critical issue in the recent decade. This study seeks to better understand current curriculum designs for CHL learners in U.S. colleges and universities. With data collected from online surveys and follow-up interviews, the researcher found that the enrollment of CHL learners, the size of Chinese program, and the state funding directly influence the provision of CHL curriculum. From the responses collected from programs with CHL curriculum, three primary models are discovered. Some program offer one-year accelerated CHL track for beginning CHL learners. After completing one-year Chinese class, these CHL students are eligible to take regular third-year Chinese class. Some programs offer two-year, three-year, or even four-year CHL curriculum. Sub-models are also found in programs offering two-year CHL courses.. With regard to programs without CHL curriculum, CHL learners are assigned to different instructional levels according to their literacy.  In this study, a number of issues, such as textbook selection, placement exam development, teacher training, CHL teacher training, and CHL pedagogy are discussed.

Binaya Kumar Shrestha
Synthesizing Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Biodetection

Noble metal nanostructures exhibit tunable chemical and physical properties that are composition, shape, size, and surface chemistry dependent.For instance, the optical properties of gold coated silver (Ag@Au) nanoparticles exhibit unique extinction (absorption and scattering) spectra which arise from their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The LSPR occurs when incident electromagnetic radiation induces a collective oscillation of conduction band electrons on the nanoparticle surface. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) takes advantage of the LSPR increases the normal Raman signal of a given analyte by 2 to 9 orders of magnitude, thereby facilitating detection at biologically relevant concentrations. To achieve this, the synthesis of homogeneous Ag@Au nanoparticles will be shown to be dependent on concentrations of hydroxylamine (reducing agent) and citrate (stabilizing agent). Next, uncontrolled aggregation of Ag@Au nanoparticles upon the addition of analytes needs to be eliminated for reproducible SERS detection. This is achieved by encapsulating gold coated silver nanoparticles in silica shells (Ag@Au@SiOx) which maintain the metal’s plasmonic properties and increases biocompatibility; however, target analytes cannot diffuse through the silica shells eliminating the SERS effect. For this reason, low cross-linked silica layers near the metal core are selectively etched facilitating the diffusion and direct SERS detection of molecules. Molecular transport through the remaining external silica membrane depends on the chemical properties and size of the target molecules. Preliminary data indicate that SERS intensity increases as a function of molecular surface coverage until the nanoparticle surface is saturated by the analyte. Future studies could focus on utilizing internally etched Ag@Au@SiOx nanoparticles as SERS substrates for direct and reproducible detection of other molecules.

Allison Boardman
Medicine (MD)
The Ponseti Method in Latin America: Initial Impact and Barriers to its Diffusion and Implementation.

The Ponseti method for correcting clubfoot is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment that has recently been implemented in Latin America. This study evaluates the initial impact and unique barriers to the Ponseti method throughout this region. Structured interviews were conducted with a total of 30 physicians practicing the Ponseti method in three socioeconomically diverse countries: Chile, Peru and Guatemala.  Barriers were classified into the following themes: physician education, health care system of the country, culture and beliefs of patients, physical distance and transport, financial barriers for patients, and parental compliance to the method. The results yielded several common barriers throughout Latin America including lack of physician education, physical distance to the treatment centers, and financial barriers for patients. Information from this study can be used to implement specific strategies to improve the diffusion and implementation of the Ponseti method for treating clubfoot throughout Latin America.

Sucheta G. Vajrala
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Mechanism of Carbon dioxide Inhibition in Insect Cell Culture

The prominence of insect cell culture has grown rapidly due to their ability to produce baculovirus biopesticides and recombinant proteins using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System. A critical problem in the mass production of these products is CO2 accumulation to inhibitory levels within the bioreactor. The current research investigated the effect of elevated COconcentrations on insect cell growth and metabolism and the role of oxidative stress and intracellular pH (pHi) in CO2 inhibition. Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 insect cells were cultured in a 3 L bioreactor controlled at 20% air saturation, 27oC and a pH of 6.2.  The cells were exposed to a constant CO2 concentration by purging the medium with COand the headspace with air. The population doubling time of the cells increased from 22 to 69 h as the COconcentration increased from 0 to 220 mm Hg, respectively.< Elevated CO2 concentration did not alter cell viability, medium osmolality and specific glucose consumption rate, but slightly increased the specific lactate production rate from -3.0 x 10-19 mol/cell-s to 10.2 x 10-19mol/cell-s. Oxidative stress did not contribute to CO2 inhibition in uninfected Sf-9 cells. Studies are underway to determine the role of pHin CO2 inhibition.

Nirmalla Barros
Occupational and Environmental Health
The Use of Gamma Spectroscopy to Conduct Rapid Urine Radionuclide Screens in the Event of a Radiological Emergency

Few state laboratories nationwide are capable of rapidly testing for radionuclides in biological samples in response to a radiological attack or incident.  To effectively treat individuals exposed to radioactive materials, an internal assessment of radiologic dose would need to be performed.  But, the existing methods currently utilized to analyze radionuclides in urine, for instance, are limited due to low throughput, high volume requirements for samples, and lack of guidelines for detection limits of radionuclides.  We designed an apparatus that maximizes the spatial orientation of the sample to the detector in order to maximize simultaneous screening and analyzes for 6 samples.  For gamma spectrometry analysis, the apparatus is placed around a High Purity Germanium detector.  The technique involves identifying and quantifying high priority gamma-emitting radionuclides identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as likely radiological contaminants resulting from a radiologic attack.  For a 50 milliliter urine sample, the quantification of 11 radionuclides using a custom-made matrix was compared and detected at error rates ± 10% with the lowest count time at 60 minutes.  These preliminary results demonstrated that effective radionuclide screening and measurements can be provided with short count times and small sample volumes.

Lindsay R. Ditzler
Probing Nanoscale Redox Transitions Using Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy

Mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-ferrocenyl-1-undecanethiol (Fc) and 1-decanthiol (C10)have been studied using conductive probe atomic force microscopy to probe redox transitions at the nanoscale. The electroactive component, ferrocene terminated alkanethiol, has been used extensively in electrochemical studies due to its ability to undergo a reversible single-electron oxidation-reduction process. The second component, C10,acts as an electropassive spacer molecule. The monolayers were formed using a simultaneous adsorption technique where an ultraflat Au substrate was submerged in different solution fractions of Fc/C10 and the surface molar fraction of 0, 0.26, 0.44,0.64, and 0.72 Fc were determined using cyclic voltammetry.  Force displacement curves collected under various DC bias show an increase in attractive force between the tip and the sample as the number of ferrocenes on the surface increase. The oxidation of the ferrocene moiety was detected though an additional increase in the attractive force at positive surface biases, and this additional force increase was used to estimate the number of charges induced on the substrate surface and compared to the numbe rof molecules in the junction. For the 0.64 surface molar fraction there are approximately 40 Fc molecules in the contact junction and of that 31 were oxidized.

Mary E. Levillain
Development of Delay and Trace Eyeblink Conditioning with a Vibration CS

Previous work from our laboratory using pontine stimulation as a CS suggests that the ontogeny of eyeblink conditioning (EBC) depends upon the development of sensory input to the cerebellum (Campolattaro & Freeman, 2008). Therefore, one possible way to facilitate EBC in younger animals would be to use an earlier-developing sensory system, such as the somatosensory system, for the CS. In fact, some studies, using learning paradigms other than EBC, have demonstrated that very young animals are able to learn when using a somatosensory CS. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether using an early-developing sensory system would facilitate eyeblink conditioning. Experiment 1 examined delay EBC with a vibration CS in pups trained on postnatal day (P) 17-18. Experiment 2 investigated trace EBC with a vibration CS in pups trained on P17-18, P21-22, or P24-26.

Joo Young Choi
Development of Digital Micro-Mirror Array Spectrometer (DMD) and Multivariate Optical Computation for Glucose Analyte in Complex Mixtures

An estimated 17 million people in the United States and 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes.  Although there is no cure for disease, many studies have shown that tight control of blood glucose levels helps to reduce the long-term complications.  For that reason, develpment of noninvasive, continuous, rapid glucose sensing will be beneficial to diabetic patients.

Near-infrared spectroscopy is an essential tool for noninvasive analytical measurements of selected species within complex samples.  In this technique, selective analytical information is obtained from the unique near-infrared spectral properties of the tareted analyte relative to all matrix components.  Extracting analyte information from overlapping spectral features is the principal challenge for any near-infrared analysis method.  One approach is to establish the net analyte signal (NAS) that is unique for the analyte relative to the sample matrix.

We are interested in exploring the utility of implementing the multivariate calibration model in hardware, as opposed to software.  In this system, a digital micro-mirror array device (DMD) is used to program the NAS directly into the optical signal.  We are using this instrumental configuration to program the NAS for glucose relative to lactate and urea as a first step to determine the utility of this approach. 

Amir Mohammad Farnoud
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Effect of Polystyrene Nanoparticles on Surface Pressure-Area Isotherms of Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)

The pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins which covers the entire alveolar (gas exchange) region of the lungs. The main role of this surfactant layer is to reduce the surface tension of the fluid in the alveoli. Changes in the surface tension of this fluid can increase the work required for breathing, which can lead to respiratory distress, and impair gas exchange in the lung. In a few recent studies, certain nanoparticles have been shown to adsorb pulmonary surfactant components onto their surfaces, thus leading to alveolar fluid dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which nanoparticles alter the function of complex lung fluid interfaces remain largely unstudied. In this research, the effect of different concentrations of carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles on a model of pulmonary surfactant was studied through tensiometric experiments at 37°C and room temperature. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the primary lipid of pulmonary surfactant, was used as the model surfactant. We have observed changes in the surface pressure at which film collapse occurs and at which the onset of the liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed regions take place due to nanoparticle addition. These studies also show that particle-surfactant interactions are both temperature- and dose-dependent.

Erin O'Gara
Framing of the 2008 Presidential Election in Print News

This study examines newspaper coverage of the Democratic and Republican presidential and vice presidential candidates in the 2008 U.S. election. Since the composition of candidates involved in this election is so unprecedented, this study seeks to uncover the ways in which they are portrayed through the lens of framing theory. The study especially focused on the ways in which gender was framed in newspaper coverage of the election. A total of 225 newspaper articles randomly collected from The New York Times, the Chicago Tribune and USA Today were content and textually analyzed.

The results show that the media continued to cover male and female candidates in very different ways. The discussion of gender and the one female candidate was stereotypical and used harsher and more negative language than that used for the male candidates, especially when found in editorial/op ed. articles. This suggests that contrary to what many believe were improving conditions for female political candidates, the media still put a much greater emphasis on their gender. In doing so, the media are sending a message to potential voters that they are somehow less qualified than their male counterpart: women first, politicians second.

Heidi A. Schwanz
Pharmacy (PhD)
Interactions of Quinolone-Class Gyrase Inhibitors

Drug resistant bacteria are responsible for increasing incidences of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in humans. In order to advance the science of combating mutation-induced bacterial resistance to antibiotics, novel approaches to antibiotic design are needed. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotics that exert their effects by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV through the formation of a ternary complex with DNA. Resistance to FQs is primarily due to mutations in the genes encoding these two target enzymes. Recently, it has been shown that certain FQs promote chromosomal fragmentation and rapidly kill cells in the absence of ongoing protein synthesis. In addition, newer quinolone-class gyrase inhibitors possess activity against FQ-resistant bacteria, including those having mutations in DNA gyrase. Because structural differences of FQ analogues provide differences in potency, degree of chromosomal fragmentation, rate of lethality, and activity against gyrase mutants, there is a need to characterize the interactions of these compounds with different DNA complexes the compounds may be exposed to during replication. Here we describe ongoing studies to characterize the FQ-DNA interactions of functionally different FQs and gain insight into the mechanism of action.

Melissa C. Torres
Adsorption Studies of Aqueous Copper (II) on Functionalized Silicalite

Silicalite-1, a purely siliceous zeolite, synthesized batches of crystal sizes of 60 and 600 nm functionalized were used to study the absorption of copper. Both zeolite crystal sizes were externally functionalized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) or aminopropyldimethylmethoxysilane (APDMMS) to form an aminopropyl surface. Copper adsorption from aqueous solutions onto the aminopropyl surface was conducted under neutral conditions. Copper metal was effectively adsorbed onto the surface of the aminopropyl functionalized zeolites. Both size and functional group were compared in this study and results illustrated that the smaller 60 nm functionalized samples had a 3 fold increase in higher adsorption capacity than the larger 600 nm. A comparative study on the different aminopropylsilane groups showed that APTES had a higher adsorption capacity than APDMMS on both 60 and 600 nm silicalite. Analysis concluded a 10 fold increase in adsorption capacity for the 60 nm APTES sample as compared to the non-functionalized zeolite of aqueous Cu (II). This research indicates that removing aqueous copper from naturally occurring sources is possible by using functionalized zeolite materials.

Ho Seop Eom
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
The Effects of Acrylate Structures on the Kinetics of Epoxide during Epoxide-Acrylate Hybrid Photopolymerizations

Epoxide-acrylate hybrid systems mitigate oxygen inhibition and moisture sensitivity of free-radical and cationic photopolymerizations, respectively. The control of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) produced by chemically independent free-radical and cationic polymerizations allows tuning of physical/mechanical properties of final hybrid polymers. Here, highly viscous urethane acrylate oligomers were first combined with epoxides. However, the epoxide cationic photopolymerizations were considerably suppressed in the presence of these urethane acrylate oligomers. To determine the factors causing the sluggish cationic polymerizations, low-viscosity mono-functional acrylates with various secondary functional groups were then examined in hybrid systems containing diepoxides. Using Raman spectroscopy, the epoxide polymerization rate and final conversion in hybrid systems were shown to be affected significantly by the acrylate structures and their molar ratios. Acrylates containing ether or urethane groups negatively affected the epoxide kinetics for higher molar ratios of acrylate to epoxide. This detrimental effect is caused by the fixation or abstraction of protons generated from the photolysis of photoinitiators by ether or urethane groups, and these secondary groups and compositions should be taken into account when tuning epoxide conversion and ultimate strength of hybrid IPNs.

Clinton J. Cook
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Photo-Enforced Stratification in Coating and Adhesive Materials

Typical polymerization methods result in a homogenous final polymer.  In coatings and adhesives, if a particular surface or substrate-interface chemistry is desired that differs from the homogenous polymer, then multiple step processes are required to achieve the desired product. Photo-enforced stratification could result in a film that has the desired surface and substrate-interface chemistries in a single processing step by utilizing the inherent spatial and temporal properties of photopolymerization. 

