James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2012

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Dan McCabe
Medicine (MD)
Characterization of a Stem Cell-Like Population in Cartilage: Can We Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis?

Biological: Although serious cartilage lesions seldom heal without intervention, our study suggests the existence of a mechanism for repairing matrix damage. We hypothesize the fibroblast-like cells associated with cartilage injury are a sub-population of chondrocytes with the characteristics of tissue stem cells. The cells are fast-growing, highly migratory, and retain the ability to elaborate cartilage and bone matrix.  Manipulating a cell population that is already present in articular cartilage is a simple therapeutic strategy that has the potential to forestall the onset of PTOA. Clinical: Currently the ways to introduce a proliferating cell population into a joint are microfracture surgery or the introduction of stem cells cultured outside of the joint. These methods are invasive and do not guarantee positive results. If we can induce a population of cells to proliferate within the present population, this would produce minimal damage to the cartilage matrix and reduce risk associated with introducing an immortal cell line. Local administration of a chemotactic agent encouraging chondrocytes to migrate toward underpopulated cartilage matrix could have profound implications for the treatment of PTOA: allowing for a shortened rehabilitation period, provide less invasive procedures, offer a better prognosis for acute injuries, and reduce chronic pain associated with PTOA.

Thilini. P. Rupasinghe
Behavior of ZnO nanoparticles in aquatic environment; A study of dissolution and aggregation

Today, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in industrial and household applications due to their unique electronic, thermal, optical and photoactive properties. Because of the current increase in production and usage of products containing ENPs, there is a high possibility of their release into the environment. ZnO NPs with applications in electronics, sunscreens, cosmetics, coatings and dye sensitized cells, is one of the most extensively used class of ENPs. This research is mainly focused on studying the interactions of nano-ZnO and citric acid, a highly abundant organic acid using ICP-OES spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, DLS and sedimentation experiments. An enhanced dissolution of ZnO NPs was observed in the presence of citric acid. This is very important in assessing possible toxic effects of ZnO NPs as citric acid is highly abundant in the human body, aquatic system and soil. Presence of citric acid leads to a lower degree of aggregation of ZnO NPs at pH 7.5 where a stable suspension is formed and a modification of ZnO surface was observed upon addition of citric acid. Aggregation plays an important role in controlling the bio-availability of ENPs in the environment and therefore the above trend observed in this study is of a great environmental and biological significance.

Jessica Viner
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Determining the Molecular Link Between Adherens Junctions and Tight Junctions

Cell-cell adhesion is critical to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Adhesion between epithelial cells is mediated by tight junctions and adherens junctions; two structures which are linked spatially and functionally. Tight junction formation is dependent on adherens junction assembly; however, the mechanism mediating this linkage is unknown. α-catenin is an essential cytoplasmic component of adherens junctions. Cells lacking α-catenin exhibit impaired tight junctions and mislocalization of tight junction proteins such as ZO-1. I hypothesize that α-catenin is required for linking tight and adherens junctions through regulated binding to ZO-1. Here I show that deletion of α-catenin residues 698-906, the proposed ZO-1 binding site, delayed tight junction assembly while leaving adherens junctions unaffected. This finding indicates that the ZO-1 binding site on α-catenin is required for tight junction assembly. To determine if the tight junction defects induced by loss of α-catenin require ZO-1 recruitment, I will construct an α-catenin mutant unable to bind ZO-1 and study its effects on junctional assembly. To this end, I have mapped the ZO-1 binding site to residues 691–848 and found that binding is regulated by a ZO-1 conformational change. These data are consistent with the idea that α-catenin couples tight junctions to adherens junctions.

Amir Barakati
Mechanical Engineering
Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the impact response of electrically conductive composite plates

In this work, the possibility for improvement of impact resistance of electric-current-carrying composite structures in presence of an electromagnetic field is investigated. The electromagnetic loads include an electric pulsed current and an external magnetic field. Governing equations describing the electro-magneto-mechanical interactions in anisotropic materials and the corresponding two-dimensional approximation for transversely isotropic plates are discussed. An efficient numerical procedure is developed to solve the resulting nonlinear boundary value problem for a long transversely isotropic current-carrying plate subjected to impact and pulsed electromagnetic loads. The numerical results show that the dynamic response of the plate highly depends on the magnitude and direction of the electromagnetic loads. Furthermore, the application of an appropriate combination of the pulsed current and magnetic field can significantly reduce the amplitude of the transverse vibration of the plate and therefore, enhance the impact resistance of the composite structure.

Michael Scheib
Social Work
The Sexual Desires of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study of Paraphiliac Infantilism

This paper questions the sexual rights of individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and the caretaker’s role in supporting individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in their sexual lives. The paper also questions why fetishism is categorized as a sexual disorder by the DSM IV. The study follows a thirty year old male (John) diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy and Moderate Mental Retardation. John was also diagnosed with Paraphilias (fetishism; pertaining to diapers in this particular case) as well as Infantilism (yearning to be like and treated as a baby). John battles this “disorder” for 15 years before a behavioral plan is implemented in this study with the purpose of decreasing problem behaviors and allowing John to express himself sexually. The behavioral plan is successful in improving John’s quality of life. Paraphiliac Infantilism is studied throughout the paper and the rights of individuals with Intellectual Disabilities are promoted.

Kenneth Wacha
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Total Below Ground Carbon Allocation Estimation in an Intensively Managed Agricultural Watershed

Field measurements are currently being used to estimate quantities of Total Belowground Carbon Allocation (TBCA) for three representative land uses, viz. corn, soybeans, and prairie bromegrass for CRP (Conservation Reserve Program) within the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW), located in Eastern Iowa. TBCA is the amount of carbon that is allocated to plants and is a large portion of the Net Ecosystem Production (NEP). Since it is difficult to measure TBCA directly, a mass balance approach has been implemented which takes into account the transfer of carbon between aboveground and belowground processes. Previous studies have been conducted primarily in forest settings to quantify TBCA, where many of the terms are constant since forests remain generally undisturbed, non irrigated or fertilized. Experimental plots consisting of corn, soybean, and bromegrass were constructed to replicate common agricultural land management practices found in Iowa. Preliminary findings show that carbon assimilation rates varied amongst the different crop types. TBCA values for corn plants were higher than soybeans during the first 30 days of plant growth, but were comparable after 45 days.

Vijaya Joshi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Size dependency of antigen loaded PLGA particles on uptake by dendritic cells

This study focuses on an in-vitro investigation of the influence of size of antigen loaded PLGA particles on uptake by dendritic cells.  PLGA particles were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. Differential sizes were obtained using varying homogenization speed followed by collection with differential centrifugation. Fabricated particles were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy. Particles ranging from 400nm to 10 micron were chosen for further studies. Particle uptake was studied in the bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC) using flow cytometry. It was found that 400nm sized particles gave maximum side scatter. 1 microne size gave significant fluorescent shift was which can be characterized as maximum antigen delivery. Interestingly, in time dependent study, smaller particles showed more side scatter at early time points but larger particles of were detected for as long as 24 hours. Further, particle size of 1 micron or less is most favorable for the activation of BDMC as it generates maximum upregulation of MHC Class-I and CD86 surface markers. With this study, we can conclude that particles size plays a major role in stimulation of dendritic cells and optimization is required for intended release kinetics.

Joe Bookman
Communication Studies
A short, timeless film

“A Short, Timeless Film” features an intimate conversation between a man and his mother as they attempt to achieve deep thoughts on matters of aging, senility, and death. After discovering a forgotten home movie from his mother’s childhood, the filmmaker invites his mother to contemplate her aging process on film. The mother, a retired teacher whose own parents have recently passed away, ruminates on camera as she and her son wander aimlessly around Iowa City, IA. Together, they create a quirky document that celebrates the comic character of their relationship.

Ryan F. Pittsinger
Counseling Psychology
The Use of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with Injured Collegiate Athletes

Participation in collegiate level athletics has increased over time, as has the incidence of athletic injury among such athletes. Along with the negative physiological effects of injury, psychological effects have also been found to negatively affect injured athletes. Psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety are among the most prevalent outcomes associated with injury. The purpose of this poster is to discuss the psychological symptoms collegiate athletes experience as a result of becoming injured, the current state and use of psychological skills adopted by sports medicine professionals, as well as possible cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques athletic trainers can implement when working with injured collegiate athletes. Techniques such as imagery, mindfulness, and relaxation will be reviewed. Recommendations for how physical trainers can further use effective cognitive-behavioral techniques in the training room to assist athletes with relevant psychological concerns will also be addressed.

Farai Marazi
Devising Practical Strategies from Homeless Families’ First-Hand Criticisms of the Shelter System.

During the summers of 2009 and 2010, I traveled to New York City to conduct research among homeless families going through the shelter application process. I was interested in how New York City’s shelter bureaucracy gets into the way of shelter provision. I also looked at how shelter conditions hinder efforts of homeless families to move out of shelters to unassisted living. In this civic engagement project, I translate the theoretical knowledge obtained from my research into insightful advocacy contributions and direct assistance for the homeless. I propose ways that non-profit advocates of homeless families can follow to help the homeless navigate and circumvent complex shelter bureaucracies to minimize inefficiencies in applying for shelter. I hope to contribute collaboratively to these NYC organizations’ policy initiatives that guide how they interact with shelter intake centers. In this way my research goes back into the community to curb rising trends of homelessness. The Coalition for the Homeless and The Legal Aid Society of New York City recently expressed interest in my returning to New York City this summer for future work in stepping up advocacy work in shelter intake.

Abbey Dvorak, MA, ABD, MT-BC
Music Therapy Support Groups for Cancer Patients and Caregivers

A biopsychosocial model of health and illness addresses biological, psychological, and social factors that interact and affect overall quality of life. Music therapy is a multi-faceted treatment modality that may positively affect physical, psychological, and social functioning of cancer patients and caregivers, and may serve as an essential component of the biopsychosocial model.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a six-session music therapy support group on mood, coping, social support, and quality of life of individuals diagnosed with cancer and their caregivers. Participants are recruited from a cancer center at a large Midwestern hospital, a local housing establishment for cancer patients, and the surrounding communities.
Music therapy support groups are conducted twice a week for 60 minutes over the course of three weeks. Participants are 40 adult cancer patients or caregivers randomly assigned to treatment groups or wait-list control groups. Preliminary data analysis and results of the study are discussed, with both quantitative and qualitative information presented.

Sarah J. Eikleberry
Health and Sport Studies
“Trademarking the Tiger Hawk: Rebranding Fandom at the University of Iowa, 1979-1985”

In 1979 University of Iowa Coach Hayden Fry created the Hawkeye Marketing Group in order to reinvigorate fan interest in the Hawkeye football program. The group designed the iconic Tiger Hawk that was later given to the university athletic program and trademarked in 1983. Against the backdrop of localized economic strife, regional values that predate the Tiger Hawk by over a century were rebranded as modern, stylish, and trendy, through the creation of a newfound pride rooted in athletic victory and university growth. This paper examines how athletics at the University of Iowa during 1979-1985 signified a changing relationship between the institution and fans that occurred amidst the hard-hitting Farm Credit Crisis. This paper also aims to identify how collective ownership and community access changed as Iowa’s athletics departments became national powers in football, men’s and women’s basketball, and wrestling. I argue that the licensing of the logo represented a transitional moment in the relationship between the men’s athletic department and the traditional fan base. This transition has allowed for the mass production of an unquestioned symbol that today enacts a particular athletic and institutional identity that gives preferential treatment to prosperous patrons over provincial fans.

Lincoln Lourens
Computer Science
Research Opportunities and Trends in Mobile Social Networks

With the increased availability of the internet and the widespread popularity of social networking applications and websites, Mobile Social Networks has risen as a recent research topic at the intersection of Computer Science and the Social Sciences. The mobile nature of our daily lives gives rise to many questions. The impact of our mobility, proximity, and location on the interpretation of an individual's social network must be considered, and new computational problems involving applications of social network concepts must be solved.

The impact and exploitation of social networks on Opportunistic Networking offers many rich possibilities for utilizing “implicit” social networks to forward and route information through an ad hoc intermittently connected network to its destination in the absence of an internet infrastructure. Dynamically formed natural “communities”(usually formed with regard to some mutual “context”) offer research opportunities in the structure and nature of such communities and in Community Detection techniques. Concerns regarding privacy and cooperation in such networks must be addressed. Distributed algorithms in these areas must be developed and evaluated. Additional research topics involving mobile access to traditional online social networks enhanced with location-aware functionality must be explored as well.

Tommy Ekamitra Sutarto
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fluvial Erosion Measurements of Streambanks Using Photo-Electronic Erosion Pins (PEEPs)

Cohesive streambank erosion is characterized by two main mechanisms, fluvial entrainment of individual particles and bank failure due to gravity (Thorne, 1980). In this study, the relative importance of fluvial erosion (compared to mass failure) was determined in two reaches from different locations of the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW). The main goal of the project was the identification of the key erosion process at each site. Beyond the distinguished flow conditions, different stream orders, and land-use, no further attempts were made to identify other key driving agents behind the erosion, such subaerial processes acting at the cohesive riverbanks (Lindow et al., 2009). Erosion lengths up to 38 cm were detected. The bank erosion monitoring at high resolution intervals due to the PEEPS allowed for better characterization the fluvial erosion occurring at these sites. The moving average identified the dominant trend of the data and the variability of the erosion lengths at the two sites. Further, the Shewhart Charts allowed us to detect the critical erosion events. Finally, the overall performance of the PEEPs was evaluated. The maximum error between manual and automated measurements of the exposed length of the PEEPs was less than 27%. The error between the channel survey and the automated PEEP measurements was less than 14%.

Rowan AlEjielat
Pharmacy (PhD)
Genetic Variation and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

Rowan AlEjielat, B.S.1, Shannon Eddy1, Lyndsay A. Harshman, B.S. 2
Natalie L. Denburg, Ph.D.2, Daryl J. Murry, Pharm.D.1

Background: Older adulthood is marked by variations in cognitive abilities which are known to be highly heritable. We explored the relationship between genetic variations and performance on standardized neuropsychological tests as a measure of cognitive abilities in older adults (OA).
Methods: Enrolled members completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and a health interview to rule out outstanding medical and psychiatric conditions. DNA was extracted from blood. Multidrug resistance (MDR1) C3435T, G2677T/A & C1236T; myeloperoxidase (MPO) G129A & G463A; apolipoprotein E (APOE) C112R & C158R; Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met; and 7 SNPs of the type-3 metabotropic glutamate receptor (GRM3) rs1989796, rs1476455, rs274622, rs724226, rs1468412, rs917071 & hcv11245618 were genotyped using Pyrosequencing™. Statistical analysis was done using JMP®8.0.2.
Results: 39 older adults age 61 to 91 years were enrolled. All SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. OA with the GRM3 hcv11245618 TT or MPO463 GG genotype performed worse on measures of executive functioning. MPO463 AA genotype performed worse on measures of verbal ability while the COMT Val/Val genotype performed better.
Conclusion: Single genes can be linked to individual differences in particular components of cognition in OA. Additional factors (environmental) may influence the cognitive functions.

