James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2013

Please filter your selection by choosing a department from the list below and clicking Apply.

Marwa Abdalla
Psychology
Can participants extract subtle information from gesture without any other cues?

To what extent are humans able to pick up on subtle differences in gesture? We explored this question using the Tower of Hanoi task. Previous research has shown that listeners are sensitive to the height of the gestures that they observe, and reflect this knowledge in their mouse movements (Cook & Tanenhaus, 2009).  Participants in our study watched a modified video of someone explaining the Tower of Hanoi puzzle solution, so that participants only saw a black background with two moving dots representing the hand positions from the original explanation in space and time. We parametrically manipulated the location of the dots to examine whether listeners were sensitive to this subtle variation.  We selected the transfer gestures from the original explanation, and tracked the hand positions with dots at varying heights relative to the original gesture height.  The experimental gesture heights reflected 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of this original height. We predicted and found that the participants’ starting trajectory of movement reflected the parametric variation in observed gesture height. This is an important finding because it shows that participants are able to glean subtle height information from gestures. Listeners truly interpret iconic gestures iconically.

Manar Al-Ghabeish
Pharmacy (PhD)
Drug Transporters Expressed On the Nasal Epithelia

    The unique anatomy relationship between the nasal cavity and the brain suggests that a direct nose-brain route for drug delivery is feasible. One of the barriers to direct drug uptake into the brain is the nasal epithelium.  The aim of this study was to determine the presence of drug transporters in the nasal mucosa using RT-PCR. Testing was performed at different temperatures on RNA extracted from full-thickness nasal mucosa. At 55 ºC, specific amplifications for ENT1, CNT1, CNT3, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCC, BCRP, PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes were observed, conforming the presence of those transporters in the bovine nasal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry was performed in parallel to identify the localization of the transporters and showed that ENT1 and CNT3 were presented on the apical surface of the nasal epithelium. However, transporters such as OCT2 were also found in the submucosal regions. Further investigations of the presence of the transporters in the epithelial region, where drug uptake could be significantly affected, requires additional sample processing; laser capture dissection is being used to isolate the epithelial cells to identify the transporters present within the epithelial barrier.

Robert Albanese
American Studies
The Free Sale of Objectified Freedom: Professional Athletes and the Monetization of Subjective Value

In this essay, I examine the problem of value in relationships between professional athletes and their salaries, in North America’s three most popular team sports leagues – the NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and the National Basketball Association (NBA) – over the last twenty-five years, a period commonly known as the Free Agency era. My goal is to explain how this generation of professional athletes comes to understand the laboring athletic self in monetary terms. How do these athletes, as possessors of labor power, determine the money amounts attached to them by contracts and publicized in media coverage? How are players themselves determined by discourses on their monetary value? And, for league veterans who achieve “free agent” status, to what extent does the free agent possess market freedom? I argue that the incorporation of free agency into professional athletic labor points to the modern institution’s evolution as a possessive market enterprise, in which participant athletes, with the aid of player unions and bargaining agents, seek to protect their economic freedom relative to each other, and against the profit motives of the owners who contract their labor power.

Rebecca Alper
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Quantifying language stimulation behaviors during adult-child interaction

 
Parents and caregivers are in an optimal position to provide rich language models for their children in a variety of natural environments and interaction contexts. However, sometimes parents and children need extra support in order to create an environment optimal for learning language. Parent-implemented language interventions using Responsive Interaction (RI) and Milieu Therapy (MT) techniques have been shown to be effective in terms of enhancing parent-child language interactions in a number of ways. Unfortunately, each intervention categorizes and analyzes the language stimulation behaviors included in these approaches differently. The purposes of this study were: 1) to develop a comprehensive coding system for quantifying language stimulation behaviors occurring in adult-child interactions during reading and play using familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, and 2) to collect pilot data with the coding system. The results are presented in terms of the relative frequency of occurrence of both maternal and child behaviors, the parental level of responsiveness vs. directiveness, as well as across and within-subject comparisons of behaviors occurring during play and reading, activities with familiar, and unfamiliar stimuli.

Frances Barnes
Counselor Education and Supervision
“Bridging the Gap Between Ex-Offenders with Disabilities and Employment”

The purpose of this poster presentation is to provide knowledge and insight of best practices being used to assist offender’s with disability in gaining employment in the post-modern workforce.  Attention will be given to, offender and employment statistics, criminogenic needs that affect the success of gainful employment and practices that are useful in assisting Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors and offender’s with disabilities in successful outcomes.

Frances Barnes
Counselor Education and Supervision
Best Practices : Retention of African Americans Doctoral Students At a Predominantly White Research I University

The purpose of this poster presentation is to inform educators of effective practices in retention of African American doctoral students attending predominantly white research one universities. The poster presentation will examine statistics of African American PhD student enrollment and completion, variables effecting retention and effective practice.