Photo-enforced stratification is a process designed to induce a compositional gradient in a polymer thin film upon co-photopolymerization in the presence of a light gradient.  The light gradient produces a competitive process in which faster reacting monomers are consumed at the surface closest to the light source at greater rates than slower reacting monomers.  Faster reacting monomers will thus be depleted at the surface, establishing a localized concentration gradient.  This gradient results in diffusion of faster reacting monomers to the surface of the film and counter-diffusion of slower reacting monomers away from the surface.  The final product is a polymer film enriched with the faster reacting monomer at the surface and the slower reacting monomer at the substrate interface.

Tania Leal Mendez
Other - Not Listed
Feature Interpretability in Second Language (L2) Acquisition: Evidence from Resumptive Pronoun Use in Interrogatives by Spanish L2 Learners of English

It is a well-known fact that, even at the advanced level, second language learners do not perform like native speakers regarding their comprehension and production. To account for these facts, Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou’s (2007) Interpretability Hypothesis (henceforth IH) makes use of the principled linguistic notion of “interpretability”. The IH claims that if an uninterpretable feature is not present in the first language (L1), adult second language (L2) learners will not be able to represent it accurately in their mental grammars, due to the fact that they have passed the critical period. After a certain age (puberty), second language acquisition is hypothesized to be increasingly difficult and does not result in native-like performance.
The research reported here focuses on the predictions of the IH regarding uninterpretable features that are present in the L1 but not in the L2: resumptive pronouns. The research methodology follows closely the design of Tsimpli & Dimitrakopoulou (2007). This paper makes the following contributions: a) it argues that the IH is unable to account for the present Spanish data, given that learners were able to acquire the structures, and b) it adds to the argument that linguistic evidence should be elicited in a more controlled fashion.

Eric Kaiser
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Light aversion in mice

Migraine is a disabling and common disorder affecting approximately 11% of the US population. The underlying pathophysiology of migraine is poorly understood, but a role for CGRP has emerged. A key neuropeptide in the trigeminovascular system, CGRP plays a role in nociception, vasodilatation, and neurogenic inflammation. To study the effects of enhanced CGRP sensitivity, we developed a transgenic mouse that overexpresses a subunit of the CGRP receptor, which allows us to study the behavioral responses in an animal model of migraine. Photophobia,is a very common migraine symptom. We developed a light aversive behavior assay, where mice are subjected to a light/dark box, which is an open field divided into two zones. We have established that hRAMP1 mice spend less time in light in response to CGRP. Current work attempts to further characterize this behavior via behavioral and preclinical imaging in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the CGRP-induced light aversion.

Kenneth Wacha
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Isolation and Remediation of Erosion Prone Hillslopes in the Clear Creek Watershed

Globally we are losing on average 50 billion tons of topsoil a year from erosion caused primarily by agricultural land management practices. Invasive tillage practices cause soil degradation, loss off rich soil organic matter and the overall reduction in soil fertility from nutrients being washed away with the eroded soil. With depleted soil, infiltration rates decrease causing overland flow to develop, resulting in more erosion to occur. In this study, field experimental data were coupled with a numerical model to simulate erosion within the Clear Creek watershed located in South Amana, Iowa. Sediment budget data was modeled with a ArcGIS tool component, GeoWEPP (Watershed Erosion Prediction Project). GeoWEPP model is used to perform simulations of runoff and erosion processes and identify "hotspots" within the watershed where severe erosion is taking place. Once hotspots are identified, land management changes to those particular "hotspots" were implemented to observe possible reduction in the erosion rates. Results from this study will advance our knowledge in the development of sustainable agroecosystems by implementing best management practices in the croplands of southeast Iowa.

A. Kendra Greene
English-Nonfiction Writing
Costumes of the Giant Ground Sloth

Ten years ago, in an effort to be “less stuffy,” theUniversity of Iowa Museum of Natural History put a tie around the neck of theirmodel ice age giant ground sloth. More than two dozen documented costumes havefollowed that pioneering act of sloth dressing, and Rusty’s outfits continue toprovide for one of the most dynamic and idiosyncratic dialogues the museummaintains with its visitors. UIMNH is an institutional bridge between theuniversity and the city, academics and lay folk, fact and conjecture, andbetween past and present. Megalonyx jeffersoni in costume challenges thepassive museum experience, reminding visitors to consider what they’re reallylooking at and how it relates to their contemporary world. My research,writing, and printmaking chronicle the tradition, interrogate the importance ofsloth gender identity, and celebrate the clever whimsy that just might bridgewhat you thought you knew and what could possibly be.

Jeremiah Johnson
The Role of the mrkGE Two-Component System in Type III Fimbrial Expression and Biofilm Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for causing respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans.  In the human model of respiratory tract infection the epithelial layer lining the air passages becomes disrupted.  K. pneumoniae binds to the underlying human extracellular matrix material (HECM), which becomes exposed following this disruption, using the type 3 fimbrial adhesin.  Here we identify a two-component system, named mrkGE, which regulates type 3 fimbrial expression.  Deletion of this system resulted in undetectable levels of type 3 fimbriae on the bacterial surface.  This reduction in fimbrial expression led to a significant decrease in biofilm formation on both an abiotic surface and on HECM coated slides.  Using quantitative real-time PCR to determine the levels of major fimbrial subunit transcript (mrkA), it was found that the mrkGE mutation affected type 3 fimbrial expression at the transcriptional level.  To explore whether this was a direct effect by MrkE binding the mrkA promoter, we purified MrkE and using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, attempted to bind a DNA fragment containing the mrkA promoter region.  We have been unable to show binding of MrkE to the mrkA promoter and believe that mrkE's effect on type 3 fimbrial gene expression is indirect.

Jacqueline P. Smits
Synthesis and Activity of Novel Squalene Synthase Inhibitors

Hypercholesterolemia is a disorder in which patients exhibit high concentrations of cholesterol containing low density lipoproteins (LDL) compared to functional high density lipoprotein (HDL), and can ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke.  Current common therapies include the use of statin drugs which reduce the production of cholesterols by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an early step in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway.  Our laboratory has previously developed a copper mediated displacement of an allylic THP ether by a Grignard reagent.  This methodology now has been utilized to synthesize a lead compound (1) which has been determined to decrease the biosynthesis of cholesterols by inhibiting squalene synthase (SQS).  Inhibition of this enzyme in addition to concurrent statin treatment may increase the efficacy of statin treatment, as well as reduce the side effects of statins caused by isoprenoid depletion.  Further analogues of our lead compound have now been synthesized utilizing the methodology previously developed by our laboratory (e.g. 2 and 3). These novel compounds have been tested for their ability to limit cholesterol production by inhibition of SQS. Both the chemical syntheses and the bioassay results will be presented.

Daniel J Kinney
Art Education
Narrative Art-making and How It Functions in Different Community Settings

This presentation examines narrative art-making and how it functions for at-risk students in different community settings, presenting visuals and research conducted while leading projects with students in the United States and Uganda, Africa.  Each group of students worked to create a collaborative, generative mural expressing their individual cultural identities in a multicultural society.  Presented will be an overview of the developmental objectives that can be achieved for students facing a range of adversities in geographically disparate regions.  Additionally, the value of this process for fostering individuals’ skills for planning and carrying out their personal life objectives will be discussed.  The presentation will end with specific conclusions regarding the efficacy of implementing collaborative mural projects as a service learning component in curricula for at-risk students.

Rania Hamed
Pharmacy (PhD)
Investigating the Interfacial Rheological Properties of Surfactants Absorbed at an Air-mucus Interface of the Upper Respiratory Tract

 The viscoelastic mucosal fluid which lines the upper respiratory tract (URT) is covered with a surface active material capable of lowering the surface tension at the air-mucus interface to ~32 mN/m. These surfactants help facilitate mucociliary and cough clearance, as well as drug and particle distribution in the lungs. The objective of this study was to investigate the interfacial rheological properties of two types of surfactants, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and Infasurf®(Ony, Inc.), adsorbed onto a mucus mimetic surface. Toward this goal, an in-vitro model mucus mimetic was developed containing mucins, protein, various ions and water at concentrations similar to that found natively in lungs. Surfactants were spread separately onto mimetic surfaces to reduce the surface tension to ~32 mN/m. The interfacial rheological properties of surfactants were probed using a stress-controlled interfacial rheometer. The adsorption of DPPC and Infasurf® at the air-mucus interface resulted in major differences in surface rheology compared to the bare mimetic and to air-water interface. Surfactants spread onto water subphase and mimetic subphase exhibited a fluid-like surface, while bare mimetic exhibited a solid-like surface. These studies will guide our understanding of the mechanical properties of URT mucus.  

Christine Scarfuto
Theatre Arts
Dramaturging the Physical Performance

In this paper, I analyze the process I utilized as a dramaturg for the theatrical production of Akarui by Jen Silverman and directed by Brandon Bruce, produced in the 2009 Iowa New Play Festival at the University of Iowa. This production presented unique challenges for a dramaturg. Most of the difficulties in the script involved creating the hyper-real locations and characters of the playwright's imagination. Therefore, my role in the process was to integrate my relevant research into the way the play was physically performed, instead of following the typical process that a new play dramaturg follows (of simply giving feedback on the script and critiquing the production). I played a more active role in the creation of the different worlds in the script, and made exciting discoveries about the role of a dramaturg in the creation of the physical performance.

Sameer A Khan
Industrial Engineering

A driving simulator based study of perceptual countermeasures to speeding is described. Perceptual countermeasures manipulate the drivers' visual scene to help them moderate their driving speed without a conscious deliberation to do so. The design using synchronized flashing beacons on jersey barriers in work zones as a perceptual countermeasure is similar to "aero plane runway lights" flashing towards the diver. The optical illusion of more number of things in the environment passing the drivers' visual field was postulated to make drivers settle into their comfortable driving speed at lower vehicular speeds which would help reduce traffic incidents in work zones. The measured effect in the laboratory setting did not achieve statistical significance which may have been due to a stronger effect of individual differences in driving behavior on mean speed within a virtual work zone environment. The ramifications of using such perceptual countermeasures that are currently being implemented around the world is disused.

Louisa V. Hill
Playwriting (MFA in Theatre Arts)
Real, Live Chinese Women!: Afong Moy, Pwan-Yekoo, and the Performance of the “Authentic” Chinese Woman in the United States

In the US, stereotypes abound about Chinese women. Surprisingly, the infrastructure for these stereotypes was put into place even before the first Chinese woman came to the US. And, in 1834, when Afong Moy became the first Chinese woman in the US, her role was to confirm these preconceived ideas. She was brought over by American men, Nathaniel & Frederick Carne, to be showcased as an authentic Chinese woman. PT Barnum followed by importing another Chinese woman, Pwan-Yekoo. Claiming anthropological altruism, yet driven by commercialism, these entrepreneurs choreographed their exhibitions of these women to reinforce the Orientalist ideas already present in the US.

These exhibitions had several layers of performance. While Afong Moy and Pwan-Yekoo performed in the tradition of performing arts, they also performed their cultural traditions (such as using chopsticks). Ultimately through these exhibitions, they performed their Chineseness, a particular intersection of race, class, & gender established by predetermined American beliefs. By confirming these beliefs, Afong Moy & Pwan-Yekoo's performances legitimated the perception of the "authentic" Chinese woman as hyper-feminine & racially inferior. This essentialized representation of Chinese women created an archetype for yellowface performances & informs still-existing stereotypes.

Daniel Usera
Communication Studies
"Cooling out" the break-up: On taking instruction in getting dumped

The process of ending a romantic relationship and the tactics that con-artists use to "dupe" people have much more in common than one may expect. This presentation brings the relationship dissolution literature from communication studies and Erving Goffman's work into conversation to provide new insights into how people end relationships.

Ulrike Carlson
Test! P-Stranding

This is a test! A test, a test, a test!

Robert Gutsche Jr.
(E)Racing Iowa City: Transforming racial boundaries through storytelling

This is an Obermann project from 2011. With this project, we propose a service learning course to engage English and journalism students with the community through the use of storytelling. By empowering residents’ voices, students contribute to multiple understandings of language and narrative. Through a collaboration with the English General Education Literature course and a non-profit, the Iowa Center for Public Affairs Journalism language students will produce public journalism through multiple genres of storytelling and reflecting on the meaning of narrative. These stories will be from those living in Iowa City's "Southeast Side" and/or who have moved to IC from Chicago.

Linh Bui
The Control of Apospory in Ceratopteris richardii

In land plants, the haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte generations alternate to complete the life cycle. The sporophytes produce haploid spores from which sexual gametes are derived. After fertilization, zygote restores the ploidy and develops into a diploid sporophyte. Interestingly, some plant species can also produce seeds asexually through several pathways collectively called apomixis. In agriculture, apomixis can be developed into a powerful tool to create “cloned” seeds, reducing the cost of hybrid seed production and stabilizing favorable genotypes.

We study apospory, an asexual reproduction pathway in which a diploid gametophyte is induced directly from a diploid sporophytic cell in the absence of meiosis, in the fern Ceratopteris richardii. This fern was chosen because (1) it is a seedless plant in contrast to model seed plants, (2) it is possible to manipulate the reproductive pathways of this fern in the laboratory, (3) in addition to having a free-living, dominant sporophyte generation as in seed plants, the gametophyte generation is also free-living. With this system we have successfully optimized the conditions and examined additional factors that affect apospory under laboratory conditions. We also obtained preliminary results in establishing an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol and identifying candidate genes in apospory in this fern.

Derek Andes and Josh Eklow
Space Camp

Space Camp is the collaboration of Derek Andes and Josh Eklow. Together they use video, internet, performance, and sculpture to share and partake in the mystery and fun of space exploration, ephemeral video, and digital life. 

Shihao (Kevin) Shen
Widespread establishment and regulatory impact of Alu exons in human genes

The Alu element has been a major source of new exons during primate evolution. Thousands of human genes contain spliced exons derived from Alu elements. However, identifying Alu exons that have acquired genuine biological functions remains a major challenge. We investigated the creation and establishment of Alu exons in human genes, using transcriptome profiles of human tissues generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with extensive RT-PCR analysis. Mutational analysis reveals the specificmolecular mechanisms by which newly created 5′-UTR Alu exons modulate translational efficiency, such as the creation or elongation of upstream ORFs that repress the translation of the primary ORFs. This study presents genomic evidence that a major functional consequence of Alu exonization is the lineage-specific evolution of translational regulation. Moreover, the preferential creation and establishment of Alu exons in zinc finger genes suggest that Alu exonization may have globally affected the evolution of primate and human transcriptomes by regulating the protein production of master transcriptional regulators in specific lineages.