Johanna Kirk
better soon. nownow.

For my current research and art, I have been actively involved at the University of Iowa Hospital working with doctors exploring experimental biofeedback techniques, involving myself both as an investigator and as a volunteer participant. I was awarded a grant through the University, which allowed me to undergo a summer of in-depth study into the different body systems, working in conjunction with a laboratory on Human Anatomy. This gave me the chance to interact with medical software, “wet” specimens, and models, while complimenting this work with creative exercises in the dance studio exploring “experiential anatomy” (inspired by the ideas of artist/anatomists Andrea Olson and Bonnie Bainbridge-Cohen). In my current choreographic work, I am exploring our sense of embodiment and wellness in a historical and cultural moment in which the body is slowly being rewritten as one type of "information processing system" in a world of many "information processing systems," biological and otherwise. I am interested in and wary of the de-centralization of the body as a central, cultural metaphor and the disassociation/distrust of natural processes in creating an evolutionarily advanced, fit and flexible entity. I am very interested in how this moment's intellectual preoccupations are in conflict with the inevitable cycles and processes of the female body, which consistently re-naturalize it. I am intrigued by the language and metaphors surrounding women's health in clinical and medical contexts and in women's sense of themselves and their embodied selves. I am concerned about the confusion profuse in such self-assessment. I am curious how these ideas are explored in Dance Therapy as it is implemented in Western Medical contexts and "natural birthing" classes, and how such offerings might be bolstered and refined by exercises and experiences of my design. I know of no one else working on similar ideas or through similar processes, nor am I familiar with any scholars currently splitting their time, energy, and focus between medical science and art in making sense of the body. My work attempts to employ art as a way of thinking, knowing, and expressing that can be presented on stage but that can also be an experience of self and body accessible to a larger demographic and in daily pedestrian rituals of self care. By expanding my work to outside of the studio, the “artistic context” and the “trained body” and broadening its ambitions beyond presentation and performance, I am expanding the boundaries of my field and inviting crossovers into new fields, vantage points, and populations.

Stacy Sommerfeld Ross
Pharmacy (PhD)
Analysis of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Images – New Insights into Biofilm Quantification

A bacterial biofilm consists of free-swimming bacteria that connect to a surface and create a protected environment within a slimy polysaccharide matrix. In this form, the biofilm can withstand antibiotics, biocides, and human immune responses. Researchers can evaluate biofilm eradication using confocal microscopy with fluorescent stains. Current biofilm analysis programs COMSTAT and PHLIP have thresholding and analysis limitations. The novel biofilm stain quantification program Stainification addresses limitations. It has the typical thresholding options of manual and global Otsu thresholding, but also has local Otsu and a histogram equalization precursor. It can compensate for membrane integrity stains, which can have a single pixel with multiple fluorescent signals. Furthermore, unlike current biofilm analysis programs, Stainifcation can quantify biofilm matrix materials, tissue, and biofilm grown above tissue. Biofilm and free-swimming bacteria can be quantified separately. It can also save overall thresholded and membrane integrity adjusted images, biofilm only images, and free-swimming only images. Finally, it saves the data in sheet 1 and the analysis parameters in sheet 2 of an Excel workbook.

Marie Carmelle S. Pierre
Correlating Pore Size Distribution and Surface Area to the SERS Activity of Caged Gold Nanoparticles

Metal nanoparticles exhibit unique optical properties that arise from their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Control over nanoparticles composition, shape, size, stability, and local dielectric environment is vital to obtain consistent LSPR spectra and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Because of their inherent instability, bare nanoparticles can undergo uncontrolled aggregation when target molecules are added to a solution. In this presentation, silica stabilized gold (Au@SiO2) nanoparticles are made SERS-active by etching the internal silica matrix near the gold core. These internally etched silica-coated gold (IE-Au@SiO2) nanoparticles will be synthesized in a three steps: 1-core formation, 2-silica shell formation, and 3-shell etching/membrane formation. The optical properties of the gold cores, Au@SiO2, and IE-Au@SiO2 nanoparticles will be characterized using extinction spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and gas adsorption. Silica etching times will be varied. Nanoparticle surface area and porosity (BET) will be correlated to the SERS response of 2-naphthalenethiol. Kinetic responses of the SERS signal intensities will be shown to correlate with the structural morphology observed with TEM and BET measurement. These results indicate that the extent of silica membrane etching greatly impacts the observed SERS signal in a predictable and reproducible manner.

Joo Young Choi
Multivariate Calibration Models for On Line Near Infrared Monitoring of Urea with Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) Spectrometer during Hemodialysis

A near-infrared spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) has been constructed to monitor the concentration of urea in spent dialysate collected during hemodialysis treatments. Hemodialysis dose is a key factor in improving outcomes for people with renal failure. Frequent monitoring of urea concentration provides a means to track hemodialysis dosage and optimize dosage.
The AOTF based near-infrared spectrometer is a rugged, fast scanning, and solid state device that is well suitable for intensive care applications. Operation involves collecting a near infrared spectrum of the spent dialysis and extracting the concentration of urea from the resulting spectrum.
To test the feasibility of online urea monitoring pure components spectra of urea and other major components in spent dialysate, such as glucose, lactate, creatinine, alanine, and glutamine were collected in a laboratory environment. Two types of multivariate calibration models were evaluated for the measurement of urea in these mixture samples. Prediction errors of 0.31 mM and 0.20 mM were determined from the two methods, indicating clinically acceptable performance. Details of selectivity, sensitivity, and stability over time will be presented.

Monica Brasile
Women's Studies
Prenatal, Birth, and Postpartum Care for Incarcerated Women: A Proposal for a Prison Doula Program in Iowa

Women of childbearing age are the fastest growing segment of the incarcerated population. Nationally, 5-6 % of women in prison are pregnant, and these women have access to very few resources. Their pregnancies often have poor outcomes due to inadequate prenatal care and histories of drug use, compounded by the anxiety, stress, and separation from support networks induced by incarceration. A negative birth experience can have lasting effects on the long term overall wellness of women and children.

Doulas are non-medical support professionals who are trained to provide childbirth education, physical, emotional, and informational support during labor, and postpartum support. This poster outlines a proposal for a prison doula program in Iowa, details potential partnerships between Iowa doulas, hospitals, and correctional facilities, and explores the anticipated benefits of such a program.

Janet Story Schlapkohl
Theatre Arts
TRIANGLE : excerpts from and commentary on the research and writing of a play about the Shirtwaist Factory Fire. This is the 100th anniverary March 25, 1911.

TRIANGLE: An inclusive acting piece, including persons with disabilities. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was a horrific, heart-breaking event in early twentieth century America. It was the worst workplace disaster until 9/11. Fifty thousand people marched in the streets of New York afterward the tragic fire. The repercussions of the needless and preventable deaths of the young women who agreed to a strike settlement after enduring fourteen weeks of bitter cold and hunger on the picket lines the previous winter galvanized public opinion. For wealthy society women, socialists, college students, and suffragists who had joined forces in supporting and backing the strikers, it was a terrible shock at how good intentions were not enough. The links of labor corruption, and industry abuse reverberate today as advantage is taken of those whose situations create a lack of choice. The play explores on a personal level, the friendships and private lives of the women, influenced by society, nationality, education, wealth and culture. This play will include members of www.combinedefforts.org.

Varsha Dhamankar
Pharmacy (PhD)
Characterization of CYP1A2 Drug Metabolizing Activities in The Nasal Mucosa

Cytochrome P450 isoforms are important drug metabolizing enzymes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate drug metabolizing activity in the olfactory and respiratory mucosa by examining enzyme distribution patterns and substrate degradation rates. Melatonin was used to measure CYP1A2-mediated metabolism. In vitro transport studies across bovine nasal explants were performed to study melatonin flux and concurrent metabolism to 6-hydroxy melatonin, and bovine olfactory and respiratory microsomes were used to obtain the initial degradation rates for melatonin. CYP1A2 immunofluorescence indicated protein localization in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium and the Bowman’s glands. Diffusion studies and microsomal incubations both demonstrated the activity of bovine nasal CYP1A2 with the formation of 6-hydroxy melatonin. Higher amounts of the metabolite were detected during transport across the respiratory compared to the olfactory explants and the respiratory microsomes exhibited higher melatonin 6-hydroxylation rates than the olfactory microsomes. These results indicate that the respiratory mucosa was metabolically more active than the olfactory mucosa with regard to CYP1A2 mediated transformations. Concurrent metabolism of melatonin during transport across the nasal mucosa underscores the importance of drug metabolism in potentially limiting nasal bioavailability.

Colleen M. Kummet
Reliability of Three-Dimensional Facial Landmarks Using Multivariate Intraclass Correlation

The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is widely used in many fields, including orthodontics, as a measure of reliability of quantitative data. The main goals of this study were to determine the multivariate intraclass correlation, a measure of intra-rater reliability, for the selection of 6 3D mid-facial soft tissue landmarks and compare the multivariate ICC with other measures of landmark reliability. 3D stereophotogrammetric images of 15 randomly selected subjects were landmarked twice by the same rater using 3dMD software. The multivariate ICC was found to be as high or higher than the individual coordinate measures in each of the landmarks examined in this study. The reliability of all six soft-tissue landmarks in this study was excellent (ICC >0.98). When the within-coordinate and Euclidean distance criteria were applied, the reliability of the landmarks was found to be acceptable. However, the two selections of the landmark pronasion were found to be significantly different in the X coordinate. The multivariate ICC identified this same landmark as its lowest estimate of ICC. This indicates that the multivariate ICC may be important in quantifying reliability and warrants investigation in future craniofacial landmark reliability studies.

Xin Hu
Human Toxicology
Rats Exposed Subchronically by Inhalation to an Urban PCB Congener Mixture Show Minimal Toxicity

We have demonstrated the importance of the inhalation route for body burdens of semi-volatile PCBs in rats. However, little is known about the long-term health effects. The development of the Chicago Air Mixture (CAM), a synthetic mixture resembling the PCB profile in the Chicago airshed, allows us to conduct an environmentally relevant study. We generated vapor-phase PCBs from the CAM under controlled conditions into a moving airflow fed to a nose-only exposure chamber. Chamber outflow was characterized by GC/MS/MS. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 1.6 hr/day via nose-only inhalation for 4 weeks, receiving 145 µg PCB/rat. The vapor generation showed high consistency in daily total concentration (0.52±0.01 mg/m3) and profile distribution. Out of 110 congeners in the CAM vapor ranging from mono- to octachlorobiphenyls, about 25 were detected in lung and blood including PCB 20+28, 66, 118, 61+70+74+76, 83+99 as the major ones. GSSG/GSH ratio was increased in exposed animal blood. Elevation was seen in hematocrit. No changes in CYP 1A/2B activities were found in lung or liver. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histological specimens showed minimal inflammation. This study demonstrated that inhalation contributed to the body burden of mono- to hexa-chlorobiphenyls and produced a distinct profile of accumulated congeners in tissue, yet minimal toxicity was found.

Steven J. Kerrigan
Art History
Thomas Eakins and the Sound of Painting

Thomas Eakins’s paintings depicting musical subjects span his career and cross into many of his genres of painting. In all of these paintings, save two, there is at least one musician actively playing his or her instrument or singing. Although his style remains consistent throughout these musically themed paintings, as he progressed as an artist Eakins gave them an added dimension through subtle representational changes and additional visual cues. By examining the artistic interests of two of Eakins’ contemporaries, the art critic Walter Pater and the painter James McNeill Whistler, both part of the Aesthetic Movement, a different interpretation of Eakins’ portrayal of music begins to surface. The paintings become challenges to aesthetic principles not only as a contradictory statement, but also as a way to fuse form and matter rather than to subjugate one to the other. This paper will characterize some of Eakins’s major works involving music as attempts to have the sound of the music penetrate the painted scene, due to his increased interest in representing the precision of musical performance, his reaction to the Aesthetic Movement’s formalist approach to painting, and his response to an increase in psychological research of a condition known as synesthesia.

Laurie L. Eckert
Pharmacy (PhD)
Interaction of Microglia and a Dopamine-Derived Neurotoxin, 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: Metabolism, Activation and Toxicity

The cause of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is unknown, but recent research demonstrates oxidative stress, inflammation, and the endogenous neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), are factors in PD pathogenesis. DOPAL is generated from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase and oxidized to DOPAC, the acid metabolite, by aldehyde dehydrogenase. DOPAL is highly toxic to dopaminergic cells and must be rapidly metabolized to avoid adverse effects. Interaction of DOPAL with non-neuronal cells (e.g., microglia), including metabolism, activation, and toxicity is unknown. Activated microglia, found in PD-affected areas of the brain, can damage dopaminergic cells through phagocytosis, ROS and proinflammatory cytokine production/release. The ability of DA, DOPAL and DOPAC to activate BV-2 microglia was shown in this work by TNF-α release. Metabolism and toxicity of DA and DOPAL were determined for BV-2 cells, and it was found microglia metabolize DA to DOPAC via DOPAL. Greater cytotoxicity was observed in DOPAL- than DA-treated cells. Aggregation of the PD-relevant protein, α-synuclein, by physiologically relevant levels of DOPAL was also demonstrated in this work. DOPAL-mediated microglial activation as shown in this study represents a viable mechanism for inflammation and dopaminergic cell death seen in PD patients.

TracyAnn Neil Champagne
Oligocene Coral Evolution in Puerto Rico and Antigua: Analysis of Agathiphyllia, Antiguastrea, and Montastraea

The University of Iowa Paleontology Repository maintains an extensive collection of Caribbean coral specimens. This study includes 285 specimens, of which approximately 75 thin-sections of three previously identified Oligocene genera including: Montastraea Blainville, 1830 (=Orbicella Dana 1846), Antiguastrea Vaughan, 1919, and Agathiphyllia Reuss, 1864 (=Cyathomorpha Reuss, 1868). This study includes: photography of colony surfaces and thin-sections of representative specimens of each species and the identification of of the three Oligocene genera Montastraea, Antiguastrea, and Agathiphyllia to the species level. This study compared the agathiphyllid stratigraphic ranges between the collection sampled and the Paloeobiology Database, curated these specimens, and then entered into the database, Specify™. These continued efforts aids in better understanding diagnostic morphologic characters of the three genera: Antiguastrea, Agathiphyllia, and Montastraea. Two of the genera, Antiguastrea and Agathiphyllia are extinct. Because their differences in morphology are subtle and not very well understood, previous biodiversity studies using surface colonies for correct species identification is difficult and many times inaccurate. Montastraea, is further complicated by recent research that suggests it is polyphyletic and contains multiple species complexes, based on the combined use and creation of more morphological characters and from molecular phylogenetics. Additionally, this study assists with the understanding of these Oligocene coral genera and their biodiversity in the Caribbean region prior to the Plio-Pleistocene extinction event, the evolutionary history of the modern coral diversity of this region, and aid in the understanding of the biodiversity changes after the Plio-Pleistocene. The species richness, from using Fisher’s α and Shannon’s H showed no significant differences between the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene formation. This study also compared the local ecological diversity to the Antigua Formation and differences among the local reef coral communities.