Mohammad Bataineh
Biomedical Engineering
USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PREDICTION OF DYNAMIC HUMAN MOTION

Researchers in robotics and other human-related fields have been studying human motion behaviors to understand and mimic them in humanoid motion prediction, obstacle avoidance, and ergonomic studies. Human motion, however, is not an easy system or kinematic to study when it includes highly complex relationships between factor—such as human anthropometry and speed and the output motion profile for human degrees of freedom (DOF)—involved in the task to be accomplished. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a method that has been introduced to analyze motion prediction problems because of its power in studying high-dimensional problems and predicting future system behaviors. In this study we used a general regression neural network (GRNN) to predict the human walking forward task as an example of ANN’s ability to predict human performance. The results showed that the GRNN was able to predict the motion realistically, accurately, and by a fraction of a second. This study shows that ANN has great potential to be widely used in task-based prediction of dynamic human motion. The novelty of this work is demonstrated by using ANN to predict human performance by studying motion prediction as an example. This will lead to an understanding of what drives human task performance.

Amy Belfi
Neuroscience
Masculinity/Femininity predicts brain volumes in normal healthy children

Previous research has shown sex differences in brain morphology. However, these studies have not taken into account the possible effect of gender on brain volumes. While sex is determined by genotype, gender is a phenotype that describes behavior on the spectrum of masculinity and femininity. In the present study, we sought to examine the relationship between gender, sex, and brain volumes in children. One hundred and eight children ages 7 to 17 were administered the Children’s Sex Role Inventory and obtained volumetric brain data via MRI scan. Previous findings of sex differences in children were replicated; males were found to have greater overall intracranial volume, tissue volume, and white matter volume, while females showed greater gray matter volume. After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and sex, we found that gender predicted brain volumes in frontal lobe white matter and parietal lobe gray matter. In the frontal lobe, higher masculinity scores predicted higher volumes of white matter. For parietal lobe, higher femininity predicted higher volumes of gray matter. Previous research has found sex differences in cognition and behavior; for example, women have been found to perform better at verbal tasks than men. Future research should be done to determine the extent that gender, above and beyond sex, may predict performance on cognitive and behavioral tasks. 

Amanda Berns
School Psychology
Self- and Proxy- Reports of Anxiety in High Ability Youth With an Autism Spectrum Disorder

High functioning youth with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report lower levels of anxiety than others perceive they have.  Self-, parent-, and teacher- reported anxiety measures were collected from 54 high ability (IQ 120 or higher) youth with an ASD and compared to the measure’s normative sample.  Correlations between self- reported anxiety and parent- and teacher- reported anxiety in this sample of high ability youth with an ASD are similar to correlations between self- reported anxiety and parent- and teacher- reported anxiety in the normative sample.  Implications for these results, as well as future research directions are presented.

Daniel Boscaljon
English-Literary Studies
The "Pierless" Faith of Emily Dickinson

This paper articulates a theological vision for religious moderation on the basis of Emily Dickinson’s poetry, deeming the how of faith more important than what one believes. The beginning of the paper articulates how religious moderation combats fundamentalisms that claim certainty in the absence of evidence, examples of how versions of this religious moderation have been explicated within the Christian theological tradition, and why this is particularly important in a 21st century context. Claiming that desires for certainty often overwhelm the fragile beauty of mystery, I argue that Christian theological perspectives might be usefully supplemented by literature, which most treat as a “safe” place to suspend disbelief. I briefly highlight the major critics who have described the importance of religion for Dickinson, showing where they have overlooked key theological insights. I then interpret three of Dickinson’s poems, revealing the importance of the contentless faith she depicts and how Dickinson pushes her reader toward a faith based in how one sees instead of the what of a particular article of faith. I conclude by showing how Dickinson’s "pierless" faith anticipates post-modern theological perspectives, how it could be accepted by New Atheists, and, most importantly, how it demonstrates a religious moderation capable of resacralizing the world.

Evelyn Bottando
Communication Studies
Authorship of the Pigeon: Patents, Microfilm, and Pigeons at War

The invention of scientific authorship is one often overlooked in intellectual property histories. In popular discourse, scientists receive authorial distinction when producing books, scholarly articles, or other narratively-focused material. According to intellectual property law, patents bestow a kind of authorship not often recognized. The history of the pigeon as a tool of war complicates distinctions of what is and is not patentable science. This paper will explore a key historic juncture in the development of intellectual property law. The purpose of engaging in this inquiry is to reveal tensions inherent to twenty-first century intellectual property law. By contrasting the invention of microfilm with the evolution of the modern homing pigeon, this historiographic research provides evidence for scientists, authors, and the general public to question the invention of individual scientific authorship.  