Chris McFadin
Heraclitus, Aristotle, and the Principle of Non-Contradiction

Every metaphysician must grapple with the problem of individuation, for it is one of philosophy’s perennial issues.  Ever since the ancient Greeks, entire philosophies have been developed that depend on the notion of an individuated universe, and Aristotle’s ontology is no exception.  A general overview of the problem of individuation, as well as some strategies around the problem, will inform a discussion of the way in which Aristotle fails to solve the problem of individuation.  And since Aristotle’s Principle of Non-Contradiction depends on an individuated world for meaning, the Principle falls apart.  A Heraclitean ontology—surprisingly in conformity with the Principle of Non-Contradiction—emerges as the best alternative.

Asitha Jayawardena
Medicine (MD)
Diffusion of Innovation: Enhancing the Dissemination of the Ponseti Method in Latin America through Virtual Forums

This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best-practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A ‘Ponseti Virtual Forum’ (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of this approach.

Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs.  Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas.  This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best-practices such as the Ponseti method in developing countries.

Kimberly A. Hoppe
Occupational and Environmental Health
Effect of variables in endotoxin presentation on endotoxin reactivity in the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay

The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay is widely used in occupational and environmental health studies to assess exposures to endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide, LOS), a recognized bacterial trigger of innate immunity. However, it is not known if endotoxin reactivity in the LAL assay varies depending upon how endotoxin is physically presented; as LOS aggregates, intact bacteria, or shed “blebs” and if this parallels differences in the pro-inflammatory potency of endotoxin seen in vitro and in vivo.

14C-LOS was metabolically labeled using an acetate auxotroph of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and used as part of LOS aggregates, intact bacteria, and blebs.  Doses of 14C-LOS-containing LOS aggregates, bacteria, or blebs were measured by scintillation counting and effects of increasing doses tested in: 1) LAL assay 2) in vivo in C3HeB/FeJ mice monitoring induced airway inflammation 3) in vitro using HEK293 cells monitoring cell activation by the extracellular accumulation of IL-8.  Differences in endotoxin potency were observed in each depending on how the LOS was presented with the following rank order of reactivity: LAL assay: blebs > LOS aggregates > bacteria; in vivo: bacteria > blebs > LOS aggregates; in vitro:  LOS aggregates > blebs > bacteria.  These findings demonstrate that how the endotoxin is physically presented affects endotoxin reactivity in the LAL assay and in endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.

Rachel Bender
Medicine (MD)
Spatial Analysis of Leprosy in Nova Cruz, RN, Brazil

Leprosy has been largely eradicated globally with the advent of cheap multi-drug therapy, however Brazil remains endemic. Identifying disease and socioeconomic patterns is essential for effective intervention. Graphic Information Systems (GIS) offer novel technologies for such analysis, and were implemented in the growing city of Nova Cruz.  Collaboration included two Iowan medical students, regional university scientists, and health agents within the national community-based healthcare system.  Questionnaires and physical exams were administered to 98 pre-identified leprosy patients and 205 communicants.  A control group of 420 homes was surveyed for comparison in testing the hypothesis connecting disease to poverty.  The collected data was archived in Excel and analyzed with Statistica Software.  Contour mapping illustrates disease incidence nearly 80-fold the global accepted limit; generally increasing with population density (p-value = 0.0005012 ). Expected risk factors of low income and education did not play a role in disease.  Cases vs. control differentials include household density and standing water outside the home post-rainfall.  A high citywide prevalence of hypertension and obesity was also documented. The pressures of population growth challenge accepted correlations of disease and poverty, enforcing the need for technology in identifying at-risk populations. Data will be used to influence local policy and training.

Benjamin Morton
Communication Studies
Jumping at Bells: The Early History of Pagers and Moble Communication

Many disabled persons rely on technologies for assistance. These technologies make persons able to do things not possible otherwise. For instance, a hearing aid benefits someone hard of hearing. Many able-bodied persons use assistive technologies as well. Cell-phones, for example, allow us to talk with others on-the-go, find directions when we’re lost, and keep track of our loved ones. Unlike technologies for the disabled, mobile technologies ostensibly extend one’s human capabilities, rather than supplement what is thought of as a lack of ability. Yet when these technologies become a part of our everyday activity, we feel disabled when these communication aids aren’t present. The following is an early history of how one mobile communication device—intended for emergencies—was taken up for constant everyday interaction. While many describe the cell phone simply as a mobile telephone, the early history of paging devices shows that the current cell phone operates more like an old pager—something we actively respond to rather than hold casual conversation.

Swathi Kode
Biomedical Engineering
Biomechanical Effects of Laminoplasty and Laminectomy on the Stability of Cervical Spine

Cervical spinal stenosis is a medical condition caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal, possibly leading to the compression of the spinal cord or other nerve roots. Historically, laminectomy has been regarded as the standard treatment for multi-level cervical stenosis. However, the results of the procedure were universally unsuccessful with complications such as segmental instability and postoperative kyphosis. Because of such concerns, laminoplasty was developed as an alternative to laminectomy. It is intended to relieve pressure on the spinal cord while maintaining the stabilizing effects of the posterior elements of the vertebrae. The current study is a finite element analysis of the effect of laminectomy and two popular laminoplasty techniques on the biomechanics of cervical spine. The results from the current finite element predictions show the preservation of range of motion after laminoplasty while laminectomy resulted in a significant increase in the motion during flexion. To further augment/validate the finite element studies, we are currently performing flexibility tests on cadaveric cervical specimens after laminoplasty and laminectomy.


Michael Winslow
American Studies
The American System of Manufactures Finds Narrative: Fireman Films, Early Cinema, and the Narcissist Mode

In this paper, I turn to the plethora of early firefighting films made between 1895 and 1905 to argue that they reveal the modern industrial processes of systematization and standardization at work in early film.  Analysis of these films reveals issues raised by the growing scale of mass media, as depictions of firemen move from short films of local firemen racing past to universal narratives that sought audiences regardless of local affiliations.  That representations of firemen were incorporated into similar processes of standardization to those at work in industrial production reveals the way film form itself was caught in similar patterns of logic to those that characterized other aspects of industrial society.  I argue that the changes traceable from the earliest fire run films to the use of narrative aspects in Life of an American Fireman show that the industrial logic of early cinema extends from the apparatus itself into its use of narrative structure and the relations of spectatorship. 

Renee Goethe
Le bon roy Dagobert: Images of sacred rule from the abbey of Saint-Denis

The abbots of the royal abbey of Saint-Denis, located a short distance north of Paris, and the Capetian kings of France (circa 10th – 14th century) engaged in a conversation that took place over the course of centuries.  The kings, who had used the abbey as the royal necropolis, could be fickle, and the defection of important twelfth century rulers to newer monastic orders caused the monks alarm.  In response, Abbot Suger (c. 1081-1151) and his successors strove to create an unassailable edifice of history – much of it forged – to convince the kings of France to commit their bodies to the abbey.   To do so, they turned to those individuals who had endowed the abbey with riches and with their bodies.  King Dagobert (c. 603-639), legendary royal founder and patron of Saint-Denis, received increased veneration and the production of symbolic forms in twelfth century as the monks created new rituals they claimed were old, and new privileges they justified with documents still sporting damp ink.  As later kings continued to undermine the rights claimed by Saint-Denis, the abbey produced images, texts, and further chronicle accounts to bolster their claims.  In this presentation, I will trace the development of images of Dagobert as presented to the kings of France at critical points in the relationship between the Capetians and the royal abbey.  

Jennifer Kuhle
School Psychology
Word Boxes to Increase Phonemic Awareness: A Case Study

Reading is a complex skill that requires mastery in five distinct areas: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (The National Reading Panel, 2000). It is necessary to be competent in the early reading skills of phonemic awareness and phonics to become a skilled reader. Word box instruction is designed to increase phonemic awareness through explicit instruction of letter sound correspondence (Joseph 1998/1999, 2006). This study examined the effectiveness of word box instruction in increasing the phonemic awareness of Murray, a nine-year old male from the general education setting with significant reading delays. Before beginning instruction, he was assessed using subtests from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Awareness and Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Murray was then provided with individualized weekly word box instruction for approximately 20 minutes. After each session, his phonemic awareness was assessed using DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency. Preliminary results indicate that word box instruction was effective in increasing Murray’s phonemic awareness skills and letter sound correspondence. Weekly word box instruction will continue and progress monitoring will be maintained to further examine the use of this strategy in children with phonemic awareness deficits.

Wendy McGinnis
School Psychology
Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in a Case Study Examining Oral Reading Fluency

Effects of a repeated reading intervention that was implemented across a four-week period were examined to assess oral reading fluency in a 2nd grade child at risk for reading difficulty.  A repeated reading strategy known as, Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) was used to bolster oral reading fluency baseline scores that were collected prior to intervention implementation.  An AB single-subject case design was employed to assess fluency-skill acquisition effects of a child who was approximately one-half of a grade level behind his peers.  Effects of the RAAC intervention appeared promising in enhancing oral reading fluency as measured by correct words per minute (CWPM).  Gains in fluency and reading speed were evidenced at the end of the intervention period as compared to initial baseline assessments. The results have important implications for practice and suggest that use of repeated reading interventions for struggling readers may be a critical component of general reading instruction.  Finally, limitations of the case study are discussed as well as future goals for the child who participated in this research.

Raquel Baker
English-Literary Studies
Trauma and the Desiring Subject: The Spatial and Temporal Poetics of Yvonne Vera’s The Stone Virgins

Desire is the driving force of postcoloniality. Due to the ambivalent nature of the desire for sovereignty—the way that it exposes one to agency as well as to domination—how does one speak of, or achieve, liberation? This ambivalence is a salient feature of the work of Yvonne Vera, particularly in relation to her representation of the Zimbabwean nation as a form of collective identity. Vera’s novels characterize how gender, ethnicity, class, and regional politics traverse and undo the rhetoric of national unity and postcolonial liberation. For Vera, the “truth” of postcolonial nationalism is marked by displacement, in Barthes’ sense of “that which must be delayed but not denied”. In this paper, I use postcolonial theory as the methodological foundation to examine how the spatial and temporal poetics of Yvonne Vera articulate how memory can intervene in the trauma and betrayal that constitute experiences of Zimbabwean postcoloniality. In the novel Stone Virgins, the representational strategy of temporal and spatial doubling conceptualizes the postcolonial subject who forges strength by recovering the past to create new forms of belonging. The novel is structured through the architecture of mirrors and mirroring—through fascination and desire. Vera splits the novel into two temporal sections that serve as discursive spaces that mirror and reflect one another, constructing desire.

Erin MG Allen
Pharmacy (PhD)
The Structure Activity Relationship of Dieldrin, An Organochlorine Pesticide

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This neurodegeneration has been shown to significantly correlate with a number of environmental factors, including pesticide exposure, such as the organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin. This pesticide is ranked one of the twelve most persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals by the US EPA. Previous studies found an increased concentration of dieldrin in the striatal region of brains of PD patients, and that dieldrin adversely affects a number of cellular processes associated with PD. However, the mechanism responsible for dieldrin-mediated cellular dysfunction and the structural components contributing to its toxicity have not been defined. In order to identify the toxicophore of dieldrin, a structure-activity approach was used, with the toxicity profiles of numerous analogs of dieldrin assessed in differentiated, dopaminergic PC6-3 cells. Cellular assays monitoring mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species production, and extracellular dopamine metabolites were used. It was determined that most of the compounds substantially inhibited mitochondrial activity. In addition, all of the compounds tested were found to disrupt dopamine metabolism, indicated by significant changes in the production of downstream metabolites of dopamine. Comparisons of the toxicity profiles for each dieldrin analog indicate a structure-specific effect that will be important for elucidating the mechanisms of dieldrin toxicity as they relate to PD.

Sarah Fay
English-Literary Studies
A History of the LIterary Interview

Although Kindle and other e-readers are supposedly destroying book culture in America, the 2000s might rightly be called the age of the literary interview. “Craft-talks” in which an author discusses his methods, tricks, and habits of writing regularly appear in literary quarterlies in the form of interviews. Any writer on a book tour, regardless of his book’s merit or sales, is asked to give countless in-store author interviews in which the audience asks him questions, many of which are geared toward finding out how he or she did it. To “make it” as a writer in America, an author must not only be able to write and publish a book, he must also be able to talk about how that book was written. But what exactly is a “literary” interview? And when, come to think of it, was the first literary interview published? What distinguishes a literary interview from a journalistic or publicity interview? In this presentation, I attempt to answer all of these questions and entertain a few more.

Pandya Nirajkumar H
Seperation of silica encapsulated gold nanoparticle using Surfactant-free Size Exclusion Chromatography for SERS studies

Nanoparticles prepared via bottom up synthetic techniques generally exhibit some degree of heterogeneity. If predictable chemical and physical properties are required when using these nanomaterials, then methods which improve the homogeneity of the sample are required. Sample monodispersity has been improved both directly with synthetic techniques and indirectly via separation techniques; however, additional improvements are still needed. For instance, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) has been used to separate nanoparticles that differ in both shape and size. Unfortunately, surfactants that have been shown to bind irreversibly to nanoparticle surfaces were used to facilitate this separation. In this presentation, we will couple surfactant-free SEC with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to separate and investigate SERS enhancements generated from silica coated gold nanoclusters (Aun@SiO2 where n=number of Au nanoparticles per cluster). Flow rate, sample loading, and buffer composition will be shown to be important in optimizing the successful fractionation (and purification) of these nanoparticle samples. Correlated plasmonic and SERS studies will be used for sample analysis and separation performance. We envision that further improvements in this separation technique will allow for thorough structure-function studies involving SERS signal.

Priyanka Singh
Monitoring the Metabolism of 6-Mercaptopurine using Capillary Electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis is a powerful separation technique for the analysis of complex mixtures and has the promise to offer important information regarding the metabolism, isolation, and identification of anti-cancer drugs and metabolites. For instance, the metabolism of the anti-cancer drug 6-mercaptopurine is converted into an active, inactive, and (non-specifically) toxic metabolites depending on the relative activities of three different enzymes. In this work, the metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine by xanthine oxidase is monitored. The separation of the drug from its metabolized products is optimized and reveals kinetic information regarding drug-enzyme interactions. Validation of these data is provided using both internal and external standards. These studies will provide the basis for the analysis of complex sample matrices where the direct detection of drug metabolites will aid in more efficient treatment of patients.