Charith Eranga Nanayakkara
Sulfur Dioxide Adsorption and Photooxidation on TiO2 Nanoparticle Surfaces

The adsorption and oxidation of sulfur dioxide on titanium dioxide nanoparticle surfaces was investigated in detail with transmission FTIR spectroscopy.  These data clearly show that surface hydroxyl groups are involved in the adsorption of sulfur dioxide.  In particular, it is shown that sulfur dioxide reacts with surface OH groups to yield both adsorbed sulfite and water.  Removal of OH groups by heating, results in a significant decrease in sulfur dioxide adsorption and no water formation. The role of surface hydroxyl groups in these different processes of adsorption and oxidation were further probed by the use of three isotopes including 16O–H, 16O–D and 18O–H.  These isotopes provide additonal insights into the vibrational modes of adsorbed sulfite. The presence of light results in the photooxidation of adsorbed sulfite into sulfate.  Sulfate formation under different environmental conditions in the presence of molecular oxygen and water vapor was further studied. The relative stability of sulfite and sulfate on the TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces was explored in the presence of increasing relative humidity and showed that sulfate is more stable over sulfite.

R. Taylor Raborn
Genome-wide, functional analysis of transcription initiation and promoter architecture in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

High-throughput sequencing of transcriptomes, the constellation of RNAs produced within a cell or tissue at a given time, has produced a wealth of information surrounding the nature of gene expression for genomes within a diverse group of organisms. This approach has not yielded commensurate insights about the cis-regulatory regions comprised within a genome. Using a method known as CAGE (cap analysis of gene expression) several studies have globally identified transcription start sites (TSS) in important model organisms. Because they define the genomic position of transcription initiation, a gene’s TSSs can also identify its core promoter. However, little is known about the expression architecture of promoters across eukaryotes or its functional significance. In this work, we analyze TSS data from the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel TSS clustering algorithm, we define the major TSS position for a large portion of genes in the budding yeast genome and characterize their promoter architecture. Interestingly, our findings suggest a functional diversity in promoter shape. Moreover, this analysis also revealed specific cases of alternative promoter usage during sporulation, the meiotic pathway of budding yeast.

Kara Fagan
American Studies
The Making of the Movie Queen Films: When Audience and Subject Are One

In my paper, I analyze a group of productions (part amateur film/part stage show) starring local people and directed and filmed by women throughout New England in the mid to late 1930s. I focus on the work of one director in the state of Maine: Margaret Cram, who made at least eleven films in the state. There is growing evidence of itinerant filmmakers like Cram who in the 1920s and 30s auditioned and directed local productions, often referred to as “our town” pictures, that they would screen locally for profits. These productions were intended to garner almost universal town participation and/or attendance at the performance, and advertising usually emphasized that cast members could “see themselves in pictures.” I concentrate on several aspects of the Movie Queen productions: their availability to all and the fact that attendance was expected by almost the entire community; the importance placed on communal and therefore unified production; and the celebration of the amateur as a respectable performer. Finally, I examine how the town itself becomes a dynamic character, captured through its leisure and industry, its material and culture, and of course its community members.

Peter Balestrieri
Library and Information Science
Psmith (the p is silent)

Since 1995, I have collected my own quotations and ones from other sources, publishing excerpts of the collection in various print and online literary journals. The quotations are arranged chronologically. I record the language of my everyday life through quotes that have particular resonance for me.

Pablo Saide
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Forecasting urban PM10 and PM2.5 air pollution episodes in very stable nocturnal conditions and complex terrain using WRF-Chem CO tracer model

This study presents a system to predict air pollution events that develop over Santiago de Chile. An accurate forecast of these episodes is of interest since the local government is entitled by law to take actions in advance to prevent public exposure to particulate matter (PM10/PM2.5) concentrations. The forecasting system is based on accurately simulating carbon monoxide (CO) as a PM10/PM2.5 surrogate, since during episodes there is a high correlation (over 0.95) among these pollutants.  Thus, by accurately forecasting CO, which behaves closely to a tracer on this scale, a PM estimate can be made without involving aerosol-chemistry modeling. Here we propose a forecast system based on the WRF-Chem model with optimum settings, determined through extensive testing, that best represent the stable nocturnal conditions over steep topography and best describe both meteorological and air quality available measurements. A forecast for the 2008 winter is performed showing that this forecasting system is able to perform similarly to the authority decision for PM10 and better than persistence when forecasting pollution episodes. Finally, according to our simulations, emissions from previous days dominate episode concentrations, which highlights the need for 48 hour forecasts that can be achieved by the system presented here. This is in fact the largest advantage of the proposed system.

Andrew Berns
Computer Science
Simple Determination of Stabilization Bounds for Overlay Networks

The Internet has brought about a large change in distributed computation. One change has been the rise of overlay networks, which are networks that use logical communication links. Using logical communication links allows any topology to be constructed, even when the underlying physical network is fixed.

A major issue with overlay networks, however, is that they are often deployed in hostile environments that may re-arrange the network arbitrarily. Self-stabilizing overlay networks are those that can restore the correct topology from any weakly-connected topology. However, to date there have been no performance bounds on how quickly these networks can be built. In this work, we present the first bounds on optimal overlay network construction, and demonstrate how these bounds can be useful for guiding future research.

Brian Collins
An Examination of J.J.C. Smart’s Extreme Utilitarianism

The arguments for and against utilitarianism are as numerous as they are varied. This paper is intended to focus the topic by limiting the examination to one prominent utilitarian, J.J.C. Smart, and his "extreme utilitarianism" as it is presented in his article “Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism”. After briefly summarizing Smart’s arguments, I evaluate the moral language he uses and explore ways it might be “tidied up”. By highlighting the tension that aspects his moral language seems to create, and the subsequent possibilities offered for alleviating this, my goal is to present a consistent and solid form of extreme utilitarianism that is able to offer responses to some critics’ objections. The final section then applies these conclusions to explore how one might use some of the ideas and language in defending extreme utilitarianism from the "supererogation objection".

Zachary J.J. Roper
Response terminated displays produce flanker effect despite high perceptual load

Conventionally, perceptual load studies have looked at distractor processing via the flanker compatibility effect (FCE) by manipulating attentional resource demands to examine the locus of selective attention. Brief exposure duration has been integral to previous studies investigating perceptual load but has been generally overlooked as a form of data limitation. Norman and Bobrow (1975) have argued that task performance can be determined by both resource limitations and data limitations. Not recognizing brief exposure duration as a data limitation has led to the supposition that the extent to which distractors are processed is entirely dependent on the relevant resource limitations. To investigate the cause of the perceptual load effect, data limitations were lessened by employing response terminated displays where the target and distractors were present until response (Experiment 1), the target and task-relevant distractors were present until response (Experiment 2), or the task irrelevant distractor was present until response (Experiment 3). The results showed a significant FCE in high load, response terminated displays which suggests distractor processing to the point of meaning. Furthermore and counter-intuitively, the data limitation induced more to the abolishment of the FCE than data limitations imposed on flankers themselves. These results support a revised version of perceptual load.

Carol L. Bratt
Oral Science
Oral Mucosal Lipids Are Antimicrobial Against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Induce Ultrastructural Damage

Lipids found on the skin and in oral mucosa are increasingly being recognized as innate immune molecules with antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. However, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action. Here, we assess the antimicrobial activity of several lipids against the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis strain 381. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of lipids were determined with broth microdilution assays, killing kinetics were determined for each lipid and ultrastructural damage was assessed by transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy. P. gingivalis 381 was inhibited by sphingosine, phytosphingosine, D-erythro-dihydrospingosine, and sapienic acid, at MICs of 0.5µg/mL, 3.3µg/mL, 0.6µg/mL, and 0.8µg/mL, respectively. SEM micrographs of lipid-treated P. gingivalis showed cells in various stages of lysis with loss of cellular content and some concave cells. TEM micrographs of lipid-treated P. gingivalis 381 showed separation of the membrane from some cells with loss of cellular content. We show that lipids commonly found on the skin and oral mucosa exhibit antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms. EM observations revealed ultrastructural damage of the bacterial cells, suggesting membrane disruption as a potential mechanism. Supported by NIH/NIDCR RO1 DEO18032.

Xiang Zhou
New Inhibitors of Geranylgeranyl Transferase II.

New Inhibitors of Geranylgeranyl Transferase II.
Xiang Zhou,a Sarah A. Holsteinb & David F. Wiemera
a) Department of Chemistry. b) Department of Internal Medicine
University of Iowa
Geranylgeranyl transferase type II (GGTase II) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes the geranylgeranylation of Rab proteins, and thus coverts the parent proteins to lipoproteins which is essential for their proper cellular localization. One known inhibitor of this enzyme is the chemical 3-PEHPC, but a high concentration of this compound is necessary to generate any cellular effects. In an effort to study the cellular effects that result from inhibition of this enzyme, and to develop more potent inhibitors, our research has focused on modification of 3-PEHPC to obtain derivatives that may have improved biological activity. Both the parent compound, 3-PEHPC itself, and the new derivatives we have prepared, have been tested for activity in this system. The details of our syntheses will be presented in this poster, along with the preliminary results on the biological activity of these compounds.

Emily Alexander Kerrigan
Art History
An Artistic and Commemorative Journey through the West: Arthur Wesley Dow's Images of Arizona and New Mexico

Arthur Wesley Dow is best known as a teacher and New England landscape painter and scholarship on his work focuses on his enthusiasm for Japanese art and his connection to the Arts and Crafts tradition. The art he produced as a result of his journey to the Southwest, however, is a significant portion of his oeuvre that has been largely ignored by scholars. Although Dow was a frequent traveler, his visit to Arizona and New Mexico seems somewhat different from his other travels, and this is clearly expressed in his writings and in his art. While Dow’s love of travelling offers a superficial explanation for his trip, the true motive for his work can be explained through his relationship with the ethnologist Frank Hamilton Cushing and his knowledge of the explorer John Wesley Powell. Although their career paths and personalities differed, all three men were fascinated by the Southwest, including its history, geological formations, native inhabitants, and spiritual and religious qualities. Therefore, years after Cushing and Powell had both died, Dow spent months in the Southwest in an effort to meet the people of the region, explore the landscape, and fulfill the missions of these two late-nineteenth-century explorers he so greatly admired. Dow hoped to follow in their footsteps, complete what they could not, and in the process help to develop a new modern American art.

Carissa Philippi
Bilateral Damage to Medial Prefrontal Cortex Abolishes the Self-Reference Effect

Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key component of a large-scale neural system supporting self-referential processing. We found that bilateral damage to the mPFC abolished the self-reference effect (SRE), a memory advantage conferred by self-related processing. The results demonstrate that the mPFC is necessary for the SRE, and suggest that this structure is crucial for self-referential processing and the neural representation of the self.

Sheetal D'mello
Pharmacy (PhD)
Optimization of formulation parameters for preparation of Nalbuphine HCl loaded poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles

Purpose: Develop and characterize microparticle-based sustained release formulations of nalbuphine HCl for treatment of psychostimulant addiction and relapse. Methods: The microparticles were prepared using water in oil in water double emulsion solvent diffusion-evaporation method. The influence of various formulation variables: polymer concentration, surfactant amount, organic solvents, external water phase volume and additives, on the drug loading was analyzed. The formulation was characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, morphology and in vitro drug release. Results: The entrapment efficiency and particle size of microparticles increased with increasing amounts of polymer. The highest entrapment efficiency and loading were obtained with 0.02 M Tris in the external water phase of the double emulsion. The particles formed were monodisperse with spherical morphology. However, in the presence of Tris, particles were porous. The drug release studies demonstrated gradual release over three weeks. Conclusion: A microparticulate formulation of nalbuphine HCl loaded in PLGA matrix was successfully developed with particle size suitable for intramuscular administration. Future and current studies include the evaluation of these formulations in rhesus monkeys in collaboration with investigators at Rockefeller University and the University of Kansas.

Maya George
Pharmacy (PhD)
The role of OCT-2 and OCTN-2 in the transport of amantadine across the nasal mucosa

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of organic cation transporters in the uptake of weakly basic drugs across the nasal epithelium. Amantadine, an OCT-2 substrate, was used to evaluate the activity of these transporters in the olfactory and the nasal respiratory tissues. PCR and immunohistochemistry studies showed the presence of both OCT-2 and OCTN-2 in the bovine respiratory and olfactory mucosa. Protein assay and indirect ELISA indicate that, while the total membrane protein content was higher in the respiratory as compared to the olfactory mucosa, the amount of OCT-2 was greater in the olfactory tissue whereas the amount of OCTN-2 was greater in the respiratory tissue. In vitro, bidirectional transport studies were carried out across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissue in the presence and absence of an OCT-2 inhibitor (guanidine). Transport studies indicated that multiple transporters may be involved in the flux of amantadine across the respiratory mucosa and both OCT-2 and OCTN-2 play a role in the transport of amantadine across the bovine olfactory mucosa. Inhibition of amantadine transport by L-carnitine, a non-substrate for OCT-2, further demonstrated that OCTN-2 plays an important role in the uptake of amantadine in the nasal mucosa. Both OCT-2 and OCTN-2 are expressed in the nasal epithelium, and both play a role in the transport of amantadine across the mucosal tissues.

Erica Damman
Art and the Veteran Community

This work explores the potential partnership between graduate artists and art educators with the ever growing Veteran Affairs Medical Center population. The aim is to set the ground work for a permanent "arts-in-healthcare" program at the VAMC and to bring visibility to and connect Midwest Veterans with the community at large through art collaborations!