Celia Brockway
Music
Identifying the Implications of Liza Lehmann’s Musical Language in Songs of a “Flapper”

            Songs of a “Flapper, available only on microfilm, is a song cycle written by British composer Liza Lehmann in 1911.  The colloquial term for “flapper” is given the following definition: “a young girl of about 15 to 18 years of age, especially one who is not yet ‘out’ socially.”  The texts in Songs of a “Flapper,” authored by Lehmann, are the narratives of a young girl on holiday for her sister Nell’s “coming out” ball.  The words comprising this cycle hint at a naïve character; however, given Lehmann’s compositional language, it can be determined that Lehmann had other intentions when she created this character on paper.    
            In Susan Kane’s dissertation “Liza Lehmann (1862-1918): Her times, roles, and songs,” Lehmann’s musical devices, which hint at particular emotions and physical actions, are outlined.  Using the compositional language discussed by Kane and examining the rare publication Songs of a “Flapper,” this paper reveals the implications of Lehmann’s musical devices on the personality of the cycle’s character.  Recognizing several techniques found in Kane’s list, such as rolled chords and ambiguous harmonies, Lehmann’s character in Songs of a “Flapper” comes alive: the character is not naïve at all; instead, she is playful, mischievous, and yearning to be a woman of the Victorian era.

Benjamin Burroughs
Communication Studies
Getting Down on Friday: Social Networks and Rebecca Black

This paper attempts to understand how content spreads in the age of digital communication, challenging the viral metaphor. Rebecca Black's video 'Friday' is used as a case study for conceptualizing Jenkins theory of spreadability and to add our own theorizing of the term 'feed'.  The paper seeks to update theories on flow, including the two-step flow and televisual flow.  Social networking sites no longer constitute simply third spaces but Facebook and similar sited are the method through which we inhabit and enter the Internet. We increasingly experience the flow of the Internet and popular culture through social networking.  Opinion leaders alert their followers to content that is valued to be spread as the content works through feeds that comprise this televisual flow we might better call technovisual flow to reflect the feeds and flows of digital spaces.  The term techno is used to acknowledge the affordances of platforms that contribute, along with the interpersonal networks of sharing communities, to this broader technovisual flow or feed.       

Kevin Chamberlain
Art
Creating Abstractly and Teaching Simply

To understand the world around us we have to look at things abstractly. This means that to learn something it must be simplified. Any subject works the same way; for example, science, technology and art are defined with abstractions. Natural science is described with models and technology is processes converted through binary codes. Similarly, a digital photo is a representation of a moment. The point of intersection between these fields of study is where my work can be found. I strive to create synergy through interdisciplinary projects so that people can learn through science, technology and art simultaneously. 
This creative work is inspired by nature and natural history museums. My artwork includes scientific photography of insect collections, 3-D scanning, rapid prototyping, molds and ceramic sculptures.  All of these have specific processes and through them I have created abstractions of nature to invite a different perspective.

Anna Charles
Art Education
Community Based Art Programs

I am interested in providing free art programs  to the local community.  I am offering free art workshops for the residents at the Shelter House.  These are free for participants how are there during the time of the workshop. Most of the participants are children how stay at Shelter House. I would like to have support for art supplies and materials to continue to provide these workshops. 

Jorge Chavez Rojas
Sociology
THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN NEOLIBERAL CAPITALISM AND GENEROSITY: A CROSS NATIONAL EXAMINATION

On the one hand, neoliberal capitalism is acknowledged as the best way to create wealth and prosperity for individuals, on the other hand, it is alleged to promote individualism and greediness that may be impacting some societal values. One of these values is generosity, defined as the willingness of individuals to give part of their possessions to people in need.
This paper argues that maybe neoliberal capitalism per se is not impacting generosity, but is doing so through two cultural byproducts that it generates: materialistic values and corruption.
Using a cross-national approach, I will examine the relationship between neoliberal capitalism and generosity, and the effect that materialism and corruption enact on this relationship.

Spyridoula Cheimariou
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Order Effects and Semantic Interference in Picture Naming

Word-finding problems are a common characteristic of normal aging, but are also highly susceptible to contextual factors, such as fatigue, stress, and time demands. In addition, words that have been previously retrieved can interfere with retrieval of upcoming words, particularly when the words are related in meaning. In picture naming, which is widely used to assess word retrieval, we can examine the impact of these variables by looking at how item position (e.g. whether an item comes first or second) and semantic relatedness (closeness in meaning) affect the latency of word retrieval. Here, we investigate how stimulus order and semantic interference affect the latency of picture naming in younger and older adults. We expect that participants’ naming will 1) either speed up as the task progresses due to practice effects, or slow down due to fatigue, and 2) slow down with each successive semantically related item. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these effects may be different for younger and older adults; for example, older adults are expected to be more susceptible to fatigue. The results of this study will help evaluate existing theories of word processing, and may reveal additional sources of variance contributing to word-retrieval difficulties.

Brian Collins
Philosophy
In Defense of Culpable Ignorance

It is common in everyday situations and interactions to hold people responsible for things they didn’t know but which they ought to have known.  For example, if a friend were to jump off the roof of a house and break his leg many would feel that he is fully responsible for the consequences of his actions because he ought to have known the dangers of such risky behavior.  This idea that a person can and should be held responsible for things they didn’t know (i.e. things they are ignorant of) is a topic of debate in the field of philosophy called Ethics of Belief.  The debate focuses on the question: Can a person be responsible while acting ignorantly?  Or in the technical language of the field, Can a person be culpably ignorant?  This is a question that has received increasing attention throughout the twentieth and into the twenty-first century.  Recently, Michael J. Zimmerman and James Montmarquet have weighed in on opposite sides of this debate.  The purpose of this paper is to examine their respective arguments and ultimately defend Montmarquet’s position that a person can be culpably ignorant.