Suyun Ma
Urban and Regional Planning
Spatial Relationship between Elderly Population Distribution and Crashes Related to Elderly Drivers in Des Moines, Iowa

GIS based Getis-Ord Hot-spot Analysis was used to identify areas where high and low values of elderly population cluster and where they are randomly distributed. Network Cross K-Function was applied to these areas to examine the effect of elderly population distribution on crash locations involving the elderly drivers. We assumed that due to their limited mobility, crashes related to the elderly drivers gather around areas where the elderly populations cluster. The results showed that in areas where high counts or low counts of elderly cluster, crashes do cluster around areas of population whereas in areas where the elderly population is a randomly distributed, there is no clustering of crashes. Analysis was conducted at the block level for populations and crashes for Des Moines, Iowa.

Sih-han Wang
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Caspase Inhibition Blocks Cell Death and Enhances Mitophagy, But Fails to Promote T Cell Lymphoma.

Inhibition of Caspase 9 with a dominant negative construct (Casp9DN) has been shown to promote viability and oncogenesis, and impair mitochondrial function in the context of an apoptotic signal. We sought to determine whether mitophagy may eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria in cells expressing Casp9DN and may represent a critical checkpoint in tumor formation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that caspase inhibition increased abnormal mitochondria and enhanced mitophagyin FL5 cells following IL-3 deprivation. Confocal microscopy showed colocalization of GFP-LC3 and mitochondria, also supporting increased mitophagy. However, overexpression of Parkin failed to enhance mitophagy in those cells. In primary thymocytes, Casp9DN blocked caspase activity, delayed apoptotic cell death, and resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, but did not significantly enhance T cell lymphoma alone in combination with Lck-Bax38/1, or with Beclin 1+/- mice. This study suggests that caspase inhibition prevented cell death, reduced ROS, and altered mitochondrial function both in FL5 cells and primary thymocytes. Casp9DN led to mitochondrial dysfunction both in vivo and in vitro and increased Parkin-independent mitophagy. However, preliminary studies show that Casp9DN fails to promote T cell lymphoma in the condition of either impaired autophagy or increased apoptosis in two murine models.

Marcelo Boccato Kuyumjian
Antropophagy in the Music of Villa-Lobos

Villa-Lobos was part of a group of Modernist artists in Brazil who incorporated national elements in to their own creation. Influenced by Mario and Oswald de Andrade, and the Anfropofagismo, Villa-Lobos was able to create a unique language that combined Brazilian popular music to European vanguard classical music.

This aim of this research is to understand the compositional process of Villa-Lobos, through the analyses Villa-Lobos solo piano piece "Ciclo Brasileiro" (Brazilian Cycle), with especial focus on his use of Brazilian music elements. 

Dana C. Gravesen
Communication Studies
I Pledge Allegiance to the F[l]ag: The Rearticulation of Contemporary Queerness as a Threat to Post-9/11 Homogeneous U.S. Nationalism

This project considers three primary factors in the rearticulation of the queer U.S. subject as un-American, and therefore a threat to nationalism, in post-9/11 U.S. nationalistic discourse. The first of these factors is how articulated U.S. nationalism changed after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center skyscrapers in New York City, and the Pentagon building in Washington D.C., on September 11th, 2001. These attacks offered an opportunity to reify and rearticulate what cultural scholar Kyle Kusz calls “white cultural nationalism." The second factor considered is how, based on these shifts, the queer U.S. subject is both contemporaneously coded, and through historical contextualization re-coded as unpatriotic, not white, and incapable of being considered masculine. Finally, this project
will analyze how the rhetoric of the U.S. Presidential debates of 2004 communicated same-sex marriage as the primary agenda item of queer advocates, and brought the issue into the political discourse of a post 9/11 United States. The impetus of this project can be traced to marked shifts in contemporary queer
studies that attempt to position queerness as a problematic  appendage of the U.S. national body.

Ukpong Eyo
Investigating the Role of a Cannabinoid Receptor in Microglial cells in the Rodent Brain

Microglia cells of the central nervous system (CNS) have been implicated in traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and there is controversy as to whether it improved or worsens injury. Thus, understanding the microglial activation proves important even for therapeutic purposes. Cannabinoids are compounds produced either naturally by the Cannabis plant or as synthetic analogues of these compounds. The CNS produces cannabinoids and expresses their receptors. Two of these receptors have been cloned thus far -the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Recently, interest has been directed to the CB2 which has been implicated in the regulation of microglial responses to injury in the CNS.

We are testing the hypothesis that CB2 receptors regulate specific microglial cell functions, including migration to injured nerve cells, proliferation, and learance of dead cells using a genetic approach in the rodent brain. Using time-lapse microscopy and fixed-tissue microscopy, we compare the migration / chemotaxis, proliferation and clearance of dead neurons by the microglia between mice possessing and mice lacking the receptor. Our results thus far do not support a role for the CB2 receptor in basic microglial functions, including cell motility, chemotaxis, proliferation and dead cell clearance after traumatic injury in an ex vivo brain tissue environment.

Nadire Gulcin Aydin
Counselor Education and Supervision
School Counselors' Perceptions Working with Linguistically Diverse Families

Little research to date has investigated the involvement and role perception of school counselors on partnerships with Linguistically Diverse (LD) families.  This article reviews the results of a survey study with school counselors (n = 95) in a Midwestern state on their involvement in school-family-community (SFC) partnerships with Linguistically Diverse students' families.  The results indicated that a collaborative school climate, school principal perception, and training in partnership implementation were positively related to school counselor involvement in SFC partnerships with LD students' families.

Jared Fowler
Style and Structure in Philip Glass’s Concerto for Violin and Orchestra

Philip Glass's first work in his mature style is the Concerto for Violin and Orchestra. In it he employs repetition and melodic cycling, elements from his early work. He also points to future stylistic innovations with his harmonic and rhythmic ambiguity, created by extended sections of polyrhythm and chromatic chords.
Glass's early music was devoted to structure and making that structure audible. In Two Pages (1968) five notes are gradually and meticulously cycled and recycled with small rhythmic and ornamental additions occurring throughout.
Glass has layered conflicting rhythms atop one another and sustained them, creating a churning background to this piece. He uses this rhythmic effect as a way of heightening tension and drama by building large polyrhythms and resolving them as a rhythmic cadence.
By writing in a classical form in an unfamiliar instrumentation, the Concerto for Violin and Orchestra is Philip Glass's step into maturity. The stylistic traits of his youth, like repetition and gradual motion, are reworked and developed here into compositional tools that he uses in both new and familiar ways.

Kelly M. Gierlus
Effect of the Presence of Oxalate on the Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity of Calcium-containing Mineral Dust Aerosol

Dicarboxylic acids, which make up a significant portion of organics in the atmosphere, are emitted directly through biomass burning and automobile combustion as well as produced through oxidation of volatile organics. In recent field studies, oxalic acid has been shown to be present in mineral dust aerosol. The presence of this internally mixed organic compound can alter water uptake and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) abilities of dust particles in the Earth's atmosphere. In this study, CCN measurements indicate that the internally mixed oxalate/calcite particles were more active than the unreacted calcite particles, but showed a much smaller enhancement in CCN activity compared to sulfate/PSL and oxalic acid/PSL internally mixed particles due to the reaction of calcite with oxalic acid to yield calcium oxalate. Our results show that atmospheric processing of mineral dust through heterogeneous reactions can alter CCN activity to an extent which depends on mineralogy and chemical speciation.

Saikat Dutta
Supramolecular Construction of a Cofacial Terpyridine in Solid State

Cofacial arrangements of molecules or ligands with aromatic π-surfaces are of great interest since such molecules can place metal ions and small molecules in close proximity and, thereby, mimic the behaviors of metals in biological environments, provide geometric features for catalysis, and serve as platforms for small molecule activation, molecular recognition and coordination-driven self-assembly. In this context, terpyridine (TP), and its derivatives, are extremely useful building blocks in the designed construction of functional metal complexes and supramolecular assemblies with applications in fields ranging from supramolecular chemistry to nanoscience to catalysis. In recent years, we have been successful to access synthetically challenging molecular targets (e.g. cyclophane, ladderanes) stereospecifically and in quantitative yield via templated synthesis in solid state. In this contribution, we wish to demonstrate  a successful application of our template-controlled solid state methodology in the construction of a cofacial TP namely rctt-1,2-bis-[2,2':6',2'']terpyridyl-3,4-bis(phenyl)cyclobutane (TPC) from a TP functionalized olefin trans-1-{[2,2':6',2'']terpyridyl)-2-(phenyl)ethylene (TPE). The cofacial TP has been synthesized stereospecifically and in quantitative yield and represents as a novel ligand in coordination chemistry.

Candyce R. Briggs
School Psychology
The Effectiveness of Professional Development Online Among Educators in Gifted Education

  Educators have to endure a variety of changes as society imposes new demands on schools. Along with these demands comes a desperate need of a "professional learning community". Traditionally, these learning communities are through conferences, workshops, and professional meetings. However, in the twenty-first century, the use of internet has become an excellent tool for communicating and receiving information. The use of online learning communities offers a new model for professional growth in teachers. This study examines the effectiveness of online learning communities among educators and others who are interested in gifted education and are specifically subscribed to an online community called Gifted-Teachers List-serve. Results of this study will determine what type of learning community is more effective and what can be done to improve professional development among educators specifically in the area of gifted education.

Kimberly A. Hoppe
Occupational and Environmental Health
Exposure Assessment of Families Reoccupying Flooded Homes

Seventy-three residents of Linn County, Iowa whose homes were flooded in June of 2008 were enrolled in an indoor air and health assessment upon re-occupying their flood damaged homes. The homes were evaluated at two different remediation stages: in-progress and complete. The homes and the residents were studied to determine if the remediation steps were effective in reducing indoor bioaerosols to safe levels. We sought to provide health departments with guidelines for advising residents of future floods if remediation is effective at reducing exposures. The indoor air quality assessment included: culturable mold, culturable bacteria, fungal spores, bacterial endotoxin, fungal (1,3)β-D-glucan, (1,3) (1,6)β-D-glucan, lead, asbestos, eight common allergens, radon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, relative humidity, and wall moisture. Indoor air exposures were compared with a questionnaire-based health assessment to evaluate relationships between adverse health effects and the exposures residents encountered in their flood-damaged homes. Air sampling results show that the in-progress homes had significantly higher concentrations of some bioaerosols when compared to the completed homes. This study suggests that proper remediation of flood damaged homes decreased the amount of bio-contaminants inside the home potentially left over and promoted due to flood water in the home.

Yulia Tataurova
Using solution proton NMR for characterization of supramolecular systems.

Porouse nanomaterials such as zeolites, have very large suface area that can be used to control their chemical, biological and catalytic activities. Through functionalization, the properties of the nanocrystalline zeolite external surface can be tailored for specific applications. Structural elucidation of molecules attached to nanoparticle surfaces is a key to the successful chemical modifications of nanomaterial surface. In this investigation, solution proton NMR techniques to fully characterize ligand structures on the surfaces of nanocrystaline silicalite. In this study, the feasibility of using 1H solution NMR for full structural elucidation of organic molecules covalently bound or physically adsorbed to nanoparticles was demonstrated. Furthermore, the proton solution NMR provides direct spectroscopic evidence of the supramolecular binding of APTES to the external surface of silicalite-1 zeolites.

Kevin Artigue
Playwriting (MFA in Theatre Arts)
Achilles: The Creation of a First Draft

Last fall, as a member of the Iowa Playwrights Workshop, I completed a play called Achilles, Scourge OF Man. My aim with the play was to take existent Greek myths of the hero Achilles and synthesize them into a dramatic narrative. At the outset I gave myself little constraints or ambitions beyond the completion of the play. The goal was the end. The shape and form of the play; the thematic questions it would ask; the theatrical scope of the written world; in honor of my process, I would leave these considerations up for grabs. During the conference, I hope to provide some insight into the creation of the first draft of the play; in support of which, a scene from the play will be performed.

Ling-Yan Yang
School Psychology
Creating Bridges to Home-School Partnerships for New Immigrant Families

This poster describes a program aiming at improving home-school partnerships for new immigrant families. The program is designed to pair bilingual/international university student volunteers with immigrant families who speak the same language and who have a child in the American public school. The bilingual students can also be paired with doctoral students in the school psychology program, then they work with classroom teachers through emails in creating an individualized home-school communication sheet. This sheet ideally should be written with bilingual translations and should be constantly revised based on the child's learning needs. Therefore, this program is designed to serve with ongoing and long-term effort. 

Vanja Stojkovic
Linking Protein Dynamics to Catalysis: Study on a Series of Active Site Mutants of Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a small, flexible, monomeric protein that catalyzes the conversion of 7,8-dihydrofolate to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate through simple chemical transformation (C-H→C transfer). Under physiological conditions the wtDHFR exhibits temperature independent intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). According to Marcus-like models this behavior is consistent with a system wherein the reaction coordinate is well organized and where the average donor-acceptor distance (DAD) is optimized for tunneling. In order to inspect the importance of the active-site distance sampling we examined the temperature dependence of the intrinsic KIEs using a series of active site mutants. The residue of interest was isoluecine 14, which is a conserved hydrophobic residue that constrains the donor (nicotinamide ring) close to the acceptor (dihydropterin). The temperature dependence of intrinsic KIEs was measured for three serial mutants (I14V, I14A, I14G). A correlation was found where the KIEs' temperature dependence increased with decreasing size of the hydrophobic residue. Apparently, if the size of residue 14 is smaller, the average DAD is longer at the transition state and the temperature dependence of the intrinsic KIEs becomes larger.

Marta N. Mack
Health and Sport Studies
Ballin’ Outta Control? The Boondocks as a (Self) Reflexive ‘Bricolage’ Narrative of the Black Male Sporting Experience

The Boondocks is the witty brainchild of cartoonist and cultral critic Aaron McGruder. The Boondocks began as a comic strip syndicated in over 300 US newspapers and is currently in its third season as an animated television series featured on Adult Swim. The Boondocks maps the experiences of and African American family, the Freemans, who left Chicago's urban center to live in its suburbs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the "Ballin" episode and to demonstrate the ways in which McGruder mobilizes what I call a "bricolage narrative." This paper will consider how the bricolage narrative brings together fragmented and decontexualized issues of race, class, gender, sexuality, etc., presented by sport media outlets. This paper examines wheather or not McGruder's use of the bricolage narrative draws on the audiences cultural literacy. If so, how could a lack of cultural literacy complicate The Boondock's ability to be transformative?