Carolan E. Schroeder
Health and Sport Studies
Eating With Our Eyes: Consumption and Digestion of Food Images in American Popular Culture

If we eat with our eyes first, what is it that we are eating? In an age of celebrity chefs and networks dedicated to comestibles, images of food are as ripe for consumption as food itself. The meal, however, is hardly balanced. Culinary programming trends indicate two emergent genres of food images: images that seek to educate and images that seek to entertain. "Food Inc." and "Man vs. Food" exemplify the competing discourse prominent in culinary media. While one reveals the relationship between the growing obesity crisis and perils of industrial farming, the other glorifies accomplishments in gluttonous consumption. This paper endeavors to illustrate how competitive cooking shows reconcile the polarized images and cultural messages. Programs such as "Top Chef" fuse entertainment with educational agenda by transforming the domestic space of the kitchen and the act of cooking. The presupposed centrality of sport and the pervasiveness of sporting imagery and language in American culture allow "Top Chef" to utilize this familiar framework in the construction of culinary specific tasks and challenges. The culinary competition model has the potential to change the discourse around food by neutralizing the gendered sphere, empowering the home cook to acquire skills, and providing accessible and digestible information.

Jong In Chang
Communication Studies
When religion meets media technology

Historically speaking, religion and new technologies are correlated and influence each other: the printing press is linked to the Protestant Reformation, the clock is related to the monastic tradition, and Islam was influential in the development of astronomy and cartography. In many historical cases, religion has been closely connected to the innovation, proliferation, and use of technology. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between religion and technology, I will explore how electronic technology affects people’s consciousness of space and time in their religious lives. I will look closely at how religious space has been transformed by communications technology. Specifically, I will analyze the concept of church as a place of Christian community and a place for community.

Senthilkumar PK
Human Toxicology
Telomere Dysfunction And Telomerase Reactivation In Human Skin Keratinocytes: A Possible New Mechanism Of PCB Carcinogenesis

Activation of telomerase activity and lengthening of telomeres are key steps in cancer progression. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), a group of 209 different congeners, are classified as probable human carcinogens. Immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat) were exposed to PCB congeners 28, 52, 126, 153 and Chicago Air Mixture (CAM) at 5µM concentration for 48 days. Medium with compound was changed every 3rd day and every 6th day cells were re-seeded and telomerase activity, telomere length (qPCR), cMyc, hTERT, hTR, CYP1A1 mRNA (RT-PCR), CYP1A1 activity (EROD production), cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry), and superoxide level (DHE oxidation) were determined. All PCB congeners reduced telomerase activity and telomere length. PCB126 caused the most prominent reduction of telomerase activity (50%), hTR and hTERT mRNA (10%), telomere length (40%) and cell growth, along with an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA and activity, and in superoxide levels from day 6 to 48; Treatment with PCB126 was continued and from day 54 on, an increase in cell growth, cMyc, hTERT, and hTR mRNA level (to 130%) along with re-activation of telomerase activity (to 100%) and re-elongation of telomere length (to 90%) from day 54 to 90 was observed. This increase in cMYC, hTERT, and hTR transcripts after critical telomere shortening may be an indication of genomic instability, a hallmark of carcinogenesis.

Binita Mehta
Religious Studies
Deep Sleep and Human Consciousness: The Perspective of Hindu Advaita Vedanta

Deep Sleep! It is an everyday, supposedly banal experience, but one which has remained a mystery even to the most advanced neuroscientific research. In this paper, I provide an analysis of deep sleep based on the Hindu religio-philosophical school of Advaita Vedanta, and which centers on the structures of experience or conscious phenomena. From the point of view of Vedanta, deep sleep is an indicator of a dimension of reality not easily revealed by the ordinary waking state. I place the Vedanta perspective in the context of modern consciousness studies and argue that the analysis of sleep indicates that human consciousness is more extensive than individual ego consciousness.

Jiwoong Choi
Mechanical Engineering
Physiologically Consistent Airflow Simulation in a Breathing Human Lung

The airflow behavior in the human lung is one of the most challenging physical phenomena in human body, due to its complex geometry (structure) and multiple flow regimes (function). In this study, the airflow in a multiscale subject specific breathing human lung is simulated. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to 7 generations and the lobar geometry are reconstructed from multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scans measured at 85% and 55% of vital capacity. The one-dimensional (1D) airway sub-trees grown from the ends of the CT resolved 3D airway to the terminal bronchioles are generated by the volume filling technique. Airway and lobe deformation during a breathing cycle is modeled using local displacement vectors extracted by image registration. Given the flow rate distribution at the 3D end branches by sequential summation of that at the terminal bronchioles, we perform 3D-1D coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow in a breathing lung. This method provides physically accurate and physiologically consistent airflow behavior in the entire human conducting airway. The dynamics of regional pressure distributions, pressure volume relations, and the airway resistance are discussed in conjunction with known physiology.

Jill Kambs
32% of the Archive

32% of the Archive is a photography installation, which explores memory, loss, and the power of ephemera through recording and re-presenting objects from a personal archive. Through uniform documenting, framing, and treatment of the art objects, 32% of the Archive, attempts to neutrally display personal objects so the audience can objectively investigate the material.  The endeavor falls short of impartial, though, for the specificity of the subject and the enormity of the act carries an emotional charge. Beyond presenting data, this work reflects a sincere effort to remember and preserve, to puzzle and piece together, to pay homage to what is lost in the transience of life.  These re-presentations recall Roland Barthes’ concept of the indexical image: it is not the thing itself but the trace of the thing; it is not the moment itself but the conjured memory of the moment and the place and the people who inhabited it. This is the true power of the photograph—to preserve and keep present that which is ephemeral.

Tyler E. Ostergaard
Art History
Monsters in the Fog: Industry and the Railroad in Manet, Monet, and Caillebotte’s Paintings of the Gare Saint-Lazare and Point de l’Europe

While the railroad an iconic aspect of nineteenth-century industrialization, before the 1870s French painters, including the Impressionists, largely avoided painting it, but in the 1870s the Impressionists painted over forty depictions of the railroad. Upon recognizing that the Impressionists did not present modernity evenly, it necessarily follows that they did not present modernity in its entirety. It is insufficient to simply categorize when aspects of modern life were painted, rather it is necessary to turn the question back on itself and address what was emphasized, what was deemphasized, and what was avoided altogether. Keeping with the narrative and clichés of Impressionism scholars have all too frequently discussed these paintings in isolation as depictions of light and atmosphere. To date scholars have barely delved into the extensive contemporary reception of these works. Systematic analysis of these reviews - both for what they say and even more for what they ignore and discount - provides elucidating insight into what was slandered and attacked, what was stressed and what was shunned, and ultimately how industry was perceived in art and society at the beginning of the Belle Époque.

Keith Avin
Physical Rehabilitation Science
Does Fatigue Resistance Improve with Age? A meta-analysis approach.

Although the older adult may be commonly perceived as fatiguing more readily, muscle fatigue may actually improve with age. The older adult has demonstrated greater fatigue resistant for relative-intensity tasks than younger adults during isometric contractions; an advantage believed to be lost during dynamic tasks. However no one to date has systematically compiled the available data to substantiate this belief, nor identify additional possible moderating factors. Thus, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether older adults are consistently more fatigue resistant across contraction types, further considering joint regions, sex, and task intensity. The main findings of this meta-analysis were: 1) age differences in fatigue resistance vary by contraction type; 2) sex moderated the age effect for isokinetic contractions only; and 3) the magnitude of age-related differences in fatigue resistance varied across joint regions. Despite the number of fatigue studies available, substantial gaps in knowledge remain, most notably the intensity moderated, age-related fatigue resistance for isokinetic and intermittent isometric tasks. Although many physiologic systems regress with senescence, fatigue resistance appears to improve with age for select contraction types. This may serve to partially offset the negative impacts of sarcopenia and muscle weakness. Future studies are needed to determine if interventions should preferentially target improved fatigue resistance or strength to optimally promote functional mobility and independence.

Michael A. Ridge Jr
Detours and Roadblocks along the Mexican Road of Progress and Prosperity: Border Unrest and Closer Economic Relations, 1876-1883

The period beginning in 1876 to the Mexican Revolution in 1911, was largely characterized by a synergy of goals and aims between the two countries as the Mexican government sought to promote the nation as a place for trade and investment at the same time that U.S. investors were searching for avenues to invest in. Mexican officials, both in Mexico and those in the United States played a dramatic role in this story. The Mexican government opened the door to U.S. investment, despite, at times concerns about U.S. domination, but did so as part of the goal of “developing” and “modernizing” the nation which was the result of the acceptance of American and Western European ideas of modernity and progress. Mexican officials and U.S. promoters were successful in promoting an image of Mexico as a modernizing country and this image of Mexico was a powerful counter to past perceptions of instability and revolution that had been the dominate image of Mexico in the United States. By the end of the 19th century the most important image of Mexico in the United States was that of a developing, modernizing nation under the strong leadership of Porfirio Diaz.

Brady J Hoback
Garrett’s Reading of Hume on Representation

David Hume makes it quite clear that he thinks some of our perceptions, or impressions and ideas, are representational. Hume is also very clear that certain kinds of impressions, namely the passions, are not at all representational. If we are going to be able to know which sorts of perceptions are representational and which are not, then we need to know, at a minimum, what Hume took representation to be. This is part of the project that Don Garrett undertakes in his article “Hume’s Naturalistic Theory of Representation.” On the theory of representation that Garrett takes to be implicit in Hume, it turns out that impressions of sensation are able to represent bodies and their qualities. My aim in this paper is to show that even if we take representation to be as Garrett reconstructs it, there is still reason to deny that Hume took impressions of sensation to be representational.

Robert Hart
Mechanical Engineering
Electro-Mechanical Coupling in Carbon Fiber Composites

The use of composite materials in aerospace, electronics, and wind industries has become increasingly common, and these composite components are required to carry mechanical, electrical, and thermal loads simultaneously. A unique property of carbon fiber composites is that when an electric current is applied to the specimen, the mechanical strength of the specimen increases. Previous studies have shown that the higher the electric current, the greater the increase in impact strength. However, as current passes through the composite, heat is generated through Joule heating. This Joule heating can cause degradation of the composite and thus a loss in strength. In order to minimize the negative effects of heating, it is desired to apply a very high current for a very short duration of time. This research investigated the material responses of carbon fiber composite plates subjected to electrical loads of up to 2000 Amps.

Brett Coppenger
The Many Problems of Memory Knowledge

Abstract: Michael Huemer attempts to answer the question of when S remembers that P, what kind of justification does S have for believing that P? Huemer argues that the justification of memorial belief is dependent on the justification one has when adopting the belief and the justification one has from retaining the belief. I argue that Huemer's analysis is at best inconsistent and at worst misguided.

Yujin Shin
Music Education
Comparing the Motivation of Music Majors in College Choirs and Non-music Majors in leisure Choirs

The purpose of this study is to examine and explain the motivation of choral music participants in terms of major (music or non-music major) and degree program (undergraduate or graduate student). The research questions are: a) what are the best common explicable constructs of positive motivation for participation in a choir for both music majors and non-music majors? b) what are the distinctive constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between music majors in a college choir and music non-majors in a church choir? c) Are there any distinct constructs of motivation between two different groups in terms of task value and social commitment? d) How do both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation constructs in the two different participant groups interact to enhance their participation in the choir? To answer the research questions, data will be collected by recording individual semi-structured interviews, and the data will be transcribed and coded based on the semiotic phenomenological theory. In coding, themes will be categorized under the research questions, and three processes of coding will be followed: description, reduction and interpretation. Participants will be randomly selected from University of Iowa college choirs and leisure choirs in Iowa City. Music major college students (n=4: male=2, female=2) will be chosen from two UI choirs, and non-music major college students (n=4: male=2, female=2) will be selected from an UI choir and a choir off-campus: both are consisted of non-music major students. To enhance reliability and validity of data coding, the recorded excerpts and coded interview data will be reviewed and evaluated by a music education expert and a qualitative research expert. This study will help music educators understand music major and non-music major college students’ motivation for joining a choir and help teachers or choral conductors to develop or plan better choir programs and rehearsal techniques.

Madhuparna Roy
Role of Na+/K+ ATPase in auditory mechanosensation of Drosophila

Plasma membrane localized Na+/K+ ATPase is important for maintaining ionic homoeostasis in most biological systems. Alpha subunit (ATPα) is the main catalytic pump, which depends on the beta subunit (Nrv3) for its transport to the plasma membrane and also for regulating its activity. Our immunohistochemical studies in late stage embryos show that the ATPα localizes to the plasma membrane of CNS neurons, while Nrv3 localizes to the PNS, especially the lateral pentascolopidial organ (lch5), as well as a subset of the CNS. In adults, ATPα and Nrv3 proteins are present in the brain, eye and chordotonal neurons in Johnston’s organ. In addition, ATPα is also highly expressed in the ablumenal plasma membrane of scolopale cells . To investigate the role of Na+/K+ ATPase in hearing, we knocked down ATPα and nrv3 expression in the Johnston’s Organ using RNA-interference. Knocking down the ATPα in sense organ precursors and scolopale cells using specific drivers result in complete hearing loss in both cases. Immunohistochemistry showed that these animals lack ATPα expression in the scolopale cell of the auditory neurons and EM shows abnormal accumulation of electron dense material in the scolopale cell lumen. Similar knockdown experiments with nrv3 revealed complete hearing loss in neurons but only a partial loss in the scolopale cells.

Lea Ljumanovic
Mechanical Engineering
Micromechanical Modeling of Multiphysics Composites for Structural Capacitors

Batteries are the most popular rechargeable power supply source. Their biggest shortfall is their weight; for instance an average car battery weights around 15 lbs which is a significant amount for an object of such small size. Because the effectiveness of many systems is a function of their weight the direct reduction in weight can increase the systems functionality. One of the ways that this can be achieved is to incorporate the power supply function (battery) into another subsystem of the mechanism. By aiming to reduce the cost of their mechanisms, the engineers in \aerospace, automotive and U.S. Army industry suggested that structural batteries be included in the design of the systems. When designed correctly these devices have the potential to carry structural load and store energy simultaneously. Two main challenges come from manufacturing processes and properties prediction. Before any material can be used in the industry its mechanical properties must be known. For composite materials, such as structural batteries, predicting these properties is not a straightforward process. During this work mechanical properties were estimated for both two and three phase composites. Properties were estimated using three different techniques, including two bounding methods Voigt-Reuss and Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole, as well as the direct approach Mori-Tanaka. Constituents that were considered include carbon nanotubes, fibers, Barium Titanate and several matrix phases such as PMMA.