Heather Cooper
History
"The Guide-Posts of Memory": Trauma, Loss, and Stoic Silence in Elizabeth Keckley's <i>Behind the Scenes<i>

 
Elizabeth Keckley’s 1868 memoir, Behind the Scenes: Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in the White House, is one of twelve slave narratives written by or about women following the Civil War.  Although some scholars contend that post-bellum narrators actually minimized attention to slavery in their narratives in order to emphasize their capacity for improvement and accomplishments since freedom, this paper argues that slavery – and its legacy – remained central to the stories that freedwomen chose to tell about their lives. Keckley engages with her history of slavery throughout the text, constructing not only a memory of what it meant to live under that yoke as a woman, but also revealing the ways in which the hard choices made within slavery continued to fundamentally shape the lives of African American women after emancipation.  By documenting and memorializing her family history, representing the gendered traumas of slavery, and demonstrating the lasting impact of the chattel principle on her life, Keckley (and other female narrators) helped sustain a powerful and public memory of slavery that challenged the nation’s movement toward reconciliation.

D. Jesse Damazo
Film and Video Production
Videos from the play "Achilles, the Scourge of Man"

Video interludes for a stage theater retelling of the Iliad, entitled Achilles, Scourge of Man. These videos were integrated into the stage by projection onto a large screen hanging behind the main stage and simultaneously shown on monitors embedded within the stage. Videos were made using a wide variety of found footage - from Rambo to monster trucks to military ads - and also used footage of the play's actors. The videos had to live within a complicated stage environment that included actors on stage, lighting effects, and separately cued sound effects. The integration of these multiple aspects made Achilles, and the videos created for it, an intermedia collaboration.

Cynthia Darnell
Microbiology
Multicellular development in Myxococcus xanthus requires the putative fatty acid desaturase Des7

Myxococcus xanthus is a gram-negative soil bacterium with a complex life cycle involving multiple multicellular behaviors. During vegetative growth, M. xanthus preys upon other microbes in the environment, assembling into an efficient and coordinated motility pattern termed rippling. When nutrients become scarce, M. xanthus begins a highly regulated developmental program resulting in large, highly ordered structures known as fruiting bodies. Within the fruiting bodies, a percentage of the cells convert to resistant spores; these spores germinate when nutrients become ­available to begin the cycle anew.
       The ability to recognize both neighbor cells (self) and prey cells (non-self) is essential throughout this life cycle. While many bacteria have been shown to communicate using quorum sensing molecules such as homoserine lactones and small peptides, these highly diffusible molecules are less useful in a terrestrial environment. Instead, M. xanthus has the ability to recognize and respond to specific lipids. Recently, we have uncovered a chemosensory signal transduction system, Che7, which appears to post-translationally regulate the fatty acid desaturase Des7. Through genetic analysis, we have shown that Che7, and in particular Des7, is important for organization into fruiting bodies during development. We hypothesize Des7 is producing a specific lipid signal to properly aggregate and subsequently sporulate. Mutations in che7 genes result in improper aggregation. This defect appears to be specific to starvation induced sporulation. Characterization of regulation of Des7 through the Che7 pathway will further our knowledge of intercellular communication and multicellular development.

Rebecca Dewing
American Studies
Image as Science, Technology as Art: Aerial Photography in the Early Twentieth Century

During the interwar years, aerial photographers in the United States attempted to gain legitimacy for their craft by discursively aligning themselves with scientific forms of knowledge production, and by tapping into a sentiment that – with the proper equipment – the world could be precisely and objectively observed, measured, and described. When addressing the public, advocates of aerial photography used language to map science onto this modern technique of observation. They claimed that once the distanced observer had a comprehensive way to visualize nature, resources could be more efficiently utilized for the betterment of both science and industry. In this paper I trace a history of aerial photography – and of various interpretations of aerial images – in the 1920s and 1930s, during which time practitioners adapted military reconnaissance techniques to more diverse commercial purposes. I argue that this image-making process was used to reinforce modern understandings of what it means to know the world – and in particular, the American landscape.

Varsha Dhamankar
Pharmacy (PhD)
Gene Expression of Major Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Isoforms in Bovine Nasal Olfactory and Respiratory Mucosa

Presystemic elimination by local enzymatic degradation can play a key role in limiting the bioavailability of intranasally administered drug compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes in the bovine nasal mucosa as an in vitro model for human mucosal metabolism. The tissue specific localization of four CYP450 isoforms: 1A2, 2A6, 2C19, and 3A4 in bovine olfactory and respiratory explants was investigated using immunohistochemistry. The amplification of the specific genes obtained with RNA-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of CYP450 isoforms in bovine liver tissues and the nasal mucosa. The relative expression levels of the selected isoforms in the nasal mucosa were quantified by real time RT-PCR, and compared with that in those hepatic tissues, for relative comparison of the metabolic barrier properties of the liver and nasal mucosa. The nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa showed abundant expression of 3A4 while there was a greater difference between the two mucosal tissues in expression levels of 1A2, 2A6 and 2C19. Higher variability was obtained in the olfactory and respiratory expression levels of 1A2 and 2C19 between different cow samples studied than those of 3A4. Our results provide a basis for further explorations of the xenobiotic metabolizing capacity of the bovine nasal mucosa.