Evelyn Bottando
Communication Studies
What’s In a Domain Name? ICANN and Semantic Legitimacy

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a a not-for-profit public interest corporation contracted by the U.S. Department of Commerce whose main role is to oversee the root servers that ensure each computer and web address has a unique identifier. Like the telephone system, unique number assignments are necessary for the transfer of information in order for the Internet to work effectively. This presentation explores the maintenance and lack of maintenance of legitimacy on the part of ICANN and its implication for infrastructural regulation of the Internet.

Jian-Peng Guo
Educational Psychology
Designing Examples for Students with Diverse Prior Knowledge in Mathematics Learning

Comparing multiple examples is good for learning and an effective technique in mathematics instruction. However, surprisingly little is known about how to design multiple examples in terms of the variability of the examples, for students with different prior knowledge. This experimental study thus investigated the effect of the variability of multiple examples on learning and the important role of students’ prior knowledge in learning from comparing multiple examples. Three instructional texts were developed to represent three ways of designing examples for learning the concept of altitude of a triangle. In Experiment 1, fourth-grade students who discerned each critical aspect of the concept first separately and then simultaneously demonstrated better conceptual knowledge than other students. In Experiment 2, the effectiveness of texts was found to be moderated by students’ prior knowledge: Similar findings as Experiment 1 were found for fourth-grade students; the effectiveness of the texts, however, was not significant for sixth-grade students. The findings suggest that examples should be designed based on students’ individual critical aspects to help them discern critical aspects first separately and then simultaneously.

Nai-Jiin Yang
School Psychology
Case Study: Effectiveness of Repeated Reading on a Low-Achieving Fourth-Grade Student

A significant amount of research has linked reading fluency to successful reading. To improve oral reading fluency for children with reading difficulties, research has provided substantial support for a repeated reading intervention. Empirical evidence from these studies suggests that having student repeatedly read with instructional level materials for three times, and providing both corrective and performance feedback seems to be most effective in increasing student's oral reading performance. This study examined the effectiveness of this repeated reading package with one fourth-grade child with reading difficulties. Passages for oral reading practice were randomly selected from the Read naturally reading curriculum. The intervention occurred weekly for about 15 minutes on each occasion and lasted a total of 12 weeks. Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) was measured by the number of correct words read per minute (wcpm). Oral Reading Fluency gains across pre and post assessment were evaluated using paired-samples  t- tests. Paired-samples t-tests between the pre and post wcpm scores were statistically significant (t(10) = 11.887, p = 0.01). Findings suggested this reading intervention was effective in accelerating oral reading fluency faster than expected.

Susan Stanfield
Crossing a Color Line: ‘True Womanhood’ and Citizenship in the Antebellum African American Press

“True Womanhood” was a popular manifestation of gender roles propagated through print culture that limited women to the private sphere while also elevating her position within that sphere. Newspapers, women’s magazines, household manuals and domestic fiction extolled the ‘virtues” of womanhood. This wealth of published material placed the information necessary to manage the modern household as well as a cultural code to live by into the hands of growing white middle class. Domestic advice literature for African American women was similar in form and content although without newspapers and magazines dedicated to a black female readership, household tips and prescriptions for womanhood were sprinkled among news items and advertisements in the African American press. While the advice offered was not always pragmatic and often ignored the unique constraints facing the antebellum free black household, these portraits of womanhood served a critical function. This paper will argue that for African American women the act of performing civic citizenship while like their white middle class counter-parts was located within domesticity, was experienced differently due to the racial overtones to “womanhood.”

Hua Su
Communication Studies
The Mediation of Desires: Writing, Reading and Viewing in Quills

The film Quills tells the story of Marquis de Sade at Charanton insane asylum in Paris, where he continued writing obscene novels in spite of censorship and torture. Besides its manifest commentary on artistic expression and censorship, the movie presents a perfect media text that illustrates the relationship between writing, reading, and film viewing. By examining the positioning of the writer, reader, and film viewer in the film narrative and analyzing the visual metaphors created by the camera work and film editing, I read the film as an allegory of narrative desire and discuss the dangers and promises in the textual mediation of desires.  

Lisa Carlton
Communication Studies
Interplay of Mythic and Mosaic Conceptions of Democracy in Congressional Deliberations over the USA PATRIOT Act

For centuries democracy has been debated, discussed, practiced, established, attacked, supported, and ignored. From ancient Greece through Alexis de Tocqueville and on through today, democracy has meant a lot of different things to many different people. The ambivalence surrounding the meaning of democracy and all of the “adjectives” used to “precise” the concept (i.e. constitutional, constitutive, direct, republican representative, deliberative, fugitive, pluralist, parliamentary, multiracial, and electronic) suggests that democracy is a rich discursive site for the study of these competing discourses. Using a form of social text analysis informed by Mikhail Bakhtin’s work in dialogism, this study provides a method for discussing ideological conceptions of democracy in fluid tension within the discursive activity of a U.S. Congressional meeting.

Stephen R. Kaeppler
Current Closure in the Ionosphere: Results from the ACES Sounding Rocket

The Auroral Current and Electrodynamics Structure (ACES) rockets were launched into a dynamic multiple-arc aurora, from Poker Flat Research Range, AK on January 29, 2009. The ACES rocket mission, in conjunction with the PFISR Radar, was designed to observe the three dimensional current system of an auroral arc during quiet-time conditions. ACES utilized two well instrumented payloads flown along very similar magnetic field footprints, but with different apogees. The higher altitude payload (apogee 360 km) took in-situ measurements of the plasma parameters above the current closure region to provide the input signature into the lower ionosphere. The low altitude payload (apogee 130 km) took similar observations within the current closure region, where cross-field currents can flow. We present results comparing the electric and magnetic fields, density measurements, and electron particle data on the two payloads . We also present data from all sky imagers of the evolution of the auroral arc as the payloads passed through similar regions of the auroral arc. We examine an event in the high altitude payload which may be the signature of electron acceleration by means of Alfvén waves. We further compare the plasma measurements between the high and low altitude payload to make inferences about current closure geometry.

Ezra L. Plank
Religious Studies
Native or Saint?: The Tension of Racial Identity and Religious Sanctity in Seventeenth-Century New France

In 1696, Jesuit Father Pierre Cholenec commented on the premature death of a young Iroquois woman, Kateri Tekakwitha: “So ungrateful and wicked a soil as that of the Iroquois was incapable of making that young flower grow, capable of spoiling and unworthy of possessing it.” Cholenec’s evaluation reveals the Jesuit missionaries’ ambivalence toward Tekakwitha: Native peoples like Tekakwitha were considered “savage,” “uncivilized,” and having a “natural inclination” toward immorality, while individually she was a “pure flower,” demonstrating such piety and devotion to the Christian faith that she was perceived as a saint by her community.


Kateri Tekakwitha’s life (1656-1680) provides a compelling example of the tension between racial identity and religious sanctity in the frontier of the New World.  This paper analyzes Tekakwitha’s biographies to discover how the Jesuit fathers resolved this tension and chose to portray her in their narratives. Specifically, this essay seeks to understand how Christian holiness and Native ethnicity formed exclusive categories in the Jesuits’ numerous biographies which precluded Tekakwitha from simultaneously being a Native and a saint.  It argues that Tekakwitha’s body is the key to the biographies: as she grew in holiness, Native cultural specificities were denied and replaced by European virtues.

Heather M Brockway
A Screen for genes involved in Synaptonemal Complex Disassembly

The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a highly conserved structure formed between parental chromosomes during meiosis. The absence of a functional SC leads to missegregation of chromosomes and generates aneuploid gametes, which cause birth defects. Our work focuses on elucidating the SC disassembly pathway as the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Using C. elegans as a model for meiosis, my project utilizes RNAi methodology to discover novel genes associated with the SC. Our lab has uncovered a novel SC disassembly mutant, aki-1(rj1) in C. elegans. We are utilizing aki-1(rj1) in an enhancer/ suppressor screen to identify genes that interact with aki-1 in the disassembly pathway. I have screened 4% of the RNAi feeding library, identifying three suppressors and seven enhancers that were aki-1(rj1) specific. Eight of these genes have not shown an embryonic lethal phenotype in other screens, indicating that we are capable of identifying novel genes with this method. However, two interesting known genes have be recovered.The power of the C. elegans model system allows us to study, at the molecular level, the mechanisms of chromosome segregation, leading to a greater overall understanding of meiosis. The knowledge gained from these types of studies can be translated into clinical techniques for prenatal screening, treatment or prevention of nondisjuction related birth defects in humans.

Arya Sobhakumari
Human Toxicology
NADPH oxidase signaling and elevated glucose metabolism characterizes the adaptative response of head and neck cancer cells to the Akt inhibitor Perifosine

The PI3K/Akt pathway frequently upregulated in many cancers enhances their glucose metabolism, growth and survival. While significant cancer cell killing is observed in vitro using Akt inhibitors, positive responses in clinical trials are rare. Here we test the hypothesis that head and neck cancer (HNSCC) cells adapt to Akt inhibitor perifosine (PER) by altered signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes. Results showed that first 24 hours of exposure to PER (5µM) inhibited growth, clonogenic survival, glucose consumption, and GLUT1 protein levels in FaDu and Cal-27 but not in SCC-25 cells. However after 48 hours FaDu and Cal-27 cells became refractory to PER with restoration of glucose consumption and GLUT1 expression but SCC-25 cells remained unaffected. PER increased oxidative stress in FaDu cells with increased CDCFH2 fluorescence and glutathione disulfide (%GSSG). PER caused a decrease in the levels of NOX4 at 48 and 72 hours in FaDu cells. These results suggest that inhibition of Akt could inhibit glucose metabolism and cause clonogenic killing via oxidative stress in HNSCC cells. However surviving cells may adapt and become resistant to PER as manifested by restoration of glucose metabolism. This also suggests that Akt inhibitors may have to be used in combination with other metabolic inhibitors to increase clinical efficacy.

Jai-Pei Huang
Business (MBA)
Graduation statment

At this point, I would want to appreciate all the teachers that taught me. When I am blissful about something, you are there for me to share the pride with you. On the other hand, I would also want to appreciate all my MBA classmates.They are the cleverest and friendly person I have met.  I learned many things from them, but more importantly, I learn to respect different culture and listen others. I would like to say "All good things come to an end", but graduating is not the end for us, it is the beginning of a new journey.I believe that is a brighter future waiting for us!

Mai Han Tu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Assay Development to Quantify Nanoparticle Toxicity in Confluent Lung Epithelial Cell Monolayers

 The goal of the present study was to develop in vitro assays to enable the quantification of cellular toxicity in bronchial epithelial cells induced by nanoparticles.

High throughput toxicity assays using MTS (tetrazolium salt; to quantify metabolically active cells) and NR (neutral red; to examine membrane permeability and lysosomal integrity) were developed to evaluate toxicity of nanoparticles in the bronchial epithelial cell lines 16HBE14o- and Calu-3.

Conditions for MTS and NR assays were optimized by varying the amount of dye, time of incubation and density of each cell type per well. Various mucolytic agents (NAC, DTU and DTT) were tested to enable quantification of toxicity using the mucus producing cell line, Calu-3, while limiting dye loss due to mucus interactions. The cellular toxicity of polystyrene nanoparticles (200 nm) with doses up to 1 % (w/v) was evaluated using the developed assays.

The optimal seeding density and incubation time for the 96 well-plates were 3x104 cells/well for 16HBE14o- cells and 2x105 cells/well for Calu-3 cells for 24 hours. MTS and NR assays were developed to quantify toxicity of two lung epithelial cell lines, 16HBE4o- and Calu-3. The toxicity of the nanoparticles determined from these dose-response curves will direct future experiments with nanoparticle delivery of therapeutics.

Danilo Diedrichs
Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences
Modeling and analysis of the dynamics of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in mammalian cells

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a complex dynamical mechanism present in mammalian cells, which is triggered when the cell is subjected to stress leading to an accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).  The primary functions of the UPR are to sense any perturbation in the protein-folding capacity of the cell, and correct the situation to restore homeostasis.  A mathematical model of the UPR was developed in collaboration with experimental cell biologists and calibrated based on experimental data.  This model uses a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model the UPR as a dynamical network of interacting proteins, including the positive and negative feedback loops between them.  The model tracks the concentrations of the unfolded proteins throughout the response, as well as the other UPR main proteins and complexes, such as BiP (chaperones), eIF2 (translation initiation factor), and GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage protein).  Several types of ER stress can be assumed as input, including long-term and periodic stress.  The model can be used to better understand the UPR mechanisms leading to outcomes ranging from cell survival to apoptosis.

Matthew A. Andersson
Defying Gravity: Optimism and the Range of Personal Social Networks

Homophily, or the tendency to associate with others like oneself, is so vital to the dynamics of social structure that it has been likened to a gravitational force. However, individuals vary substantially in how they establish and maintain social ties. I use the 2004 General Social Survey to illustrate how personality shapes the composition of personal social networks. I find that optimism is linked to substantial leverage in overall, non-kin, and extended network sizes, as well as to heterophilous tie formation across lines of age, education, race, and religion. 

Lindsey Beal
The Venus Series

The Venus Series is my attempt to re-create the power, mystery and primal beauty of the prehistoric forms have by creating my own figurines in high-shrinkage flax paper and photographing them in a historical photographic process called wet-plate collodion.  This technique of coating a glass plate with photo sensitive emulsion and shooting the image while the plate is still wet gives my figures the luminosity, beauty and drama of the original Venus figures.

Samuel Lifton
“Chasing the Genetic Drivers of Malignancy in B-cell Lymphoma”

Increasing our understanding of the causes leading to malignancy in the B-cell requires strategies which allow for unbiased discovery of the contributing genes.   Forward genetic screens such as the Moloney virus and Sleeping Beauty retrotransposon are an established method for generating malignant neoplasms and our study utilizes them in a mouse model of human lymphoma.   High-throughput genetic sequencing of neoplastic tissue offers a unique ability to determine the site of insertion by a virus or retrotransposon.  The results of sequencing presented thousands of insertion sites and were evaluated using two distinct bioinformatic approaches.  One method was a novel network based approach which looked for cooperating genes across relevant tissues and tested them for significance against randomness using a Monte Carlo statistical analysis.  The second method was a piecewise approach utilizing gene set enrichment to demonstrate candidate gene participation in important but heretofore unrecognized pathways associated with unlimited growth potential. Biological validation of several candidate genes was performed using RT-PCR, confirming the utility of these screens as inducers of increased RNA transcript at their site of insertion. We have succeeded in highlighting several genes likely to be involved in B-cell malignancy for use in ours and other laboratories participating in this chase. 