Nan Chen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Mechanisms of Nasal Epithelial Translocation of a Defined Population of Nanoparticles

Applications of nanotechnology continue to be pursued in industry and biomedicine, and have, more recently, raised concerns about health effects of nano-sized materials (diameter ≤ 100 nm). The physical and chemical properties that make nanomaterials so attractive may also be associated with potentially toxic effects to cells and tissues, especially after inhalation. The investigation of mechanisms underlying nanoparticle interactions with and translocation across nasal olfactory and respiratory epithelial tissues can provide important information about the opportunities and potential risks of nasally inhaled nanomaterials. The uptake of 20 nm, 50 nm and 100 nm fluorescently-labeled, polystyrene particles (PNP) was investigated, and the results indicate that nanoparticles enter both the olfactory and respiratory epithelial cell layers primarily via endocytotic processes. The smallest particles (20 nm) were taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and populations of particles were seen in the glands and throughout the whole submucosal region. Very little uptake of 50 nm particles was observed, yet significant uptake of 100 nm particles by macropinocytosis was observed. The localization of these larger particles was more diffuse than for the smaller particles. These results indicate that multiple, size-dependent pathways exist for nanoparticle uptake into mucosal tissues.

Katheryn Lawson
The Female Voice(s) in Ousmane Sembène’s Moolaadé

This paper examines how the female voice, in its many manifestations, is used to reflect, and affect notions of tradition and change in Ousmane Sembène’s Moolaadé (2004). In the film, Collé Ardo’s fight to protect young girls against female genital mutilation, still widely practiced in Africa today, opens up a discrete and rich aural space for the complexities of negotiating tradition, modernity, and the intricacies of postcolonial feminism. The female voices in Moolaadé are expressed across two dimensions: age and mode. The women’s ages ranges from the young girls who seek Collé’s help to the middle-aged wives who seek change, and finally the elders who represent the Salindana who carry out the practice of female circumcision. Voice modes are also utilized in three ways: diegetic, meaning music that occurs to the knowledge of the characters; non-diegetic, music of which the characters are unaware; and the speaking voice, which is not musical, but is nonetheless powerful and brings drastic change in the village. This paper investigates three key conflicts in the film: the confrontation between the Salindana and Collé; Ciré’s public flogging of his wife; and the women’s gathering and collective revolt against the all-male village council. These scenes demonstrate the vocal form and subtleties of female power that are exercised in creative everyday forms throughout Moolaadé.

Benjamin Abban
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Scale dependence in the efficiency of grassed waterways within an agricultural watershed

Grassed waterways (GWW’s) are common land management practices utilized by farmers to maintain field productivity by effectively reducing runoff/sediment conveyance and gully formation.  GWW’s have been found to slow water flow, increase infiltration rates, and increase soil aggregate stability due to the dense grass roots.  This research investigates the scale-dependent efficiency of GWW’s within an agricultural watershed in Iowa, namely the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW) with a drainage area of ~ 27,000 ha.  It is hypothesized that GWW’s provide localized erosion protection, thus the impact of implementing GWW’s is likely to decrease with increasing catchment size.  To test our hypothesis, “thought” experiments were conducted using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model to determine water and sediment fluxes at different spatial scales within the CCW.  Preliminary results indicated that the efficiency of the GWW’s decreased exponentially as the area of interest increased.  The results were limited by areal restrictions on the range of applicability of the WEPP model. The proposed model will couple the WEPP model for runoff and erosion prediction on hillslopes with the Steep Stream Sediment Transport 1D model for flood routing and sediment transport within channels.  This coupled model will improve water and sediment yield estimates, making it possible to evaluate the efficiency of GWW’s and other Best Management Practices at larger spatial scales.

Tommy E. Sutarto, Fabienne Bertrand, Christopher G. Wilson
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fluvial Erosion Measurements of Streambanks Using Photo-Electronic Erosion Pins (PEEPs)

Cohesive streambank erosion is characterized by two main mechanisms, fluvial entrainment of individual particles and bank failure due to gravity (Thorne, 1980). In this study, the relative importance of fluvial erosion (compared to mass failure) was determined in two reaches from different locations of the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW). The main goal of the project was the identification of the key erosion process at each site. Beyond the distinguished flow conditions, different stream orders, and land-use, no further attempts were made to identify other key driving agents behind the erosion, such subaerial processes acting at the cohesive riverbanks (Lindow et al., 2009). Erosion lengths up to 38 cm were detected. The bank erosion monitoring at high resolution intervals due to the PEEPS allowed for better characterization the fluvial erosion occurring at these sites. The moving average identified the dominant trend of the data and the variability of the erosion lengths at the two sites. Further, the Shewhart Charts allowed us to detect the critical erosion events. Finally, the overall performance of the PEEPs was evaluated. The maximum error between manual and automated measurements of the exposed length of the PEEPs was less than 27%. The error between the channel survey and the automated PEEP measurements was less than 14%.

Jong Sung Kim
Human Toxicology
Effects of Copper Nanoparticle Exposure on Host Defense in a Murine Pulmonary Infection Model of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) and environmental bacteria can occur simultaneously. NPs induce inflammatory responses and oxidative stress but may also have immune-suppressive effects, impairing macrophage function and altering epithelial barrier functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential pulmonary effects of inhalation and instillation exposure of mice to copper (Cu) NPs using a model of lung inflammation and host defense. We used Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) in a murine pulmonary infection model to determine if pulmonary bacterial clearance is enhanced or impaired by Cu NP exposure from two different exposure modes: sub-acute inhalation and instillation. Pulmonary responses were evaluated by lung histopathology plus cell enumeration, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and inflammatory cytokines. Cu NP exposure induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of total cells and neutrophils to the lungs as well as increased total protein and LDH activity in BAL fluid. Both inhalation and instillation exposure to Cu NPs significantly decreased the pulmonary clearance of K.p.-exposed mice measured 24 h after bacterial infection following Cu NP exposure versus sham-exposed mice. Our data demonstrate Cu NP exposure impaired host defense against bacterial lung infections. Thus, exposure to Cu NPs may lead to increased risk of pulmonary infection.

Thelma Abeysinghe
Effect of a mutant with altered dynamics on hydride transfers catalyzed by thymidylate synthase

Effect of a mutant with altered dynamics on hydride transfers catalyzed by thymidylate synthase THELMA ABEYSINGHE, Zhen Wang and Amnon KohenDepartment of Chemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USAdonthelma-abeysinghe@uiowa.eduThymidylate synthase (TSase EC catalyzes the final step in the de novo biosynthesis of 2’–deoxythymidine 5’–monophosphate (dTMP), where the cofactor (6 R)-N5, N10-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (CH2H4F) serves both as the methylene donor and as the hydride (H-) donor (from its C6 position). The essential role of TSase makes it a common target for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. Recent focuses on the mutants of highly conserved residue Tyr-209 (in ecTSase) have shown a key role of stabilizing the closed enzyme conformation.1According to the crystal structures of of wt ec TSase and its Y209W mutant at a 1.3 Å resolution, the structures are nearly identical. The distinct feature of Y209W is the anisotropic B factors of the phosphate-binding loop, which are not uniformly oriented as in the wt.1 To assess whether this dynamic effect altered on the hydride transfer step (the rate determining step at the physiological temperatures) of the Y209W TSase mutant, KIEs (kinetic Isotope effects) and other kinetic features were examined.Competitive KIEs on the second- order rate constant (V/K) were measured over a temperature range of 5-35°C. The observed H/T (TV/KH) and D/T (TV/KD) KIEs were used to calculate the intrinsic KIEs throughout the temperature range. The outcome indicated that the hydride transfer was not altered significantly, but that other kinetic and dynamic steps were dramatically affected. While the Tyr-209 is involved mostly with binding of dUMP, Y209W has little effect on dUMP but allows for greater mobility of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (THF) prior to the hydride transfer step. This finding emphasizes the importance of long range protein effects in catalysis.Acknowledgements:  This work was supported by funding from the NIH GM65368-01Reference:1. Newby, Z., Lee, T. T., Morse, R. J., Lie, Y., Liu, L., Venkataraman, P., Santi, D. V., Finer-Moore, J. S., Stroud, R. M. (2006) The Role of Protein Dynamics in Thymidylate Synthase Catalysis:  Variants of Conserved 2‘-Deoxyuridine 5’-Monophosphate (dUMP)-Binding Tyr-261.  Biochemistry, 45, 7415-7428.

Natalie J. Allen
French and Francophone World Studies
Troubled Love, Troubled Gender: A Fresh Look at Marc Chagall’s Daphnis and Chloe

Love is the underlying theme that links Marc Chagall and the bucolic novel, Daphnis and Chloe. Chagall’s raison d’être, his artistic endeavor in life, was to search out the mystical beauty and love in the natural world inhabited by humans and translate his findings into visual plasticity. It was in this vein that he accepted a commission from the editor and art critic, Tériade, to illustrate the time-honored novel written by Longus that centers itself on the predestined love story of a young couple, Daphnis and Chloe. However, personal difficulties arose in his own love life, dampening his desire to illustrate the novel with the typically fond, amorous couple that Chagall is known for depicting. The figure of Chloe in his lithographs is an important symbol in exploring Chagall’s gender categorization of the two characters, and we can see how the hegemonic institutionalized norms manifest in his letters to friends as well as in his oeuvre. 

Matthew Andersson
The Strain of Friendship: A Network-Based Approach to Self-Esteem

In this research, previous findings on the mental health outcomes of social networks are refined and extended using identity control theory. Friendship is conceptualized as a role identity that is both constrained and enabled by interpersonal contexts. The contextual aspects of friendship role strain are examined multidimensionally by interacting the respondent’s gender with the density and sexual composition of his or her friendship network. Results point to a nuanced portrait of friendship role strain that differs considerably by gender. Overall, models revealed that friendship network density is beneficial for women whose networks contain mostly women and for men whose networks contain mostly women. 

Stephanie Anthony
School Psychology
Current Practices in Assessment of School Functioning of Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing by School Psychologists in Iowa

Over 35,000 students who are deaf or hard of hearing are served in American schools (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2008).  Despite these numbers, there has been a dearth of research on assessments used with students who are deaf or hard of hearing and whether or not the school psychologists working with these students are competent to provide services to these students.  The purpose of this study was to examine standardized assessment instruments used by practicing school psychologists in Iowa and to gather information about these school psychologists’ practices, competencies, and knowledge of best practices regarding this population.  Results showed that the majority of school psychologists in Iowa do not report being competent to work with this population nor do they report knowledge of best practices.  Additionally, there is no difference in reported competency levels of school psychologists who have been in practice longer or have an advanced degree. 

Jessica Anthony
Dance as a Tool for Embodying Our Stories: Past, Present and Future

Dance, as an embodied art form, is uniquely suited to empower us to tell our stories and, through the composition and the telling of our stories, recover greater agency over our bodies and lives. As our bodies house our histories, dance offers itself as a way to create a bridge between the body and mind: to uncover the depth of lived history, to communicate things that cannot be spoken and to physically practice a new way of being in the world. Dance as a performance art offers a way for the stories to be witnessed by an audience creating an opportunity for empathetic and conscious engagement.In April, I will be offering a weekly dance class to girls at the Iowa Juvenile Home in Toledo, Iowa.  The six-week workshop will offer the girls movement explorations that introduce compositional components of dance as well as creative prompts using writing and dance that will culminate in the creation of personal “movement portraits”.  This workshop is a first step in building a relationship with the Iowa Juvenile Home in order for future partnerships to be developed based upon how dance can support the needs and goals of the girls and the institution.

Chris Anthony
Medicine (MD)
Quantitative Assessment of Knee Kinematics Utilizing a New Low Profile Pivot Shift Test

The pivot shift test (PST) has been shown to be a highly specific diagnostic test for evaluating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee instability. However, patient pain has been observed as the practitioner induced internal rotary, anterior, and valgus tibial forces of the PST are applied to a patient’s knee. Our study seeks to quantitatively understand the associated knee kinematics of a low profile pivot shift test (LPPST), and, in an effort to reduce patient pain, we also seek to show that a new LPPST consisting of operator induced internal rotary and anterior directed forces (no valgus force) with subsequent patient knee range of motion can effectively differentiate between the ACL deficient and ACL sufficient knee. Twenty cadaver knees were utilized in our study. Our quantitative assessments utilized computer assisted navigation (Orthopilot) to sample the anterior/posterior translation and internal/external rotation of the tibia as the LPPST force vectors were applied and each cadaver knee was taken through a full range of motion. Our results show a consistently greater anterior tibial translation and internal tibial rotation in the ACL deficient vs. ACL sufficient knees during the entrance and exit pivot phases of the LPPST. Our study demonstrates a diagnostic test which effectively elucidates differences between the ACL deficient and ACL sufficient knee.

Celia Brockway
“Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly”: Discovering Thematic Continuity in Libby Larsen’s Cowboy Songs

          As a result of varied poetry selection and inconsistent musical setting, Libby Larsen’s Cowboy Songs is not as cohesive as her other song cycles.  Larsen typically selects poetry by women about strong women, and employs a free rhythmic style, vivid text painting, and recurring motives.  However, not all of these techniques are present in Cowboy Songs.  The cycle, consisting of “Bucking Bronco,” “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly,” and “Billy the Kid,” portrays three characters in moments of weakness, and of the three poems used in the cycle, only one was authored by a woman.  While “Bucking Bronco” and “Billy the Kid” do display rhythmic flexibility, text painting, and reappearing melodies, “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly” is void of these techniques.
          Through examination of the central song’s place within the larger cultural and historical context of cowboy songs and its music-text relationships, the common thread between “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly” and the other two songs of the cycle is unveiled.  Cowboys created songs that reflected the realities of their lives and beliefs.  Because many of their songs discussed heaven, “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly” is textually akin to a genuine cowboy song.  Musically, consistent triplets in “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly” give the effect of a loping horse throughout the song.  Without “Lift Me Into Heaven Slowly” within Larsen’s Cowboy Songs, the important religious inclinations of cowboys would have been omitted, and thus the song helps provide the grouping with a realistic depiction of cowboy life.

Linh Bui
The Control of Apospory in the Fern <i> Ceratopteris richardii <i>

In land plants, the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte alternate to complete the life cycle. Sporophytes undergo meiosis to form spores, from which sexual gametes are derived. Fertilization restores the ploidy and the zygote develops into a sporophyte. Many plant species can also generate offspring asexually in the absence of meiosis and fertilization. Asexual reproduction has the advantage of perpetuating a desirable combination of the traits. Therefore, understanding the mechanism underlying asexual reproduction may lead to the harness of asexual reproduction of seeds in crop plants.
My research focuses on understanding the mechanism underlying apospory, an asexual reproduction pathway in which diploid gametophytes are generated directly from the sporophytes in the absence of meiosis. In ferns, both gametophytes and sporophytes are free-living, thus offer an ideal system for my research.  In the model fern Ceratopteris richardii, apospory does not occur in nature but can be induced easily in the laboratory. Using C. richardii, I have successfully optimized the conditions for apospory. I have obtained preliminary results in developing a stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol and have identified candidate genes involved in apospory. These results established a basis for investigating the molecular mechanism controlling apospory in C. richardii.