Ivana Djurovic
Linguistics
Interface and Interference of English and Serbian Stop Sounds

The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence the two languages have on one another in terms of acoustic characteristics of stops in initial and intervocalic positions. Using the computer program Praat we recorded native speakers of both languages pronouncing words in isolation, in their natural voice. First, we recorded the native speaker of Serbian who had spent her entire life in Serbia, and that way we got almost intact characteristics of the sound system of the Serbian Language. We did the same thing with the native speaker of English. Finally, we recorded the same native speaker of Serbian after she has been living in the US for 5 months. The results that we got include some consistencies and come changes in the speaker’s native language. The most striking change that has been noted is what seems to be the adoption of aspiration into Serbian. Aspiration is the phenomenon of delayed onset of voicing of the following after voiceless stop, which is normally not a characteristic of Serbian, and did not exist in the speaker’s speech during the first recording. The consistency that was the persistent initial voicing of the voiced stops which is a strong characteristic of Serbian, but is never encountered in English, and  of course, did not exist in the recording of the English native speaker.

Nicole M Drisdelle
Religious Studies
Minority Rights and the State: Protestant Polemic in Seventeenth-Century France

By 1598 France was emerging from eight successive civil wars in only thirty-six years, each fought over the issue of Protestant rights in France. Much has been written on the struggle of French Protestants, or Huguenots, during the religious wars, but even late into the seventeenth century French Protestants were still fighting to find their place as a minority in France. Despite the 1598 Edict of Nantes, which ended the Wars of Religion and granted significant rights to the Huguenots, French Protestant writing in the first half of the seventeenth century was still preoccupied with the definition and defence of the Reformed faith. Upon a closer examination of the situation inFrancethrough a case study of one of the Huguenots’ leading polemicist – that is, writer of controversial and/or debate literature – Pierre du Moulin, this paper will investigate the ways in which the French Reformed Church was, in fact, increasingly marginalized. This marginalization forced du Moulin to search for solutions outside of his own state and raises interesting questions regarding the reality of minority rights and state politics. 

Kaylia Duncan
Pathology
Using FDG-PET Imaging to Assess Tumor Progression and Therapy Response in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Human Plasma Cell Neoplasia

Previously, our lab generated a mouse model of human plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) which provides a promising tool for elucidating the mechanisms of disease progression. Additionally, the C.iMycΔEµ/IL-6 model serves as a preclinical tool for evaluating various anti-cancer therapeutic interventions.  In collaboration with the Small Animal Imaging Core (SAIC) twelve (12) double transgenics (DT) were followed serially and evaluated retrospectively. Here, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge the use of established 18F-FDG PET imaging to assess dynamics of tumor progression and quantify response to novel inhibitor proteasome inhibitor, MLN2238 in a genetically engineered mouse model of human PCN.

Melody Dworak
Library and Information Science
The Public As Collaborator: Crowdsourcing Models for Digital Humanities Initiatives

Digital humanities projects often seek out big data but have a small budget. In their pursuit of using technology to teach us something new, some scholars have turned to crowdsourcing strategies, where the efforts of individual volunteers can contribute to a collective, significant outcome. How can examples of successful crowdsourcing projects inform future digital humanities initiatives? By looking at current examples of digital humanities projects using crowdsourcing successfully, this research proposes new models for amassing data through the assistance of an engaged public. Time, technology, and human resources affect the strategies employed in these paradigmatic examples. High-tech digital humanities projects have greater flexibility to employ gamification through algorithms, while low-tech projects depend on human-mediated processes. These models provide a guide for scholars with boundless ideas and limited budgets. For scholars who may be unsure of how they can scale up the data for their digital humanities projects, these differentiated strategies may help them start devising their own approaches. 

Jomil Ebro
English-Literary Studies
The Moods That Come With Age: The Social Life and Politics of Consumption

I would like to discuss the relationship between our human subjectivity as producers and consumers, and the equally compelling and uncanny “subjectivity” of things as commodities. I am interested in how the differences in human demand and knowledge are mediated by the diverse purposes and latent “invitations” of non-human agents. This topic falls under Arjun Appadurai’s broader anthropological theme of the “social life of things.” But the particular strand of that theme I wish to map a bit more is how viewing such a subjectivity of things alters our understanding and experience of consumption. Indeed, our notion of consumption can be both enriched and made more daunting by this perspective. More specifically, the central question I will address is: If commodities constantly spill beyond the boundaries of specific cultures, producers, formal camaraderies, sumptuary laws, and regimes of value, then how do we reconcile the added discovery that commodities “breach” the boundaries of human subjectivity itself? Commoditization’s ability to slip in and out of the commodity state symbolizes the alternating moments in which everyday things demonstrate a subjectivity, language, vibrancy, and presence with us and, startlingly, over us.