Anna A. Volkert
Salt-Mediated Self Assembly of Thioctic Acid on Gold Nanoparticles

Self assembled monolayer (SAM) modification is a widely used method to improve the functionality and stability of bulk and nanoscale materials. For instance, the chemical compatibility and utility of solution-phase nanoparticles are often improved using covalently bound SAMs. Herein, solution-phase gold nanoparticles are modified with thioctic acid SAMs in the presence and absence of salt. Molecular packing density on the nanoparticle surfaces is estimated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and increases by ~17% when molecular self assembly occurs in the presence vs. the absence of salt. We hypothesize that as the ionic strength of the solution increases, defects in the SAM are more easily accessible and subsequently occupied by additional thioctic acid molecules. Significantly, increased SAM packing densities increase the stability of functionalized gold nanoparticles by a factor of two relative to nanoparticles functionalized in the absence of salt. These results are expected to improve the reproducible functionalization of solution-phase nanomaterials for various applications.

Navid Zarrinnal
Religious Studies
Social Circumstances as Mitigation Evidence for Muslims Convicted on Terrorism Charges: A Critical Race Theory Approach

   This paper first provides evidence that judges, juries, and defense counsels perceive the crimes of Muslim defendants convicted on terrorism charges in a social vacuum. Using the methodology of critical race theory, it then posits that this perception is based on a dominant “racialized” notion surrounding Muslims; the notion that Muslims are inherently motivated to commit crimes of terrorism irrespective of the difficult social conditions affecting their lives. To deconstruct this notion, the paper contextualizes Muslim violence through narratives. It will then argue that to ensure a fair trial consistent with the prevailing legal standard, defense counsels should also contextualize Muslim violence by presenting a list of social circumstances as mitigation evidence.


Ambrose Naqeeb Stevens
Black Masculinity and Visual Culture

My work addresses the manifestation of Black masculinity through an analysis of visual culture, queer theory, and consumer and identity politics. I am interested in the body as an ideological site of production and consumption where context determines variation. Though my work is conceptually located within the experiences of an African American male, my creative practice is informed by cross-cultural research.  In a combined attempt that includes video, performance and photography, I often situate myself as the subject of my work. However, I wish to render myself as less than a focal point in order to function as merely a vehicle through which my concerns are articulated. In some instances, this decision has allowed me to impart autobiographical information as a way to initiate a dialogue that attempts to transcend categories of race, gender and ethnicity.

Marked by cyclical conversation, how does the body move inside, outside and beyond the structure of an inarticulate space? While exploring sociopolitical questions, my work aims, more generally, to highlight the overlooked gestures and relationships between the body, time and space.  

Nathan L Shepard
Art History
Spectacles, Festivals and Processionals and their Lasting Influence on the Piazza Navona

The possesso of a new pope is an important display of power and authority, but most importantly it is a public display and reminder of the papacy’s legitimacy to govern the Church and the city of Rome.  Taking the form of the triumphs of the pagan emperors of antiquity, the popes associated themselves with the connotations and trappings of the earthly powers of the ancient Roman emperors. Pope Innocent X has, until recently, been seen by art historians as a dry and artistically tasteless pope, more concerned with legal matters than serving as a patron of the arts.  However, this pope has done more for the arts than has been historically credited to him.  The iconographic program of his possesso demonstrates his knowledge of how art can be used to further his own agenda.  Iconography used in the temporary structures erected for the possesso would be used again throughout the pope’s reign, most notably in Bernini’s Fountain of the Four Rivers, a permanent monument to Innocent X in Piazza Navona. 

Shannon Dyson
School Psychology
Assessing Parental Thoughts with the Stressful Parent Thoughts Scale (SPTS)

Parenting is often difficult and many parents struggle to deal with children’s behaviors. Behavioral parent training programs are effective ways of managing many of the problems that affect family interaction. Focusing on the thoughts of parents is one way to attempt to maximize the effectiveness of parent training. Parents’ attributions about their children’s behavior and their own behavior can affect parenting. This study describes the development of the Stressful Parent Thoughts Scale (SPTS). The SPTS is a 34-item self-administered measure that examines the maladaptive and adaptive thinking of parents specifically related to their parenting. This scale is comprised of three subscales which include: the Maladaptive Thoughts about Parenting Subscale, the Maladaptive Thoughts about Child Subscale, and the Adaptive Thinking Scale. This measure has evidence of fair internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. In addition, sufficient construct validity and criterion related validity have been demonstrated for the sample of parents participating in this study. Clinicians that work with parents to improve parenting behavior could find this measure useful in identifying the cognitive distortions that parents may have of themselves as parents or of their children. Identifying these distortions could in turn affect how they respond and carry out parent training techniques.

Erin A Peters
Art History
Seeing Egypt in Italy: Considering the Egyptian and Roman Aspects of the Temple of Isis in Pompeii

Just as tourists today go to Egypt to see pyramids, temples, tombs, and mummies, ancient Romans were drawn to the exotic culture and allure of Egypt.  They too visited Egypt, bringing back to Italy souvenirs ranging from statuettes to obelisks.  Such travels and souvenirs inspired the incorporation of Egyptian motifs into the art and architecture of Italian towns like Pompeii, where homeowners commissioned wall paintings of nilotic landscapes and civic patrons built a temple to the Egyptian goddess, Isis.  Modern scholars use the term aegyptiaca to describe Egyptian objects in Italy and Roman statues and wall paintings with Egyptian motifs. In this paper, I suggest that architecture should also be included in discussions of aegyptiaca.  I propose that certain architectural features of the Temple of Isis in Pompeii were inspired by the Egyptian Temple of Isis at Philae; therefore the Pompeian temple can be considered an example of aegyptiaca.  This conclusion invites further investigations into the complexity of Egyptian influences in Italy, suggesting that future comparisons of Italian and Egyptian monuments will add to our understanding of ancient Romans’ fascination with Egypt.

Austin J. Ramme
Biomedical Engineering
Gaussian Curvature Analysis Allows for Automatic Block Placement in Multi-Block Hexahedral Meshing

Finite element analysis has allowed for investigations of the human musculoskeletal system and orthopaedic implant design.  The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in performing a finite element study; this has limited the number of patient-specific finite element studies that have been performed.  Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme.  We hypothesize that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation.  The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis, and basic computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information.  We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries, and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases.  This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks for the multi-block mesh generation process.

David Huhtelin
Development of a Novel Assay that Reveals Striking Inter-Individual Differences in Ability of Endotoxin to form a Bioactive Complex with MD-2 in Plasma of HSCT Patients

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is used to cure diseases of the bone marrow but can have toxic effects including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Whereas ~all patients become endotoxemic, ~50% develop acute GVHD. We speculated that the pro-inflammatory effect of endotoxemia with increased risk of aGVHD could vary because of inter-individual differences in the ability of plasma endotoxin to be delivered to MD-2, the principal endotoxin-binding component of the pro-inflammatory Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4. To test this hypothesis, we developed a highly sensitive and quantitative assay that measures the extent to which uniformly labeled (25,000cpm/pmol), purified H endotoxin (E) forms a complex with added recombinant in patient vs. healthy control plasma.  Formation of H E his-MD2 complex was measured by capture using Ni chelating resin. There was no capture of H E without added his MD-2, but up to 40% capture when his MD-2 was added.  There were striking differences in H E capture in plasma from different patients (n=25)at baseline (i.e., before beginning HSCT treatments) (range: 0% to 275%;mean: 66 ± 70% (SD); of H E capture in a control plasma used as reference). The sensitivity and speed of this new assay may help identify HSCT patients most at risk for the pro-inflammatory effects of endotoxemia.

Matt Gibson
Computer Science
Geometric Dominating Set via Local Search

We consider the minimum dominating set (MDS) problem for disk graphs.  Here, we are given a set of disks in the Euclidean plane, and we call two disks neighbors if and only if they intersect.  A dominating set is a subset of the disks such that every disk is either in the subset or has a neighbor in the subset.  In the MDS problem, we want to compute the smallest cardinality dominating set.  The problem is NP-hard, and so we are interested in developing a time-efficient algorithm which will return a solution whose cost is as close to optimal as possible.  We show that a simple local search algorithm does at least as well as any time-efficient algorithm can hope to do, unless P = NP.

Morgan B. Yarker
Science Education
Analysis of Teaching Resources for Implementing an Interdisciplinary Approach in the Elementary and Middle School Classrooms

Articles from the National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) publications Science & Children and Science Scope were analyzed to investigate the characteristics of resources available for teachers who want to implement interdisciplinary approaches into the science classroom. Articles were coded based on the discipline incorporated as well as the teaching tools provided so teachers can reproduce the lessons in their own classrooms. Of the articles read, approximately 13% of Science & Children and 21% of Science Scope articles met the interdisciplinary approach criteria. Student t-tests were used to analyze the statistical significance between using multiple disciplines in the science classroom. Results show that overall, reading, writing, art, and technology (all underlying forms of creativity) are the subjects most commonly discussed in the articles. Surprisingly, math is rarely discussed. As a result of reading being the most commonly integrated discipline, the articles most frequently provided resources, such as books, as teaching tools; followed by lesson plans, general strategy, and real-classroom examples. Comparing the articles between the age groups, we find that Science Scope articles have the most integrated and highest number of interdisciplinary articles.


Fabienne Bertrand
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Monitoring Fluvial Erosion of Cohesive Materials Using the Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin Sensor in Clear Creek, IA

Fluvial erosion incites significant bridge scour and large-scale bank erosion causing estimated $1.1 billion damage in the Midwest. Conventional, manual, field monitoring methods, typically erosion pins, cross-section resurveys or terrestrial photogrammetry, used to monitor fluvial erosion rates merely provide a net change in bank surface retreat since the previous measurement. If mass wasting has occurred, the ongoing fluvial erosion would be masked. Erosion event timing, and the precise bank response to individual flow or flow hydrograph changes, is generally uncertain. Thus, a technique that automatically quantifies bank erosion on a continuous basis is needed. This study will monitor the bank response to individual flow (i.e., fluvial erosion) using the Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin (PEEP) sensors in Clear Creek Iowa. It attends to monitor a full episode of bank change, including event timings and magnitude information for specific erosion and deposition events, which can be compared to flow discharges and hydrographs. If exploited, this method can lead to more detailed analysis of bank erosion related to temporal fluctuations in the suspected hydraulic forces.

Katharina Kley
Second Language Acquisition
Assessing the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of second language learners of German

The present study analyzes the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge of second language learners of German. It is a conceptual replication of Webb (2008) who confirmed the prevalent opinion that receptive vocabulary size is larger than productive vocabulary size (Fan, 2000; Laufer, 1998; Laufer & Paribakht, 1998). The main purpose of the current study is to investigate whether Webb's results hold upon replication (Polio & Gass, 1997).
Apart from differences in the population, the present study also includes polysemous words as target words and alters Webb's translation test format by testing vocabulary in context. Webb's research questions were maintained with his main question being: Is receptive vocabulary size larger than productive vocabulary size?
Twenty-four learners of German who were in their second year of college-level German were tested on their receptive and productive knowledge of the 2,000 most frequent German words. A receptive translation test and a productive translation test were used, both of which measure vocabulary size at two word frequency levels. Two scores were calculated at each of the two frequency levels: A strict score indicating full word knowledge and a sensitive score showing partial word knowledge. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed. The findings mainly support Webb's results.

Rebekah Richardson
Synthesis of Radulanin E and Analogues

Radulanin E and its analogues have been isolated from a variety of plants in the Radula genus of liverworts and possess a highly functionalized benzoxepin core.  This core presents numerous synthetic challenges, including formation of a seven-membered ring containing an ether linkage and a pentasubstituted benzene ring that must be prepared with the natural sequence of substituents.  To overcome these obstacles, a selective reduction of a stilbene moiety, regioselective formation of a cis-allylic alcohol, and a Lewis acid promoted ring closure were employed.  In addition, preparation of radulanin analogues required manipulation of an HWE coupling partner to afford the desired products.  Our efforts to prepare these natural products will be presented.

Xin Hu
Human Toxicology
Time Course of PCB Congener Uptake and Elimination in Rat Tissue after Inhalation Exposure to Airborne PCB Mixtures

Despite the continued occurrence of semi-volatile PCBs in the atmosphere, few studies have investigated inhalation exposure. In this study we measured the time course of congener elimination in Sprague-Dawley rats. We generated vapor-phase PCBs from Aroclor 1242 under carefully-controlled conditions into airflow fed to a nose-only exposure chamber. Chamber outflow was sampled using XAD cartridges and characterized by GC/MS/MS. Rats were exposed for 2 hr via nose-only inhalation. The 5 groups of PCB-exposed animals were serially euthanized at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 hr post exposure, with 2 SHAM-exposed groups euthanized at 0 hr and 6 hr. PCB levels in lung, liver, blood, brain and adipose tissue were measured at each time point. PCBs were found to accumulate in fat but decay within hours in other tissue, with half lives increasing in the order of liver (5.6 hr) < lung (8.2 hr) < brain (8.5 hr) < blood (9.7 hr). Concentrations were in the same range in lung, liver and adipose tissue, lower in brain and the lowest in blood. Congeners with pairs of adjacent hydrogen atoms, especially in the meta and para position, tended to be eliminated more rapidly. The rates indicated that the elimination depended on the chlorine substitution pattern as well as the target tissue. This study demonstrated that inhalation is a route of exposure to mono- to pentachlorobiphenyls.

Jo E. Butterfield
From “Full Equality” to “Equal Protection”: Gender, Race, and the US’ Role in the Origins of the Public/Private Distinction in International Human Rights Protections.

As the nascent United Nations negotiated the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, government officials crafted significant US human rights policy positions.  During this process, the demands of domestic women's NGOs initially led US officials to navigate the waters of gender and race inequality simultaneously. In seeking a position on the draft non-discrimination article, policy makers gradually reconsidered their absolute opposition to "equality" language, prioritizing larger concerns over the demands of domestic women's NGOs.  In a climate charged with increasing US/Soviet tensions, public indictments of the US' failure to effectively protect its citizens, and domestic constituencies committed to preserving race and gender-based social practices, the US government relied on equal protection under the law instead of full equality in all realms and situations.  In doing so, policy makers' not only permitted gender distinction, they effectively opened the door to the creation of a public/private dichotomy.  This allowed the international community to treat "private" violence differently than state persecution, which is responsible in part for women's marginalization from the mainstream postwar human rights project. 