Jo Butterfield
"Look at what we are up against!": The United Nations and the Gendering of the 1948 'Universal' Declaration of Human Rights

In the aftermath of World War Two, United Nations delegates negotiated and adopted the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), laying the foundation for modern human rights standards to this day. Yet in the 1990s, women’s human rights activists demonstrated that the global community consistently ignored human rights violations suffered by women.  I argue that that feminist activists and ideas of gender were central to the creation of postwar modern human rights standards.  In the 1940s, a coalition of feminist activists and key delegates developed an alternative vision of ‘universal’ human rights, which advocated for women’s individual civil and political rights, but also recognized that women’s role as (potential) mothers disadvantaged them in a market-based economy.  To mitigate this inequality, they lobbied for rights as women and argued that child care and paid maternity leave should be obligations of the state.  In short, their vision both challenged the public/private divide and included women’s particular rights within the universal framework.  While the activists achieved significant victories, nascent Cold War ideological battles and UN delegates competing national and international objectives ultimately forced the feminist activists to the sidelines of the drafting process.  In the end, UDHR drafters legitimized the public/private distinction and rejected the universality of women’s particular rights demands. Nonetheless, debates about the rights of women shaped the “universal” human rights framework that emerged. 

Elizabeth Carroll
French and Francophone World Studies
Monsieur Vénus: Anatomies in and of the Text

When considering the origins of textual creativity and authority during the 19th century, one must ask, if the pen is considered a metaphorical penis, thus giving authorial rights to men only, how does one account for the presence of women authors? Monsieur Vénus (1884) was a novel written by the French author Marguerite Emery, better known by her pen name Rachilde. Emery became a successful author by adopting a pen name and the attitudes, dress, and behaviors of a man. At a time when one’s gender was believed to be determined by one’s biological sex, Rachilde challenged the notions that sex and gender are immutable concepts. Through her life experiences and her novels, Rachilde articulated the idea that sex and gender are socially constructed, an idea articulated in the 20th century by feminist critics such as Simone De Beauvoir and Judith Butler.  Monsieur Vénus is the convergence of three types of bodies: Rachilde’s coming to writing and her adoption of the pen(is), the gender transformations experienced by the protagonists Raoule and Jacques, and the presence of the body or corpus of Rachilde’s works in the French literary canon. In her critical stance regarding gender, Rachilde challenged the naturalness and essentialness of ex and gender and, although she disliked labels and theories, she developed her own body politics.

Nan Chen
Pharmacy (PhD)

     Applications of nanotechnology continue to be pursued in industry and biomedicine and have, more recently, raised concerns about health effects of nano-sized materials. The aims of the present study were to identify the roles of nanoparticle size and surface properties on particle translocation and to investigate possible endocytotic pathways for nanoparticle uptake across the nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa. The translocation of 20 nm and 100 nm fluorescently-labeled, polystyrene particles was investigated and the results indicated that both particle sizes were rapidly internalized and accumulated in various regions of the mucosal explants. After two hours, the amount of 20 nm particles in the nasal olfactory tissues was 140 times greater than for 100 nm particles, whereas in respiratory explants, a 200 fold difference was detected. Using various inhibitors of endocytosis, the smallest particles were seen to be taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis with populations of these particles seen in the glands and throughout the submucosal region. Uptake of 100 nm particles was primarily via macropinocytosis, and the majority of these larger particles were observed to remain in the epithelial tissue layer. These results indicate that multiple, size-dependent pathways exist for nanoparticle translocation across nasal mucosal tissues.

Mieke Eerkens
English-Nonfiction Writing
In 12 Pt. Font

          The process of conducting research for creative work as a writer can be intensely emotional. As a result, the experience of a recent research project became the subject of a creative work in its own right. In the summer of 2011, I spent two months conducting research at the Institute of War Documentation in Amsterdam on the concentration camps in Indonesia where my father was interned as a child. The activity of researching the archive, which contains diaries, letters, and other ephemera, triggered powerful emotions in me. This creative essay aims to reveal the ways in which seemingly mundane details can be the most powerful tools in illuminating a subject, as well as examine the loneliness a writer can experience when she realizes that the closer she comes to her subject, the more alienated she can become. The essay represents somewhat of a metatext, as I explore the practice of exploring my subject as an artist.

Seyed Hajimirzaie
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Saving Endangered Mussels of Upper Mississippi River: a Bridge between Fluid Mechanic and Nature

In this experimental study we evaluate the role of shape on the wakes around four different low-aspect-ratio wall-mounted obstacles. We consider four obstacle geometries: semi-ellipsoids with the major and minor axes of the base ellipses aligned in the streamwise and transverse directions representative of fresh water mussels, and two cylinders with matching aspect ratios H/D (where D is the maximum transverse dimension of the obstacle). The aspect ratios (AR) considered are 0.67 and 0.89. DPIV was used to interrogate the flow. Streamwise structures observed in the mean wake include tip, base, and horseshoe vortex pairs. The presence of the base vortices for such low-aspect-ratio obstacles is unexpected. It is thereby demonstrated that such variations in shape can provide a useful means with which to control and investigate this complex, highly three-dimensional flow.

Ralph Hazlewood
Identification and Characterization of Genetic Factors Responsible for Cavitary Optic Disk Anomalies

Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in America and its chief feature is progressive degeneration of the optic nerve. A major risk factor for glaucoma is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but glaucoma can occur at any IOP; glaucoma at normal IOP is called normal tension glaucoma (NTG). One way to study NTG is to investigate similar forms of optic nerve disease that also occur in the absence of elevated IOP. Cavitary optic disk anomalies (CODA) are associated with congenital excavation of the optic nerve that in some patients progressively deteriorate resembling the cupping seen in glaucoma. Based on the similarities between NTG and CODA patients, we are searching for the gene that causes CODA in a large family. Prior linkage studies mapped the CODA gene to a 13.5Mbp segment of chromosome 12q14. We have examined the linked region for the gene that causes CODA using comparative genome hybridization (CGH) and identified a 6kbp heterozygous triplication of DNA found to be co-inherited with CODA in this pedigree and absent in normal controls. Subsequent analysis revealed a two-fold increase in expression when the 6kbp segment transfected into HEK293T cells. We report a CNV within the previously linked region that is co-inherited with CODA in our family. We hypothesize that this CNV leads to dysregulation of gene expression and ultimately to the development of CODA.

Sally Huddle
Special Education
Reading Interventions for Adolescent English Language Learners With Reading Difficulties

Only 3% of eighth-grade English Language Learners (ELLs) scored at or above the proficient level on the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). This number is alarming because the ELL population is one of the fastest-growing populations today, accounting for 11.3% of the total school population. ELLs are most often identified for special education services in the area of reading, and little research has been done to determine what interventions have been validated for preventing and remediating adolescent ELLs’ reading difficulties and subsequent disabilities. The purpose of this Literature review is to present the examined research to answer the research question:  what instructional practices are validated by research to be effective for adolescent ELLs? A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the electronic databases of EBSCOhost and PsycINFO.  Eight studies were reviewed in which participants were adolescent ELLs (in grades 4-8) with identified reading difficulties or disabilities. Analysis of the ELL research includes: are current implications for practice for native English speaking adolescents appropriate for adolescent ELLs. The reviewed studies indicate many of the implications and components necessary for adolescent English speaking students are also necessary for adolescent ELLs.  Three additional important implications for practice are recommended: (a) interventions must be targeted, (b) interventions must be intense, and (c) interventions must include ESL strategies to build oral language proficiency, vocabulary, and background knowledge.
Keywords: reading difficulty, reading disability, dyslexia, reading intervention, English language learners, English learners, and second language learning.

John Hughes
The Musical Implications of the Lutheran Reformation

     When Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the church door at Wittenberg on October 31, 1517, he wished to purify the Catholic church from certain practices, such as the sale of indulgences. These reforms unintentionally led to a schism. On the other hand, Luther’s immediate impact on musical life in Germany was unexpected but overwhelmingly positive. A misinformed notion exists that Lutherans’ chorales and their penchant for congregational singing directly preceded the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach. However, well over a century separates Luther’s death and Bach’s birth. Luther’s reforms and accomplishments, which can be seen almost immediately following the posting of the Ninety-five Theses, created a culture that would foster the arts and create the world in which Schütz, Bach, and Handel would eventually live.  In addition to his religious reforms, Luther’s philosophies removed many societal barriers, resulting in greater accessibility to and interaction with music and education for the common German. When examining Luther’s legacy, his musical, cultural, and societal ideals should be remembered as well as his theological reforms. 

PJ Johnston
Religious Studies
Shantideva's Refutation of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika Concept of God

The immediate target of the Buddhist philosopher Shantideva's refutation in verses 118-125 of the “wisdom chapter” of the Bodhicharyavatara is the Nyaya-Vaisheshika view of divinity, which is that Ishvara (God) possesses the five qualities of divinity, purity and worthiness of veneration, permanence, partlessness, and being the singular cause of everything. If it is read as a specific refutation of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika god-concept, Shantideva's argument has a certain, though limited, success. It is possible however that Shantideva views these qualities to be indispensable constituents of all theistic god-concepts as such and not as particulars of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika school, in which case his refutation overreaches and fails. The most serious difficulty with Shantideva's refutation is his apparent inability to understand and take seriously the recourse to apophasis (or unsaying) commonly made in theological discourse, and as such, his failure to address more sophisticated forms of philosophical theism.

Gerald J Jones
School Psychology
Relations Between Depressive Symptoms and Physical Activity in US Adolescents

This poster investigates relationships between self-reported depressive symptoms and physical activity participation in adolescents.  Data were drawn from the 2009 YRBS, an epidemiologic survey of 16,410 US youth.  Practitioners and researchers will learn of the association between being depressive symptoms and physical activity with implications for identification and intervention needs

Erin Kaufman
Educational Policy and Leadership
“Less Corn and More Culture:” Vocal Music Activities in Iowa’s Rural Neighborhoods, 1920-1935

While typically associated with home economics and agricultural education, the Iowa State College (ISC) Cooperative Extension Service also included fine arts outreach to rural communities from early on in its history. Involving 4-H clubs and home demonstration groups, fine arts outreach encouraged girls and women to study music and to sing together. The highpoint of these activities came in 1934-1935, when members of 4-H and farmwomen’s groups studied and then performed the opera, The Bohemian Girl. The yearlong study involved 60,000 women and 15,000 girls, who learned and performed pieces of the opera throughout the year. The culminating performance drew an audience of approximately 8,000 local community members, and it included cast members from 47 of Iowa’s 99 counties. The performance’s overwhelmingly positive reception suggests that performance played an important, community-building role in rural areas. It also suggests that rural girls and women wanted to have exposure to and involvement in fine arts programs. This finding broadens traditional accounts of cooperative extension history, which portray extension education primarily in terms of vocational education and home economics outreach.

Educational Measurement and Statistics
Evaluation and Critique of TOEFL

Students from all over the world are dealing with some special exams such as GRE, GMAT, IELTS to be eligible to receive quality education in the U.S and western countries.  Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) is arguably the biggest challenge for these students to overcome. Validation of a test which has an impotent place for student’s success is substantial issue. The purpose of the study is to investigate TOEFL validity and reliability by using some research conducted by specialists in English Testing Service (ETS).  Though the studies need to be replicated in other conditions, all consequences reached by the researches reveal that TOEFL are valid exam in terms of criterion validity, content validity, and score reliability.

Clark Kopelman, Amanda Osborn, Abigail Kramer
School Psychology
Preaching to the Choir- How Effective is an Elective Training on Sexual Orientation for Public School Teachers?

Schools and teachers are in a unique position to model acceptance and deter many acts of hatred and bigotry within the school system.  For example, researchers have noted that when there is a positive school climate, depression, suicidal feelings, and drug use significantly decrease, demonstrating that the actions of teachers and administrators can create a buffer for LGBT and questioning students (Birkett, Eselage, & Koenig 2009; Espelage, Aragon, and Birkett, 2008). Given that teachers serve such an important role, how do they receive guidance in providing such interventions?
In our current study, we use an evaluation and a pre-post survey design to examine the perceived effectiveness of a teacher in-service on teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about how to discuss and respond to LGBT and homophobic comments in the classroom.  Though we hypothesized that teachers would report changes across each questioned domain (e.g., willingness to respond to insensitive comments, comfort in responding to homophobic comments, etc.), preliminary results suggest that the majority of teachers had open attitudes and motivation to address homophobia prior to the intervention.  Thus, while the post-survey answers reflect high willingness to address students’ needs, the difference between pre- and post-scores was small and statistically non-significant for most domains.  We discuss the implications for designing teacher interventions that yield larger effect sizes, rather than simply preaching to the choir. 

Olga Laskina
Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

Mineral dust aerosol plays an important role in the climate system. It can affect the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation. In order to determine the effect of atmospheric dust on climate various remote sensing techniques are used. It is important to take radiative effect of mineral dust aerosol into account in order to process the remote sensing data correctly. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) extinction spectra and aerosol size distributions have been measured for complex authentic samples. Simulation of the extinction spectra show that currently used Mie theory does not accurately reproduce the peak position or band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Besides, the integrated absorbance is typically underestimated. The results from this study have been examined in the context of remote sensing measurements. Errors in simulated peak position and line shape associated with Mie theory could adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Spectral simulations, derived from Rayleigh theory for different shape models, better reproduce the experimental spectra including the peak position, band shape, and integrated absorbance. These simulations offer a better fit to the major band features for interpreting spectra. The accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using Rayleigh theory.

Xu Liu
Specificity, Structure and Inhibitor Screen of Tiam1 PDZ Domain/Syndecan1 Complex

The T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis gene 1 (Tiam1) is a guanine exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho-family GTPase Rac1 that is crucial for cell-cell adhesion and cell migration. This GEF contains several protein–protein interaction domains, including a PDZ domain. We have previously shown that cell adhesion receptor syndecan1 activates Rac1 signaling through interaction with the Tiam1 PDZ domain, but little is known about interaction specificity in syndecan family to PDZ domain and the structure features of these interactions. Equilibrium binding experiments showed that Tiam1 PDZ domain specifically interact with syndecan1 and phosphorylated syndecan1, but not syndecan2 and syndecan4. We determined the crystal structures of the Tiam1 PDZ domain in complex with syndecan1 peptide, which revealed the structural basis for ligand specificity. Remarkably, comparison of the structures of PDZ-syndecan1 and PDZ-phosphorylated syndecan1 showed that a new specificity pocket is used to accommodate the phosphate group. Moreover, we combined structure-based in silico docking and unbiased AlphaScreen-based high-throughput screen to discover effective inhibitors targeting Tiam1 PDZ/syndecan1 interactions. Collectively, our results provide insight into the structure and specificity of the Tiam1 PDZ domain/syndecan1 complex and identified several primary inhibitors targeting this complex.