Laurie Eckert
Pharmacy (PhD)
Implications for Parkinson’s disease: A dopamine-derived neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and microglia

The cause of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is unknown, but recent research demonstrates oxidative stress, inflammation, and the endogenous neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), are factors in PD pathogenesis. DOPAL is generated from dopamine (DA) by monoamine oxidase and oxidized to DOPAC, the acid metabolite, by aldehyde dehydrogenase. DOPAL is highly toxic to dopaminergic cells and must be rapidly metabolized to avoid toxicity. Interaction of DOPAL with non-neuronal cells (e.g., microglia), including metabolism, activation, and toxicity is unknown. Activated microglia, found in PD-affected areas of the brain, can damage dopaminergic cells through phagocytosis, ROS and proinflammatory cytokine production/release. The ability of DA and metabolites to activate BV-2 microglia was shown in this work by TNF-α release. Metabolism and toxicity of DOPAL were determined for BV-2 cells, and it was found microglia metabolize DA to DOPAC via DOPAL. A known product of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, inhibited DOPAL catabolism, as did pre-activation of the cells. Aggregation of the PD-relevant protein, α-synuclein, by physiologically relevant levels of DOPAL was also demonstrated in this work. DOPAL-mediated microglial activation as shown in this study represents a viable mechanism for inflammation and dopaminergic cell death seen in PD patients.

Sarah Eikleberry
Health and Sport Studies
A Discursive Analysis of Early-Interwar Crisis and Separatist Politics in Women's Physical Education

The advent of World War I ushered a marked increase in mandatory physical training within high schools and colleges. During this period physical training programs readjusted their purposes and practices to align with the goals set forth by the American Education Association.   Health-oriented approaches to physical education characterized this “New PE” and increasing pressure was placed on the development of good citizens and a healthy democracy.  Against this backdrop of educational holism many prominent women’s physical educators and recreation specialists perceived that exploitative and uneducated entrepreneurs were encroaching onto their professional jurisdiction.  This professional battle was solidified in 1923 when the Amateur Athletic Union announced that it would begin holding women’s championships in track and field.  Women’s physical educators abandoned their committees and positions within the AAU sought voting power within existing professional structures and in new separatist professional alliances.  The metaphorical battle over women’s and girl’s bodies was framed by the language of social crisis.  I argue that this group of professional women created and promote platforms and initiatives that privileged their own expertise while concomitantly reinforcing dominant medical and social discourses about post-war female propriety and patriotism.        

Jessica Engelking
Philosophy
Fictional Migration and the Tommy Westphall Universe Hypothesis

Abstract:         Fictional Migration and the Tommy Westphall Universe Hypothesis
 
            We often speak of fictional characters ‘migrating’ from one work of fiction to another, or of real people ‘migrating’ into a work of ficition.  ‘Fictional migration’ is a phenomenon that any adequate theory of fiction needs to explain.  The way a theory of fiction explains (or explains away) the phenomenon of fictional migration will depend on the answers the theory provides to questions concerning the identity conditions for fictional entities and the nature of truth in fiction.  In this paper, I’ll attempt to provide a plausible account of fictional migration.  To illustrate the complex of issues surrounding fictional migration, I’ll use examples from the Tommy Westphall Universe Hypothesis.  According to the Tommy Westphall Universe Hypothesis, the presence of cross-over characters allows us to conjoin fictional worlds in such a way that it would appear the bulk of television programming actually takes place in the imagination of Tommy Westphall, an autistic child character on the television show St. Elsewhere.
 

Amir Mohammad Farnoud
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Particle-Induced Surfactant Dysfunction: What Particle Concentrations Matter?

Pulmonary surfactant lowers the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thereby reducing the work required for breathing. Pulmonary surfactant dysfunction destabilizes the lung causing severe breathing problems. Several in-vitro studies have reported inhibition of surfactant function upon interaction with nanoparticles. However, nanoparticle concentrations used in these studies have not always been representative of real-life exposures. In this study, the effect of physiologically relevant and non-physiologically relevant concentrations of carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (200 nm) on a pulmonary surfactant model was investigated. Monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were used as surfactant model and their surface tension and potential were measured upon compression and expansion. A plateau in surface tension was observed only at a particle concentration of 0.1 g/l, a hundred times higher than the estimated physiologically relevant value. Higher surface potential values were observed at 0.1 g/l of nanoparticles suggesting the presence of more compact DPPC molecules. Compression of these compact molecules can lead to their ejection from the surface causing the observed plateau in surface tension. These results suggest that while nanoparticles can inhibit surfactant function, they may do so only at concentrations that are not physiologically relevant.