David Ho
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Analysis of Calcium Store Distribution in Hippocampal Neurons

In most neurons, signaling is often mediated by a series of calcium release events along the neuron, which is termed calcium wave. The calcium wave controls a range of processes, from neurotransmitter release to gene expression. In our previous studies, we have observed that when we applied agonists of G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors in the direction from neuronal soma to dendrite in acutely dissociated hippocampal neurons, calcium waves rose from the dendrite and propagated toward soma. It was not clear why the calcium wave was initiated in the dendrite and was propagated in a direction opposite to that of neurotransmitter administration. We have hypothesized that the dendritic calcium store is more abundant than the somatic ones, which contributed to the initial rise of calcium wave in dendrite. Here we used confocal microscopy to show that the abundance of calcium store does not differ between dendrite and soma, refuting the hypothesis. We showed that, in both acutely dissociated and in cultured hippocampal neurons, mitochondria are not more in the dendrite than in the soma, but is more abundant at the junction between the two. In addition, we have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is diffusely distributed in neurons. Our results suggest that the distribution of calcium stores alone is not the primary cause for the directional calcium wave we observed.

Abigail Yoder
Art History
Innovation and Tradition in the Human-Plant Hybrids of Odilon Redon

The French Symbolist artist Odilon Redon depicted strange hybrid creatures in his early graphic works, often combining the features of humans and plants to create otherworldly beings. The inspiration for such beings likely developed from Redon's lifelong interest in the science, and stemmed from his early training with the botanist Armand Clavaud; other influences included the works of Charles Darwin and Louis Pasteur. In spite of the innovative spirit of these works, however, Redon also looked to traditional and popular forms of art as well, including mid-century caricature, and these works also influenced his prints and drawings. Thus, Redon's works represent a combination of the past and the present in both art and culture.

Parang Kim
Asian Intermarriage: The Effect of Birth Cohorts in Measuring Social Distance

This paper proposes a hybrid method that brings together the 'trend' and 'social distance' methods of intermarriage study, allowing us to take into account that historical conditions may change with the passing of time and subsequently affect birth cohorts differently. Cross-sectional data from the 1990 and 2000 Census are utilized to compare differences in social distance among cohorts for six Asian ethnic groups with each other and with Whites.

Laura A. Fraczek
Complement Factor H Regulation in the Central Nervous System

The complement system is a critical component of innate immunity that requires regulation to avoid inappropriate inflammatory action. Complement Factor H (CFH) is one such regulatory protein, and gene and promoter polymorphisms of CFH that may affect changes in function or expression correlate with certain diseases. This indicates that a better understanding of this gene's regulation is valuable. Presently, few studies have been published that address the role of CFH transcriptional control in the central nervous system (CNS). Our studies show that CFH is present in several CNS cell types. We have cloned the murine CFH promoter and have made truncated constructs to examine CFH gene regulation in cells of the CNS. These experiments indicate that specific regions throughout the promoter interact with transcription factors that enhance and repress CFH transcriptional activity. Additionally, our studies indicate that inflammatory cytokines are similarly affected by deletion of these promoter regions. Database examination of these areas indicate that there are potential transcription factor binding sites conserved between different species, which led us to investigate specific transcription factor binding interactions in these regions. Through these studies we hope to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of CFH in the CNS.

Isaac Sullivan
After Orphée

If knowledge comes out of desire, I'd like to capture that operation's appearance--- after it's strictly a pleasure, and before it arrives at understanding.

When I feel surprised by the aesthetics of the functional, I want to make something; I'm as surprised by the shapes of animals as I am by the ways visual and written languages shape meaning.

Looking as closely as possible at the horizon where perception and conception become indistinguishable from each other offers a way to both embody illusions and reflect on how they work.

In my videos and installations, I aim to hold the material and abstract in equal measure and explore their convergence by foregrounding the musicality of clashing positivisms.

Kristina D. Rogers
Peptide and Terpenoid Metabolites from a Fungicolous Hawaiian Isolate of the Family Bionectriaceae

Our studies of secondary metabolites produced by fungi have provided bioactive compounds that possess a diverse variety of novel structures. In the course of this ongoing work, an unidentified mitosporic fungus of the family Bionectriaceae (MYC-2186) was isolated from a basidioma of Phellinus gilvus found on a decaying hardwood branch collected on the island of Hawaii. Most of the taxa that comprise the Bionectriaceae are relatively unexplored from a chemical standpoint. The ethyl acetate extract of solid-substrate fermentation cultures of this isolate showed antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus. Chemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of two new natural products. Although the extract showed antifungal activity, neither of these compounds was proven to be responsible for these effects. Known compounds found in this extract were deemed to be responsible for the activity. The structure of the terpenoid glycoside was assigned by analysis of 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The amino acid composition of the peptide was determined by GCMS analysis of the N-trifluoroacetyl-n-butyl ester derivatives of the amino acids obtained upon hydrolysis. The peptide sequence was determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data in combination with HRESITOFMSMS data. The absolute configurations of the amino acids were investigated by GCMS analysis.

James Carviou
Blending Barriers: Identifying and Reconstructing Negative Media Messages


Blending Barriers: Identifying and Reconstructing Negative Media Messages is a course that identifies how negative media coverage of Iowa City's Southeast side has led to the creation of stereotypes and uninformed ideas about that section of the city.  This has existed in both print and broadcast news media.  It has largely resulted from the now infamous Mother's day mob involving an isolated number of individuals leading to the implementation of a city-wide curfew.  This is a service learning course designed to educate University of Iowa students on the concept of media literacy empowering them to work with community partners in efforts to combat uninformed media messages about Iowa City's Southeast side.  Media literacy is the ability to critically consume and create media. Through the development of community-based media literacy projects, individuals and communities are empowered to access, analyze, evaluate and produce media.  Focusing on the goals of the community partners, students will help them counteract negative media messages by working to garner representative news coverage.  Students will work with the community partners to create media by writing press releases, feature stories, blogging, websites, radio broadcasts, PSAs, documentaries, etc. 

Yu Su
Educational Administration
Comparing Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions of Standardized Tests in U.S. and Mainland China

We compare the influencing factors of American and Chinese students' perceptions of standardized tests and explore how they affect their achievements by analyzing school resources and college admission standards which reside in different cultural backgrounds. The findings will help researchers to design valid standardized tests and administer tests more appropriately. It will also help educators make instruction more effectively by responding to students' learning needs from different cultural backgrounds in a better way. 

Eun Young Kim
Biomedical Engineering
Multi-structure segmentation of multi-modal brain images using artificial neural networks

A method for simultaneously segmenting multiple anatomical brain structures from multi-modal MR images has been developed. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained from a set of feature vectors created by a combination of high-resolution registration methods, atlas based spatial probability distributions, and a training set of 16 expert traced data sets. A set of feature vectors were adapted to increase performance of ANN segmentation; 1) a modified spatial location for structural symmetry of human brain, 2) neighbors along the priors' descent for directional consistency, and 3) candidate vectors based on the priors for the segmentation of multiple structures. The trained neural network was then applied to 8 data sets, and the results were compared with expertly traced structures for validation purposes. Comparing several reliability metrics, including a relative overlap, similarity index, and intraclass correlation of the ANN generated segmentations to a manual trace are similar or higher to those measures previously developed methods. The ANN provides a level of consistency between subjects and time efficiency comparing human labor that allows it to be used for very large studies.

Mai Han Tu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Toxicity of Modified Nanoparticles in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

The bacterial pathogen non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NHTi) is capable of adhering to andinvading cells in the upper respiratory tract by binding of theplatelet-activating factor receptor via lipooligosaccharides (LOS) on thebacterial surface.  A carbohydratestructure called phosphorylcholine (ChoP) expressed on the LOS structuremolecularly mimics the host and allows the bacteria to evade the host immunesystem. This research has been focused on the development of nanoparticlescoated with various LOS glycoforms, to enhance the penetration of therapeuticnanoparticles in respiratory epithelial cells, and polyethylene glycol (PEG),to limit attachment to the mucosal fluids. The goal of the present study was toevaluate the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry on in vitro toxicity to bronchial epithelial cells. Nanoparticles wereexposed to confluent polarized bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE14o- andCalu-3. Cell viability after exposure to varying nanoparticles doses for up to 24 hours was evaluated using an MTS assay to quantify metabolically activecells and an NR assay to examine membrane permeability and lysosomal integrity.Initial toxicity studies have shown no evidence of cellular toxicity due tonanoparticle exposure at clinical doses for drug delivery applications,although pure LOS at equivalent doses produced significant toxicity inbronchial cells.

Meng Li
Communication Studies
Love Saying Goodbye: The Continuity of Long-Distance Relationships in Ancient Chinese Poetry

Long-distance relationships (LDRs) are often considered to be modern experience and studied as so. Compared to modern people, our ancestors lived a more stable life. But some of them did leave and their experience was described and passed down through diverse artistic forms. Focusing on the continuity of LDRs across material constraint of time and space, I used Sigman’s Relational Continuity Constructional Units (RCCUs) as a theoretical framework to classify and analyze poetry of the China Tang Dynasty in order to compare LDRs in the past to that in the present. As a communication theory, RCCUs allowed for ways to draw insights about relationships depicted in the poetry and the cultural meanings of relationships. 

Sarah Jane Eikleberry
Health and Sport Studies
Accidental Hero: Sam Bradford and Narratives of Racial Ideology, Belonging, and Forgetting

This essay aims to explore the announcement and consequent media deployment of 2008 Heisman Award winner, Sam Bradford's hybrid racial identity. In October of the 2007 season Oklahoma's website Soonersports.com published Bradford's status as a "certified Cherokee Indian." Bradford, an Oklahoma native raised on the golf course and grid irons of a middle class Oklahoma City enclave, has recently been named as a "role model," "accidental hero," and "native son" by local and national media. In this essay I will approach Sam Bradford as a multifunctional cultural text that has become what Dave Andrews calls a "floating racial signifier" for indigenous communities purported to be seeking a symbol of racial uplift. The lionizing of bloodlines contributes to a discourse of racial purity while emphasizing essential qualities associated with Indianness. In short, the ways readers come to know Bradford's hybrid identity through a narrative that is shaped by the fetishization of blood. This narrative has and continues to socially, historically, and politically construct Cherokee identity while naturalizing a continued discourse of belonging and otherness for Oklahomans, indigenous and otherwise.

William D Bennett
Science Education
Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have both positivist and constructivist epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was almost predominantly positivist. A case study was then performed in order to investigate the underlying issues that contributed to a predominance of his positivist practice. Data sources included preliminary and follow-up interviews and classroom observations. Data analysis indicated that factors that prevented the epistemological conflict from reaching a resolution towards the constructivist teaching approach included Mr. Hobbs' beliefs about student learning, contextual factors of his teaching, his personal experiences, and even views of the nature of science. The findings from this case indicate that science teachers may possess quite complex belief systems that are not immediate obvious to either the teacher or science teacher educators and that science teacher educators need to address teacher beliefs, especially beliefs about how students learn, for the implementation of reformed teaching practice.

Tatiana Mishanina
Unusual route to thymidylate: Studies of flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase

Thymidylate synthase (TS) enzymes catalyze the de novo production of thymidylate, a DNA nucleotide, from deoxyuridine monophosphate and N5,N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.  In nearly all eukaryotes, including humans, this reaction is carried out by classical TS encoded by thyA gene. Chemical and kinetic mechanisms of classical TS have been thoroughly studied, and several mechanism-based TS inhibitors (e.g. 5-fluorouracil, raltitrexed, pemetrexed) are used as anti-cancer drugs. Thymidylate production in many human pathogenic bacteria (e.g. typhus-causing R. prowazekii, M. tuberculosis, and B. anthracis), on the other hand, depends on a thyX enzyme, analogous in function but dissimilar in structure and mechanism from classical TS. Amongst the mechanistic differences, FDTS employs a bound flavin cofactor and requires a reducing substrate, such as dithionite or NADPH. Furthermore, while classical TS relies on an active site nucleophile to activate dUMP (an enzymatic “anchor”), FDTS has lately been shown to not require such an anchor and not form an enzyme-bound intermediate [Koehn, E.M. et al. Nature 2009, 458, 919-924]. The newly proposed mechanism of FDTS action involves an intermediate unusual to nucleotide biosynthesis. The current work presents the evidence supporting the existence of the proposed intermediate, thus providing a template for antibiotic design.

Gayan Rubasinghege
An Abiotic Mechanism for the Formation of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide from Ammonium Nitrate

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and a primary cause of stratospheric ozone destruction. Despite its importance, there remain missing sources in the N2O budget.  Here we report the formation of atmospheric nitrous oxide from the decomposition of ammonium nitrate via an abiotic mechanism under ambient conditions, a chemical process that is favorable in the presence of light, relative humidity and a surface. This source is currently not accounted for in global N2O budgets. Annual production of N2O from atmospheric aerosols and surface fertilizer application over the continental United States from these abiotic pathways was estimated from results of an annual chemical transport simulation with the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ). This pathway is projected to produce 9.3+0.7/-5.3 Gg N2O annually over North America that is ~ 5% o the total U.S. anthropogenic N2O emissions. N2O production by this mechanism is expected globally from both megacities and agricultural areas and may become more important under future projected changes in anthropogenic emissions.

Arliss Dudley-Cash
The Differential Effect of Capsaicin Infiltration on Incisional Pain

Postoperative pain and improved ways to treat it are not fully understood. Capsaicin not only causes pain but has been shown to reduce post operative pain when used in wound infiltration. Capsaicin activates the TRPV1 channel causing cation influx and a later reduction in heat sensitivity. This study further examined the analgesic effects of capsaicin in incisional pain with the main focus on low concentrations of capsaicin and the recovery of nociceptor function. We can conclude that capsaicin has an analgesic effect one week after injection, capsaicin no longer has an analgesic effect 2 weeks and 4 weeks after injection indicating recovery of nociceptor function, and capsaicin/Bupivacaine injection produced a similar analgesic effect as compared to the one week group.