Suyun Ma
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Multilevel Mixed Effects Analysis of Driving Behavior of Participants of the National Evaluation of a Mileage-based Road User Charge Study

This paper analyzes the participants of the National Evaluation of a Mileage-based Charge User Study driving behavior using multilevel mixed effects modeling. This paper differs from previous driving behavior studies in three aspects, as follows: By using individual-level data, our models include four dimensions of variables:  fuel price, land use, socio-economic and vehicle type, which enables us to reach new levels of depth and breadth in explaining driving behaviors; By including random coefficients in our models, the effects of covariates indicating days of the week are allowed to vary over participants, which better explains the heterogeneity of vehicle miles traveled (VMT’s) in terms of weekly driving patterns; and By introducing behavior content, people’s differences in fuel price elasticity are captured.
By using individual-level data, this paper has estimated the determinants of weekly driving behavior from three dimensions in addition to fuel price, which included land use, socio-demographic and vehicle type. We find neighborhood street density, availability of walking/biking and public transit facility, age, being female and education level have negative impacts on VMT, while income level, being employed and vehicle MPG have positive impacts on VMT. The random effects part in our models also suggest that people’s driving behavior vary more significantly on weekend than on weekdays. In addition to including individual-level factors affecting VMT directly, we also include behavior content to better understand people’s difference in fuel price elasticity. 

Kari Maurer
Educational Policy and Leadership
Lessons Learned from Latin America

This is a theoretical article that draws on existing research to explore the effects that neoliberalism has on education and schools. In this paper, the philosophy of neoliberalism is defined, and the model in which it works is described. Research derived from Latin American countries is drawn upon, and parallels between Latin America’s history of neoliberal practices and the current affairs of the United States are made. The primary focus of this article is to raise awareness of neoliberal practices by scrutinizing the social, economic, and educational implications of a neoliberal approach to public policy.

Colleen McHenry
Physical Rehabilitation Science
Single Limb Segment Mechanical Oscillations Modulate Postural Stability

Low level mechanical oscillations have been shown to decrease spinal reflex excitability, increase bone mineral density and therefore has implications in treatment of elderly individuals with balance problems and osteoporosis. Whole body vibration has also been introduced as a method of optimizing strength training. However, certain oscillatory inputs can be hazardous and result in musculoskeletal, neurological, and sensory impairments. Typically, these oscillatory inputs are high in displacement while those that modulate bone are low. The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of low magnitude single limb segment vibration on postural stability.
            Ten subjects performed single leg stance before and immediately after vibration (30 Hz; 0.6g) of the non-dominant leg. Markers were placed on the subjects to obtain motion capture, electromyography electrodes recorded soleus and tibialis anterior muscle activity, and all tests were performed on a force plate. Subjects alternated between standing on their left and right legs for thirty seconds.  Center of pressure, limb segment kinematics, and muscle activity were recorded. There was a significant change in center of pressure excursion and muscle activity strategies.  These findings support that vibration modulates the systems controlling balance and may offer a unique strategy to train the neuromuscular control system.  

Kirstin Miller
School Psychology
Examination of the Effectiveness of Embedded Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary is an integral part of reading fluency and comprehension (Shapiro, 2011). Children from low-income families often have a limited vocabulary in comparison to those who come from a higher SES background. In order to improve students’ vocabulary, and consequently their reading ability, direct vocabulary interventions must be implemented at an early age. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of embedded vocabulary instruction in teaching 4 kindergarteners 40 vocabulary words over a 10-week period. Embedded vocabulary instruction occurs each time a target word is read in a text. The interventionist reads the sentence as written, tells the students the definition of the target word, and then re-reads the sentence integrating the definition (Coyne, McCoach, & Kapp, 2007; Coyne, McCoach, Loftus, Zipoli, & Kapp, 2009). Results suggest that embedded vocabulary instruction is effective. By the end of the intervention 3 of the 4 students who received the intervention showed meaningful gains in their vocabulary scores. Two students’ PPVT-IV scores increased significantly. The effectiveness of each of the phase changes, the frequency  and duration of the intervention, and other contributing factors are also examined.

Jooyoung Park
How Should I Think About What I am Doing? The Influence of Fit between Goal Progress and Construal Level on Persuasion

This research investigates the relationship between goal progress and construal level as well as its influence on persuasion. We propose that greater perceived goal progress will lead to higher-level construals, and that fit between goal progress and construal level will exert greater persuasive influence than nonfit. The results indicate that in comparison with lesser goal progress, greater perceived goal progress induces higher-level construals (study 1). Moreover, as individuals perceive greater goal progress, an advertising message framed in a high level construal (i.e., "why") leads greater persuasion than a message framed in a concrete thinking (i.e., "how") (study 2). We also found that fit between goal progress and the construal level of an advertising message leads to greater persuasion than nonfit, partly because fit enhances processing fluency (study 2).

Joshua Pederson
Communication Studies
A Dark Avenger: Analyzing Discourses of Revenge in Dexter

In recent years television viewers have had the opportunity to follow the thoughts, actions, and adventures of a serial killer, Dexter Morgan, on Showtime’s Dexter.  Fans, TV critics, and scholars of various disciplines have expounded on the moral and social implications of Dexter.  One of the ways Dexter stands apart from other dramatic programming is the way in which the show complicates conceptualizations of revenge.  By pushing our understandings of justice and revenge to the limits of imagination, the viewer is forced to wrestle with social and interpersonal issues of an extreme form.  In this paper I argue that Dexter complicates the available cultural discourses of revenge.  By conducting an analysis of specific themes within the show, I explain how Dexter reifies traditional revenge discourses, while at the same time complicating the way TV viewers make meaning of revenge in television programming and in their daily lives. 

Christopher Pelham
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Cullin-3 is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Function and Blood Pressure

Human subjects carrying dominant negative mutations in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) exhibit early-onset hypertension suggesting it plays a vital role in cardiovascular regulation.  We report that smooth muscle-specific expression of dominant negative PPARγ (S-P467L) in transgenic mice causes elevated blood pressure and severe aortic dysfunction via a RhoA/Rho-kinase-dependent mechanism.  Increased Rho-kinase activity caused a blunting of nitric oxide-mediated relaxation and hypertension, both of which were corrected by Rho-kinase inhibition.  Although Rho-kinase and RhoA mRNA were unchanged, RhoA protein was significantly increased in S-P467L aorta.  We hypothesized that increased RhoA protein was due to functional loss of Cullin-3, a cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase recently shown to regulate RhoA turnover.  Cullin-3 protein and the active neddylated-Cullin-3 form were decreased in S-P467L aorta.  Consistent with this, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cullin-3 in aortic smooth muscle cells led to increased RhoA.  Pharmacological inhibition of cullin-RING ligase activity in aortic rings enhanced agonist-mediated contraction that was Rho-kinase-dependent.  Our results demonstrate that interference with PPARγ in smooth muscle impairs Cullin-3-mediated regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling and identify Cullin-3 as a novel regulator of vascular function.

Erin A. Peters
Art History
Augustus as Emperor and Pharaoh: Pluralism in Augustan Art from Roman Egypt

After annexing Egypt as a Roman province in 30 BCE, Augustus not only appropriated Egypt into his imperial identity at Rome, but also embraced his identity as pharaoh in Egypt.  Reliefs and statues depicting Augustus as pharaoh and portraits of Augustus as emperor survive throughout Egypt.  The co-existence of Egyptian- and Roman-style portraits of the emperor in Egypt raises issues about how Augustus’s identity as pharaoh of Egypt related to his identity as first emperor of the Roman Empire. This paper explores how seemingly unrelated traditions co-existed in Augustan Egypt, where they overlapped, and why they both flourished.
Scholars of Augustan art often conclude that Roman-style images in Egypt were created for and understood by Roman audiences and that Egyptian-style images made in Egyptian materials were created for and understood by Egyptian audiences.   This paper questions this modern division by comparing the material, style, and context of three Roman-style busts and two Egyptian-style statues of Augustus. 
This comparative study will demonstrate that artists working in Augustan Egypt combined seemingly disparate artistic traditions to create a new, complex art that built on cultural exchange and was displayed where it was viewed by a culturally diverse audience.  This conclusion evidences that more pluralistic studies are due for art from Augustan Egypt.

Candice Price
A Biological Application for the Oriented Skein Relation

There are proteins, topoisomerase and recombinase, that can change the topology of DNA. These changes can inhibit or aid in biological processes involving the structure of DNA. Topoisomerases are proteins that cut one segment of DNA, passes another DNA segment through the break before resealing. Recombinases are proteins that cut two segments of DNA and recombine them in some manner. The local actions of these proteins can be modeled using knot theory. The model proposed here utilizes the skein relation, where K+, K-, K0 denote three links, which differ only at a single crossing as indicated by the notation. This relation is most commonly used in calculating the invariant for knots and links known as the Alexander polynomial. (K+, K-, K0) denote an oriented skein triple.
We view the oriented skein triple as: K±= circular DNA substrate, K∓= topoisomerase action product, K0= recombinase action product and use this model to solve biologically relevant questions.
In this presentation, I will give a brief discussion on background and the mathematical model and end by giving a biological example.

Austin Ramme
Biomedical Engineering
Improving Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Outcomes: A Novel 3D Evaluation of Graft Placement

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important knee ligament that often requires reconstruction when injured.  Optimally, ACL reconstruction exactly replaces the native ligament to replicate normal knee biomechanics.  Graft misplacement can result in abnormal knee biomechanics and subsequently early onset osteoarthritis.  The ability to characterize tunnel placement is needed to identify factors that may improve patient outcomes.  To date, a standardized 3D evaluation of a large number of ACL reconstructed knees has not been performed.
In collaboration with the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON), we have obtained 150 CT datasets of postoperative, ACL reconstructed knees.  This dataset includes ACL reconstructions performed using three single bundle surgical techniques, two levels of surgeon experience, and numerous operating surgeons.  Given the revision rates and reports from previous 2D studies, it is apparent that anatomically similar reconstructions are not consistently achieved.  We hypothesize that a 3D evaluation of ACL drill tunnel placement will identify statistically significant differences in graft placement related to surgical technique, level surgeon of experience, and operating surgeon.  It is our hope that novel 3D analysis will ultimately lead to improved graft placement and better patient outcomes in ACL reconstructions.

Rajiv Ranjan
Second Language Acquisition
Agreement System of Magahi

Kurmali and Magahi show subject and object-verb agreement simultaneously. Furthermore, Magahi optionally shows agreement of verb with an addressee component (AC, hereafter). The agreed form of Magahi main verb looks like [V-aspect-tense-subject-object- and/or AC]. AC is phonologically null. Hence, the problem is how to represent AC-verb agreement system in the minimalist framework. I derived the agreement system of Magahi following the derivation of Kurmali by Davison (2002). I have extended Davison’s proposal and added ForceP under CP. I have also argued that the positive or negative honorific feature of the AC at ForceP is weak and it undergoes ‘Agree’ relationship rather than ‘Move’. I have also presented a problem related to perfective aspect. In perfective aspect, the morphological markers of subject, object, and AC optionally switch from the main verb to the auxiliary verb. I have proposed the solution based on my assumptions.

Julie Reynolds
Dental Public Health
Healthy Smiles for Kalona's Kids: An Oral Health Promotion Project for the Amish Children of Kalona

Kalona, a small town located 20 miles southwest of Iowa City, hosts the largest Amish and Mennonite settlement west of the Mississippi River.  Each year, many children from these communities receive dental care at the University of Iowa’s College of Dentistry.  The Department of Pediatric Dentistry has served these Amish and Mennonite children for many years, and its clinicians have seen a consistent trend of remarkably large amounts of tooth decay.  As this is largely a preventable disease, a unique opportunity exists to work with this population for the betterment of the oral health of their children.  However, as these communities are very autonomous and culturally distinct, decisions about preventive interventions must be culturally appropriate and must come from within in order to be acceptable and sustainable.  Therefore, this project’s goal is to use a participatory approach to 1) investigate the beliefs and perceptions surrounding oral health, 2) investigate the etiology for rampant tooth decay in their children, and 3) work with local community leaders to discuss and select appropriate interventions.  This will be done using interview and possibly focus group formats.  If appropriate, a partnership will be established between the College of Dentistry and the Amish and Mennonite communities for ongoing support in the promotion of optimal oral health for their children.

Zachary Roper
Searching For Two Things At Once: Multiple Attentional Control Settings Independent of Space

Can attention be configured to multiple potential targets? Previous work has demonstrated rapid switching between attentional control settings, but the evidence for multiple control settings has faced alternative explanations. Using an attentional blink paradigm, Experiment 1 had participants search for red and green targets in a stream of homogenous gray non-targets. Spatial distractors appeared before the critical target letter, and colored distractors captured attention and impaired target identification, replicating results in the literature. Critically, Experiment 2 demanded increased selectivity by presenting red and green targets in a stream of heterogeneously colored non-targets.  Spatial distractors that matched the attentional set (red and green) captured attention, but salient, non-matching (blue) distractors did not. This latter result suggests that participants were capable of maintaining multiple control settings when the demands of the task required an attentional search for specific feature values.  Attention can be configured to extract multiple feature values in a goal-directed manner.

Michael Scheib
School Psychology
Using unit price to evaluate preferences for difficulty of academic demands in a clinic based setting

This study investigated the use of unit price (UP) to evaluate a participant’s preference for completing easy or difficult academic demands.  The participant was referred to a behavioral outpatient clinic to address noncompliance when given easy academic demand. Interobserver agreement was calculated across 86% of all sessions and averaged 100%.  This study was carried out in 2 phases.  In the first phase, a Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior was conducted to assess the antecedents likely to evoke problem behavior and the consequences that maintain problem behavior.  There was no problem behavior recorded during the Functional Analysis.  During Phase Two, in a concurrent operants design, the participant was presented with easy  and hard academic demands at varying UP’s.  After establishing a preference for easy demands, the UP to complete these demands was systematically increased to a UP of 2 . When the UP to complete the easy academic demands was increased , the participant chose to complete the hard academic demand.  Results suggested that the participant’s preference for completing a lower quantity of work was more important than completing more difficult academic demands.  These findings suggest that a similar evaluation could be effective in identifying student’s preferences for academic demands in a classroom setting.      