Eric Issacs, Michael Beach, Yana Li, Nick Benson, Michele Vitale, Adam Gebhart, Hannah Papineschi, Robyn Fennig
Urban and Regional Planning
Renewable Energy Capacity Mapping and Policy in Dubuque, Iowa

 
As part of the Iowa Initiative for Sustainable Communities, the University of Iowa School of Urban and Regional Planning has partnered with the City of Dubuque and the Greater Dubuque Development Corporation to better understand how renewable energy can be incorporated into economic development in Dubuque, Iowa. The first aspect of the project focuses on the physical and economic viability of incorporating renewable energy into business operations, while the second aspect of the project centers on three core policy issues surrounding increased renewable energy use. We seek to combine these two aspects of the project to comprehensively evaluate how renewable energy can impact future economic development in Dubuque.At the core of the first aspect of our project is performing the first ever comprehensive mapping of available on-site energy production capacity of solar photovoltaic, solar hot water, wind, and ground-source heat pump (geothermal) systems using ArcGIS. This focus is presented for judging at the Jakobsen Conference.
In the next portion, we will identify locations within Dubuque that are suitable for small scale renewable energy production, by creating a return on investment technology. Furthermore, policy research will explore renewable energy's impact on historic character, critical facilities resiliency, and spatial relationship between capacity and demographics.

Robyn Fennig
Urban and Regional Planning
Enhanced Floodplain Management Strategies: Reducing Flood Vulnerability in Cedar County, Iowa

 
Flooding, as well as other natural hazards, has become an increasing risk to the Midwest, especially in Iowa. Cedar County, a rural county located downstream from Cedar Rapids in the Cedar River Watershed, has gone through flood map modernization for the first time since the mid-1980s. Map modernization has indicated changes in the Special Flood Hazard Area (commonly known as the "100-year floodplain), and will be reflected in new Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Since flood risk has changed in Cedar County, communities are working to understand the changes in flood vulnerabilities. This project focuses on floodplain management strategies that are being implemented as hazard mitigation in the various communities within Cedar County. The work highlights progress made to reduce flooding vulnerability through various partnerships made with communities, local government officials, emergency management officials, the University of Iowa, and Iowa Department of Natural Resources to enable communities to participate and maintain good standing in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

Sam Ferguson
Mathematics
Quixotic Defense of the Cervantes Imperative

"Why write a book," Borges asks, "when you can write its review?" Just as Borges might skip straight from the idea for a book to a review [of the never-written book], so, instead of writing a book or essay on an argument about the destruction of everything, the present author writes it as an appendix, just one among twenty-six, to a larger work [which does not exist]. The argument, intended to provide sometimes-subtle intellectual amusement, uses and misuses many ideas from a diverse array of thinkers, from Aristotle to Kant to Zermelo to James to Russell. It derives an accepted conclusion, that one should not destroy all sentient life (Cervantes Imperative) and, hence, avoid the Bhuddist goal of the destruction of all Karma, in a counterintuitive, quixotic manner. The talk for this creative work, which is intended not to take itself too seriously, will be in style a verbal analogue of the paper, a philosophical mishmash, rather than a mere explication of its contents.

Shelby Francis
Health and Sport Studies
Predictability of TV Viewing Throughout Childhood: Iowa Bone Development Study

Background:  Tracking studies determine the stability and predictability of specific phenomena.   This study examined tracking of TV viewing (TV) and video game use (VG) from middle childhood through early adolescence after adjusting for moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), percentage of body fat (% BF), and maturity.
Methods:  TV viewing and VG use were measured at ages 5, 8, 11, and 13 (n = 434) via parental- and self-report.  MVPA was measured using the Actigraph, % BF using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and maturity via Mirwald predictive equations.  Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess stability and logistic regression was used to predict children “at risk” for maintaining sedentary behaviors.  Additional models examined tracking only in overfat children (boys ≥ 25% BF; girls ≥ 32% BF).  Data were collected from 1998 to 2007 and analyzed in 2010. 
Results:  The adjusted stability coefficients (GEE) for TV viewing were 0.35 (95% CI = 0.26, 0.44) for boys, 0.32 (0.23, 0.40) for girls, and 0.45 (0.27, 0.64) for overfat.  For VG use, the adjusted stability coefficients were 0.14 (0.05, 0.24) for boys, 0.24 (0.10, 0.38) for girls, and 0.29 (0.08, 0.50) for overfat.  The adjusted odds ratios (OR) for TV viewing were 3.2 (2.0, 5.2) for boys, 2.9 (1.9, 4.6) for girls, and 6.2 (2.2, 17.2) for overfat.  For VG use, the OR were 1.8 (1.1, 3.1) for boys, 3.5 (2.1, 5.8) for girls, and 1.9 (0.6, 6.1) for overfat. 
Conclusions:  TV viewing and VG use are moderately stable throughout childhood and predictive of later behavior.  TV viewing appears to be more stable in younger children than VG use and more predictive of later behavior.  Since habitual patterns of sedentarism in young children tend to continue to adolescence, early intervention strategies, particularly to reduce TV viewing, are warranted.