Austin Ramme
Biomedical Engineering
Surgically Oriented Measurements for Three-Dimensional Characterization of Tunnel Placement in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the human knee is common, and can result in knee instability and disability.  Repair of this ligament is currently performed using one of several established techniques; incorrect graft tunnel placement during surgical ACL reconstruction is one of the primary causes of poor patient outcomes.  Traditionally, two-dimensional methods have been used to describe the locations and angles of graft tunnels with respect to surrounding radiographic landmarks (e.g. Blumensaat’s line).  We present novel techniques for defining graft tunnel placement and orientation from three-dimensional surface representations of the ACL reconstructed knee.  The angular and spatial measurements described herein have demonstrated intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.95-0.99.  The proposed three-dimensional measurements were used to evaluate multiple ACL reconstruction techniques including medial portal, transtibial, and two-incision procedures.  These measurements may be readily extended to other procedures involving bone tunnels such as PCL reconstruction.  In the future, we plan to apply our methods to evaluate the variability in ACL tunnel placement and to identify factors that improve patient outcomes.

Daniel Boscaljon
English-Literary Studies
Margaret Fuller and the Narrative Appropriation of the Midwest in 1843

On an abstract level, his paper illustrates the interdependent importance of narrative in fueling settler colonialism in the 19th century. More concretely, I examine Margaret Fuller's Summer on the Lakes, in 1843 to show the way that Fuller meaningfully juxtaposes a Western mythology onto a Native geography. Further, I argue that Fuller's work also harnesses the sublime technology of the steamboat as a way to encourage the reader's transportation into a newly conquered area.

Josh Eklow
Televised Torture in the Cable Wastelands

In a time with radio shock jocks willingly being water-boarded and images of sadomasochistic fetish-wear quickly approaching mainstream fashion, it is perhaps not surprising that there is a job market for those willing to be tortured for money and potential fame. Starving survivors on tropical islands and people for whom fear is not a factor are well established in the pop cultural zeitgeist, but the folks going through actual torture, being subjected to methods of questionable legality in legal and martial cases, for a chance at a shockingly small amount of money, languishing away on a specialty cable channel few have and even fewer watch, have not been given the attention they deserve. 

Allison Welch
Bedside Tables: Necessity and Nostalgia

Why do we keep things?  

     To remember. 


Bedside tables are our modern-day altars, places where habit, respect, mystery, and love collide.  Our physical materials wait while we travel through dreams, coaxing us back into activity come morning.  Books and remote controls summon sleep, alarm clocks and written reminders startle the mind into a wakeful state. But not all objects are directly linked to sleeping or waking; some things simply exist to comfort us, reflecting our need to gather, collect, and nest.


While I consider myself a photographer and see my work belonging in world of fine art, I have situated myself in a multi-disciplinary place by working with members of the Spatial Perception, Action, and Memory (SPAM) laboratory in the University of Iowa's Department of Psychology.  Adopting the software researchers use to measure the distance and relationship between random objects placed on a flat surface, I apply a scientific backbone to the display of possessions on bedside tables.  


We keep things to remember, whether they act as reminders of duty or history.

Seyed Hajimirzaie
Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Effect of Relative Submergence and Shape on the Wake of a Low-Aspect-Ratio Wall-Mounted body

Wall-mounted bodies in boundary layer flows are ubiquitous in nature and engineering applications and significantly enhance momentum and scalar transport in their vicinity.  In this experimental study we evaluate the role of relative submergence (the ratio of flow depth to obstacle height) and shape on the wakes around four different wall-mounted obstacles. We consider four obstacle geometries: semi-ellipsoids with the major and minor axes of the base ellipses aligned in the streamwise and transverse directions, and two cylinders with matching aspect ratios D/H (where D is the maximum transverse dimension and H is the obstacle height).  The aspect ratios considered are 0.67 and 0.89. DPIV was used to interrogate the flow.  Streamwise structures observed in the mean wake include tip, base, and horseshoe vortex pairs as well as additional structures apparently not previously observed. The presence of a base vortex for such low-aspect-ratio obstacles is unexpected, and its strength increases with decreasing relative submergence. We will discuss hypotheses on the mechanisms of generation of the base and tertiary structures and their interconnection with the rest of the vortex skeleton.

Ann Perreau
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Impact of Frequency Lowering on Localization and Speech Perception

Frequency-lowering signal processing in hearing aids has re-emerged as an option for expanding the input bandwidth by improving audibility of the high frequencies. Few studies have investigated the usefulness of the scheme as a bimodal option for cochlear implant users. In this investigation, that question was posed. Performance using frequency-lowering was compared to conventional amplification for sound localization, speech in quiet, and speech in noise tasks. In experiment one, horizontal localization and spondee-in-noise performance was evaluated for subjects with a cochlear implant and hearing aid. In experiment two, 17 subjects were tested monaurally on consonant and vowel perception tests in quiet. In both experiments, subjects alternated daily between a frequency-lowered and conventional HA for two-months. For both HAs, audibility was measured by comparing estimations of the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) (ANSI S3.5-1997) using a modified algorithm (Bentler, Cole, and Wu, 2011). Results revealed no significant difference between the frequency-lowered and conventional HA for any test measure. Localization scores using the frequency-lowered HA improved overtime, but no difference was found after two months compared to the conventional HA. Although the frequency-lowered HA provided better audibility, our results showed no difference in performance compared to a conventional HA.

Sujit Kumar Mohanty
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Purification, Characterization, and Molecular Cloning of a NAD(P)H-Dependent Trimethyluric Acid(TMU) Oxidoreductase from Caffeine-Degrading Strain Pseudomonas sp. CBB1

Background: Pseudomonas sp. CBB1 metabolized caffeine by direct oxidation at the ‘8’ position to form trimethyluric acid (TMU). This reaction is catalyzed by a novel quinone-dependent caffeine dehydrogenase. Further metabolism of TMU appears to be via trimethylallantoin (TMA). However, pathway for conversion of TMU to TMA is unknown.

Methods: The enzyme was purified by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography and the biochemical properties of the enzyme were studied. The gene for TMU oxidoreductase was isolated from a genomic library by using degenerate primers designed from the N-terminal sequence and conserved domain of FAD-binding monooxygenases. The amplified gene was cloned into the pET32a plasmid with His6-tag at C-terminal.

Results: A novel NAD(P)H-dependent enzyme, TMU oxidoreductase was purified from CBB1. This enzyme had an apparent Mr of 43 KDa and had no activity on uric acid. The enzyme was yellow in color, showed UV-visible absorption maxima at 271, 380 and 456 nm, which suggested that it might be a flavoprotein. The gene of TMU oxidoreductase designated tmuO had an ORF of 1191 nt, encoding a 396-amino-acid protein.

Conclusions: TMU oxidoreductase is responsible for the further degradation of TMU in strain CBB1. Formation of TMA as a product is yet to be confirmed.

Scott McKenzie
Law (JD)
"India: Old Roots of Economic Equality are Showing Green Shoots in G20 Leadership" and "Expanding Cross-Cultural Dialog as a Solution for Global Public Policy"

India is on the cusp of greater leadership in the G20 that it can use to promote its broad agenda of empowering emerging economies.  This new power is the result of a strong focus in its foreign policy on the international finance field, current economic strength, and a long history working with international institutions.

Throughout its history as an independent country, India has worked with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.  This has helped build it into an economic powerhouse, but also helped it to establish itself as a leader in international economic reform.  India has advanced specific measures that aim to protect developing countries such as strengthening the global banking system, and better access to IMF lending.  It has also worked to reform broad based issues such as the power and voting structure at the IMF.  The new power given to the G20, in light of the global economic crisis, gives India the perfect opportunity to advance its agenda.

Jessica Kizzire
<i>The Place I'll Return to Someday<i>: Associations with the Ancient in <i>Final Fantasy IX<i>

Over the past few decades, the medium of video games has evolved from primitive sounds and graphics into an intricate web of cinematic video, interactive game play, complex narrative, and environmental sound. To create an immersive experience, game designers must unite these factors to present a coherent artistic ideal. In Final Fantasy IX (Square, 2000) this unifying vision was a nostalgic return to the roots of the Final Fantasy series in the 1990s. After an ambivalent fan response to the futuristic environments of Final Fantasy VII and VIII, game designers chose to pay homage to the fantasy environments with which loyal fans of the series had grown up.

The music of Final Fantasy IX plays a key role in creating this sense of nostalgia. Composer Nobuo Uematsu creates a soundtrack strongly influenced by Renaissance styles of the western musical tradition. By employing these stylistic characteristics, Uematsu creates associations with feudal hierarchies, mystical quests, and epic narratives, all of which were fundamental elements of the early Final Fantasy games. In this paper I study The Place I’ll Return to Someday, a piece that returns in modified forms throughout the game. Through a careful examination of the counterpoint, instrumentation, texture, tonality, and form, I explore the role of music in creating the nostalgia that permeates the atmosphere of the game.

Timothy M. Paschkewitz
Ammonia as an Alternative Fuel: Progress Towards Ammonia Production from Immobilized Blue-Green Algae

Ammonia has promise for a sustainable alternative fuel. One hindrance to expanding its use is the commercial production of ammonia is an energetically and environmentally costly process. Improved methods of ammonia generation will help further current technologies for its use as an alternative fuel. Nitrogenase is the catalyst for nitrogen fixation wherein nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. Under appropriate conditions, nitrogenase also produces hydrogen. The objective of this project is to immobilize nitrogenase enzyme (contained within Anabaena variabilis, a common blue-green algae) in an appropriate polymer at the surface of an electrode. The most recent focus of study has been specific to understanding the nature of nitrogenase in the system as described, namely, to determine what is present at electrodes containing cells that exhibits electroactive behavior and to the understanding the electrochemistry of the nitrogenase system when cells are immobilized onto glassy carbon electrodes. Milestones and progress will be presented including the effects of environmental chemicals (nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen) upon the system, as well as a study of possible chemical intermediates between dinitrogen and nitrogen in a reduced form.

Matt L. Drabek
Feedback Bias in the Social Sciences: The Case of Paraphilia

This paper discusses feedback bias, a form of bias in which social scientific classifications come to marginalize or trivialize the population the classification attempts to pick out.  The paper discusses feedback bias through the case study of the classification of paraphilias, specifically sexual sadism and sexual masochism, in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association.

Manar Al-Ghabeish
Pharmacy (PhD)
Identification of Multiple Nucleoside Transporters to Facilitate Intranasal Drug Delivery

Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that control absorption in the nasal cavity could help to improve systemic bioavailability and/or targeted drug delivery to the brain using the nasal route. This study focuses on one class of transporters, the nucleoside transporters. Nucleoside transporters are integral proteins responsible for mediating and facilitating the flux of nucleosides across cellular membranes. Nucleoside transporters are also responsible for the uptake of nucleoside analog drugs used in the treatment of cancer and viral infections.

  The objectives of the work are to (a) identify the presence of two nucleoside transporters, ENT1 and CNT3, in the nasal mucosa; and (b) determine the contribution of the transporters to the overall permeability of the model drug through nasal mucosa.

RT-PCR was used to determine the presence of ENT1 and CNT3 in the nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa. Using immunohistochemistry, ENT1 and CNT3 were found to be localized primarily in the apical surface of nasal mucosa. Alovudine, 3'-fluorothymidine, was chosen as a model drug for transport studies, and the presence of polarized or saturable transport processes is under investigation.  Polarized transport has been observed, and in respiratory mucosa alovudine transport was  saturable over 100-4000 µM concentration range.

Hsin-I Sydney Yueh
Communication Studies
The Portrait of Modern Chinese Women: Rereading Footbinding in Eileen Chang’s Shanghai Urban Legend

Studies on modernity in China tend to examine literature, films, print ads, or urban development through traditional historiographic readings, and “woman” is the common image used to represent Chinese modernity as a nation-state in facing the West. Among different readings of Chinese women and their bodies in terms of modernity, however, scholars have neglected the footbinding practice and its implication of the transition from the traditional to the modern.  The literature on footbinding positions the anti-footbinding movement as the emancipation of women. And yet this focus ignores the way women with bound -feet participated in commodity culture. Though their bodies were marked, it was not necessarily in a way that alienated them from capitalist commodity culture. By rereading the literature of footbinding and contrasting it with Chinese female writer Eileen Chang’s works, this paper argues that modernity is embodied in women’s mobility, rather than the shape of their feet.

Lydia M. Mexas
Pharmacy (PhD)
Inhibition and Covalent Modification of Tyrosine Hydroxylase by 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a Toxic Dopamine Metabolite

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to a decrease of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). DA is metabolized by monoamine oxidase to 3,4-dihydroxyphenyacetaldehyde (DOPAL). While the mechanism of pathogenesis of PD is unknown, DOPAL has demonstrated the ability to covalently modify proteins and cause cell death at concentrations elevated from physiologic levels. Currently, the identities of protein targets of the aldehyde are unknown, but previous studies have demonstrated the ability of catechols and other DA-catabolism products to interact with and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Given that DOPAL is structurally related to DA and is a highly reactive electrophile, it was hypothesized to modify and inhibit TH.

The data presented in this study positively identified TH as a protein target of DOPAL modification and inhibition. Western blot analysis demonstrated a concentration-dependent decrease in antibody recognition of TH. DOPAL in cell lysate significantly inhibited TH activity as measured by decreased L-DOPA production. Inhibition of TH was semi-reversible, with the recovery of activity being time and concentration-dependent upon removal of DOPAL. These data indicate DOPAL to be a reactive DA-metabolite with the capability of modifying and inhibiting an enzyme important to DA synthesis.

Adele Holoch
English-Literary Studies
IC Stories

Together with Obermann fellow Stephanie Elisondo Griest, we will be presenting a poster on our proposed Obermann Institute project, IC Stories, a writing workshop connecting UI undergraduate and graduate students with Iowa City community members.

Amir Mohammad Farnoud
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Effects of Carboxyl Modified Polystyrene Nanoparticles on The Function of A Simple Lung Surfactant Model

The pulmonary surfactant stabilizes the lung during respiratory maneuvers by lowering the surface tension of the alveoli and preventing alveolar collapse. Changes in the surface tension of the pulmonary fluid can increase the work required for breathing, impair gas exchange and cause respiratory distress. In a few recent studies, exposure to nanoparticles has been shown to inhibit surfactant function in-vitro. However, the mechanisms by which nanoparticles alter surfactant function are poorly understood. In this work, the effect of different concentrations of negatively charged, carboxyl modified nanoparticles (200 nm) on surfactant function and microstructure of a model pulmonary surfactant was studied. Monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were used as a simple surfactant model and their surface pressure upon compression and expansion were studied to probe surfactant function. We observed dose-dependent changes in the surface pressure of the liquid expanded-liquid condensed phase, the onset of the liquid condensed phase and the hysteresis area of the isotherms as a result of nanoparticle addition. Nanoparticles also affected surfactant microstructure by deforming the domains and affecting monolayer stability. We believe the changes in the isotherm are caused as a result of the excess of negative charge caused by nanoparticles.