Samantha Shune
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Verbal Play as an Interactional Discourse Resource in Early Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

Background: Verbal play, the creative and playful use of language to make puns, rhyme words, and tease, is a pervasive and enjoyable component of social communication and serves important interpersonal functions. The current study examines the use of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease.
Aims: To document the frequency and characterization of verbal play in the communicative interactions of individuals with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their familiar communication partners.
Methods: Using quantitative group comparisons and detailed discourse analysis, verbal play in the interactional discourse of five participants with very mild AD and five healthy comparison participants was investigated. Each participant interacted with a familiar partner while completing a collaborative referencing task.
Results: A total of 1,098 verbal play episodes were coded. All the AD participants used verbal play. There were no significant group differences in the frequency of episodes or in the interactional forms, resources, or functions of those episodes between AD and comparison pair sessions.
Conclusions: The successful use of verbal play in the interactions of individuals with very mild AD and their partners highlights an area of preserved social communication. These findings represent an important step, both clinically and for research, in documenting the rich ways that individuals with early stage AD orchestrate interactionally meaningful communication with their partners through the use of interactional discourse resources like verbal play.

Nikhil Sikka
Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Impact of Delay Occurrence and Duration as a Measure of Reliability on Commuter Choice

Behavioral responses to travel time reliability has become an important dimension of understating travelers’ route choice attitudes.  Several sources of disruption, both random and predictable, constitute variations in traffic conditions that lead to increased travel time unreliability. Therefore, in the last two decades the measurement of transportation system reliability has become one of the central topics of travel demand studies. A more recent addition to this growing literature is the measurement of value of travel time reliability which provides a monetary cost of avoiding unpredictable travel time. The goal of this study is to measure travelers’ behavioral responses to travel time reliability and their willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid unreliable routes. The preferences are elicited through a pivoted stated preference (SP) survey technique. To circumvent the issue of presenting numerical distributions and statistical terms to day-to-day commuters, we use the frequency of delay days as a means of measuring people’s attitude to travel time reliability. The advantage of using these measures in eliciting traveler preferences for travel time reliability lies in the fact that these methods simply compare days with high delay to days with usual travel time. The data is analyzed using a panel mixed logit model.  We found that travelers are not only averse to the amount of delay but also to the frequency of days with unexpected delays. The study provides valuable insight on calculating value of travel time reliability which is an important input to revenue projection for transportation investment projects.

Rachel Singel
Nature and Memory

     I look up. The sun is rising, the colors of the clouds are changing with each passing moment. I look down at the ground. The fallen branches press tightly to the cement, like fossils. I think about them both: something moving and something frozen. They face each other, a fleeting moment and one waiting to be eternalized. I am interested in this relationship between what exists before me for an instant, and what might last.
     I used to go out into the woods and look for voids in trees and in the riverbanks. I was drawn in by circles that seemed too perfect to exist, and would stare into them, wondering what might be inside. I think about Georgia O'Keeffe's work, and how she once said: "When you take a flower in your hand and really look at it, it's your world for the moment. I want to give that world to someone else." I also remember the words of Paul Klee: "An artist does not reproduce what he sees, he makes us see." I want to focus in on a single object or moment and spend time adding detail to that drawing, all the while remembering the encounter. In the end, all I want is to share that moment. 
     I make etchings on handmade paper and bind their remnants into artist's books. I enjoy the relationship between these processes and how they intertwine. Andy Goldsworthy, another artist I look to, invests immense patience and time to realizing his vision. While there are setbacks along the way, he moves forward and finds a way to compromise with his materials and celebrate a subtle and ephemeral instant. This is also my hope.

Alyssa N. Suess
School Psychology
What do pre-service school psychologists know about twice-exceptionality?

Twice-exceptional students (i.e., gifted with a disability) are at a double risk in the school setting because their strong academic potential masks their disability, meanwhile, their strong academic potential is not often realized.  Furthermore, twice-exceptional students are a relatively vulnerable population of students and are often poorly served within the school setting. To better serve twice-exceptional students, a collaboration of professionals is needed. One profession that could play an important role in serving twice-exceptional students is school psychology. School psychologists receive training to partake in assessment, consultation, and intervention activities related to special education services. However, school psychologists receive little to no training or experience in the realm of gifted education and twice-exceptionality. The focus of the current study was to determine pre-service school psychologists’ knowledge and beliefs about twice-exceptional students. Additionally, the current study placed a strong emphasis on describing pre-service school psychologists’ understandings of and experiences working with twice-exceptional students.

Rachel Tanquist
Masculinity and Identity in Mixed Martial Arts

Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a unique combat sport that combines the most effective martial arts styles from around the world. MMA was originally characterized in the United States as “human cock fighting” by Senator John McCain, because it had so few rules and regulations. Contrary to this stereotype, MMA is not a violent free-for-all, but rather, it is a complex and rigidly organized hierarchical social system with evolving rules and regulations.
MMA is a collaborative and cooperative sport where fighters work together to improve their sporting abilities. Publically, MMA fighters display the hegemonic traits of individualism, independence, domination, aggression, and competitiveness. These public personas are secondary to the cooperation and team work that is inherent to the sport.
In this presentation I will dispel the myth that MMA fighters are primarily violent and individualistic. I will also argue that while MMA fighters publically conform to hegemonic traits in competition, they do not embody hegemonic masculinity in their day-to-day practices.

Andrew Thierauf
What About Floss Grosjean? An Archival Look At the Xylophone in Circuit Chautauqua

          The story of percussion being played independently of other instruments in America often starts with works such as Amadeo Roldan’s Ritmicas and  Edgard Varese’s Ionisation, both written around 1930.  However there is a forgotten bit of American music history, that of circuit Chautauqua; its many different acts included xylophone and marimba ensembles. There has been little to no research done on Chautauqua performers especially with regard to percussion, only fleeting footnotes that suggest it existed.  This paper takes the Grosjean Marimba-Xylophone Company, a traveling group that toured on Chautauqua circuits from 1920-1930, as a microcosm of marimba and xylophone acts during this time period.  The author used several primary sources including archival records, local newspapers, and interviews to find information that has been previously ignored.  It is important to look at these early groups because they were playing to audiences across the nation in small towns to people who probably had never heard of a marimba or xylophone before.  These performers paved the way for percussion especially marimba to be an important part of art music today.       

Daniel Usera
Communication Studies
Cooling the break-up out: On taking instruction in getting dumped

What do con-artistry, getting fired, and breaking up have in common? According to Erving Goffman and the research on relational dissolution, a lot. Using Duck's (1982) relationship dissolution model as a guide, I will expose the various tactics people use to initiate the end of a romantic relationship and argue how our social identities are closely tied to our relational ones. There might also be some discussion on coping, but I don't want to lead you on to think that there will be anything more...

Brigitte Vanle
Pharmacy (PhD)
GAPDH: A Novel Protein Targeted By the Endogenous Neurotoxin- 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde

Dopamine (DA) is oxidatively deaminated by monamine oxidase to form the endogenous neurotoxin 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde DOPAL. A reduction in levels of DOPAL is biologically critical as this aldehyde has been shown to be toxic to dopaminergic cells, and is a highly reactive electrophile. An essential protein-GAPDH (e.g., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is an abundantly expressed enzyme known for its glycolytic activity and recent research has implicated its role in PD pathology

Dan Vatterott
Experience dependent attentional tuning of distractor rejection

When given a specific goal, people are often able to tune-out irrelevant salient distractors, but how does this happen? Past research suggests that having a specific goal is sufficient for this distractor rejection, but this may not be the case. Many people have had the experience of initially experiencing distraction from a salient event (the loud person next to you at the coffee shop), but after awhile, the salient event is no longer a distraction. This suggests that people might not only need a specific goal, but they also might need experience with salient distractions. To test this hypothesis, we first trained participants to use a specific search template. Then, participants completed four blocks of trials, each with a differently-colored irrelevant singleton present on half the trials. Color singletons captured attention early within a block, but after sufficient experience with the irrelevant singletons, during the second half of blocks, the irrelevant singletons no longer captured attention. This suggests that to resist capture, a specific target template must be accompanied by experience dependent attention tuning to distractor properties.

Lydia Vermeer
Pharmacy (PhD)
Toxicity and tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition by the reactive dopamine metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, depends on both the catechol and aldehyde: Implications for Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder which affects over a million people in the United States. This disease leads to the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, causing a decrease in the important neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), with patients exhibiting a variety of motor and cognitive problems. It was previously shown in our lab that the reactive and toxic metabolite of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) caused significant mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic cells and inhibited the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at low micromolar concentrations. TH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in DA synthesis, oxidizing tyrosine to L-DOPA, which is further metabolized to DA. This enzyme is potently inhibited by DOPAL in dopaminergic cell lysate, but the mechanism behind inhibition is not fully understood. Therefore, structure-activity studies of DOPAL analogues were undertaken to study the important features of DOPAL which are responsible for its potent toxicity and inhibition of TH. Examining four analogues of DOPAL, the effect on mitochondrial function was assessed in dopaminergic PC6-3 cells, as well as the ability to inhibit TH activity in both lysate and a whole PC6-3 cell model. The data was compared to DOPAL, with results indicating both the catechol and aldehyde are necessary. These studies help shed light on the mechanism behind TH inhibition and cellular toxicity and further progress the understanding of PD and how DOPAL may play a role in the onset and progression of the disease.

Sabine Vorrink
Human Toxicology
Hypoxia perturbs PCB-induced Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway controls cellular responses to exposures of foreign substances by activating genes that mediate xenobiotic metabolism. The ligand-activated AhR forms a heterodimer with its binding partner AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and induces the transcription of many genes including CYP1A1. Notably, ARNT also dimerizes with hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) which mediate cellular responses to low oxygen (hypoxia). During hypoxia, HIF:ARNT heterodimers activate the transcription of genes that promote cell survival in low oxygen environments. Since HIF and AhR share a common subunit, ARNT, the possibility for signaling crosstalk exists. We hypothesized that hypoxic conditions would inhibit the activation of a robust AhR transcriptional response in response to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) AhR ligand. Using approaches including qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter assays we showed in human cell lines that CYP1A1 mRNA expression was induced by PCB 126 in an AhR-specific manner. Exposure to hypoxia (1% O2 for 8h) significantly inhibited CYP1A1 induction by 74%. Luciferase reporter assays further showed 75% inhibition of AhR-mediated luciferase expression following hypoxia treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate that in the context of CYP1A1 induction after PCB 126 exposure, hypoxia significantly interferes with AhR-mediated responses to PCBs

CucNhat Walker
Public Health (MPH)
Continuation of medical care for returning citizens in Iowa

This practicum experience is part of the initial pilot project at the Iowa Primary Care Association (Iowa PCA), through their management of the Iowa Collaborative Safety Net Provider Network, on continuity of medical care for returning citizens to a local community in Iowa.  Currently, incarcerated individuals face many social and health challenges inside and outside of prisons.  The most common health condition is mental illness, especially serious mental illness (SMI).  The proposed pilot intervention will focus on returning citizens with SMI diagnosis in Sioux City.  As a Doctor of Pharmacy/Master of Public Health student at the University of Iowa, I was able to assist the Iowa PCA staff in the initial process of target population evaluation, community evaluation, funding search, and setting up the pilot intervention.

Sarah Watt
Special Education
Supporting Students At Risk for Math Failure

Due to the increase in students with disabilities included in general education math classes that use a reform, or standards-based curricula, there is a need to identify strategies to improve students’ understanding of the prerequisite skills necessary for success in the whole class unit instruction.  The purpose of this article is study the effects of preteaching using the concrete-to-representational-to-abstract (CRA) sequence as a Tier 2 teaching approach within the response to intervention(RTI) model.  Results suggest this strategy is a promising intervention for students with disabilities and those at risk for failure in mathematics.

Shaun Wilkinson
School Psychology
Repeated Reading Intervention for Developing Elementary Students' Reading Fluency

According to Lo, Cooke, and Starling (2011), reading fluency is an essential skill necessary for success in both academics and everyday life. It has been strongly correlated with word identification, word comprehension, inferential comprehension, literal comprehension, reading comprehension, and overall reading ability (Skinner, Cooper, and Cole, 1997). Unfortunately, as many as 40% of fourth grade students in the United States have not mastered this skill (Begeny, Krouse, Ross, & Mitchell, 2009). Repeated Reading (RR) is an empirically supported intervention that attempts to increase reading fluency by increasing the amount of time spent practicing reading. This study extended previous reading fluency research to elementary school students for RR interventions delivered by a teacher, rather than a researcher. Participants in this study included 4 second-grade students in a small rural elementary school who had been identified by their teacher as struggling readers. Results indicated that the teacher-administered Repeated Reading (RR) intervention was associated with gains in reading fluency for all four participating students. Additionally, reading fluency gains were greater for 3 of the students receiving intervention than for peers not participating in the intervention.

Lamia Zia
Media Coverage of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

The study is based on the media coverage of HIV/AIDS in Pakistanand public awareness about the epidemic. The media associates stigma anddiscrimination to HIV/AIDS related stories because Pakistani journalistshave little knowledge and training dealing with health issues. The primary source of information is the entertainment media, which has enormous potential to influence health-related behaviors and perceptions. The study indicates that health issues are neither the priority of the media nor the public. HIV/AIDS is one of the ignore health issue in Pakistan, which is mostly considered a taboo in thecountry.

Eric Zimmer
Reshaping Historical Narratives: The Duhamel Sioux Indian Pageant and the Black Hills of South Dakota

Working in conjunction with Sitting Bull Crystal Caverns (SBCC), a tourist site in the Black Hills of South Dakota, my project focuses on using accurate historical narratives to improve the state of cultural relations in western South Dakota. Over a century has passed since the so-called "Indian Wars" period ended, but romanticized images of "Cowboys and Indians" still dominate the public face of Black Hills history. From world-famous granite sculptures (like Mount Rushmore and the Crazy Horse memorial) to mountains named in honor of Army Generals who slaughtered Native women and children, a subtle rift between Indian and non-Indian cultures permeates the region. For over two decades beginning in the 1930s, SBCC was home to the Duhamel Sioux Indian Pageant, a twice-daily performance of traditional Lakota life, culture, and ceremony. Organized by Black Hills entrepreneur Alex Duhamel and Lakota medicine man Black Elk (of Black Elk Speaks fame), the Sioux Indian Pageant was at once an educational celebration of Lakota culture and a symbol of the paternalism and racial bias that permeated the early twentieth century – and in many ways, continues to do so. By rehabilitating an historic barn on the SBCC property – once the site of the Duhamel Sioux Indian Pageant – this project endeavors to construct an interpretive site where Black Hills visitors can view an accurate historical portrayal of the the themes which underlie many of the cultural tensions and social problems currently extant in the Black Hills. Additionally, this project will compliment a greater effort by SBCC to restructure its marketing strategies and imagery in culturally sensitive ways.