Swapnil Gandhi
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Barrier-Mediated Pulsed Release

Over last few decades, many drug release systems relied upon zero-order release kinetics. In recent years, pulsed release of solutes has been of interest to achieve improved drug therapies. However, in many cases, pulsatile delivery requires user intervention or complex devices (timers, pumps) limiting the application in which it is feasible. We have developed a system in which individual doses are loaded within a stimuli-sensitive depot, protected by reactive barrier layers. For this proposed system, pH sensitive poly(methyl methacrylate/dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate) (p(MMA/DMA)) hydrogels are immobilized with a model drug (dye) and stacked between layers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. Upon exposure to a general stimulant (in this case, acid), the acid reacts with ZnO in PVA layers for controllable time period and then triggers the underlying hydrogel to swell and release the solute payload to allow a pulse. Release times can precisely be tuned over a wide range, and multiple solutes have been released from a single device.

Maya George
Pharmacy (PhD)
The role of OCT 2 transporter in the nose to brain delivery of cimetidine in rats

Cimetidine was recently demonstrated to possess antitumor activity against glioblastoma, and the direct delivery of cimetidine to the brain may provide improved adjunctive therapy for this lethal tumor.  The objective of this study was to use microdialysis to investigate and compare the disposition of cimetidine in the blood and brain (striatum and olfactory bulb) following nasal and intravenous administration in rats.  Cimetidine is a relatively hydrophilic drug with low net blood-brain barrier permeability following systemic administration. This study demonstrates that the nasal delivery of cimetidine to rats results in a preferential uptake of the drug into the brain compared to the uptake following systemic delivery. Cimetidine is known to be a substrate for OCT2, a facilitator transporter located in the nasal mucosa.  The influence of OCT2 on cimetidine uptake into the rat brain following intranasal instillation was studied using co-administration of an OCT2 inhibitor (pentamidine). Significant inhibition in the brain uptake of cimetidine was observed in the presence of pentamidine, which demonstrate that OCT2 played a role in the brain uptake/disposition of cimetidine after intranasal administration. The current results suggest that this maybe a promising delivery route for cimetidine for CNS-directed therapy.

Alexander Hawley
Communication Studies
Cartoons and the Expansion of Televisual Aesthetic Criticism

As television studies have grown as a field, some forms have been privileged considerably more than others. One of the forms that has been overlooked is the cartoon. With the rise of Adult Swim and programs like Archer, the cartoon is a form that is growing in both prestige as well as complexity. Unfortunately, current television criticism uses these programs to push larger, social agendas while never truly focusing on the content of the shows themselves. Using the work of John Caldwell and case studies on Bob's Burgers and The Venture Bros., this paper argues that cartoons can and should be analyzed as a show like The Sopranos has.

Christopher Hill
Mechanical Engineering
Investigation of Electrical and Impact Properties of Carbon Fiber Composites with Nanocarbon Buckypaper Layers

Carbon fiber reinforced composite materials have become commonplace in many industries including aerospace, automotive, and sporting goods. Previous research has determined a coupling relationship between the mechanical and electrical properties of these materials where the application of electrical current has been shown to improve their mechanical strengths. The next generations of these composites have started to be produced with the addition of nanocarbon buckypaper layers which provide even greater strength and electrical conductivity potentials. The focus of this current research was to characterize these new composites and compare their electro-mechanical coupling capabilities to those composites which do not contain any nonocarbons.

Caitlin Hilliard
Psychology
From Mind to Hand: How Gesture Serves to Bridge Gaps in Knowledge

Do speakers alter their gesture based on knowledge they share with their listener? We know that when listeners are less informed about a topic, speakers gesture more and produce more informative gestures. However, it is still unclear if gestures change because speech changes, or as a direct result of speakers’ and listeners’ shared knowledge. We investigated this issue using the Tower of Hanoi problem-solving task, in which a stack of disks is moved from one peg to another following specific rules. We manipulated speakers’ and listeners’ knowledge about the manner in which the disks could be moved; they could either be dragged across pegs with a horizontal movement, or lifted over the pegs with a more curved mouse trajectory. We recruited participant pairs, each assigned to speaker and listener roles. Speakers first completed the task with the listener present, to establish common ground. Speakers then learned a new version without the listener, with the critical manipulation being how the disks were moved in this new version relative to the common ground previously established. Speakers and listeners either had shared knowledge in the new task because the manner was the same as the previous task or speakers had privileged knowledge because it was different. Speakers then explained how to complete the new version to listeners. We coded the trajectory of each hand gesture, providing a fine-grained and objective measure of the gesture. We found that when speakers and listeners did not have shared knowledge, speakers produced more exaggerated gestures. Importantly, speakers did not encode the lack of shared knowledge in speech; none of the speakers with privileged knowledge explicitly mentioned the change in manner between versions of the task. Speakers use gesture to provide communicatively useful information, and they do so in a way that is sensitive to what listeners know. 

Hideyuki Hiruma
Geography
Analysis on the Distribution of Pharmaceutical Compounds in Iowa Streams and Their Potential Adverse Effects on Human Health

Over the world, thousands of tons of pharmaceutical compounds are used every year. Studies have shown that large quantities of pharmaceuticals are produced and discharged into the wastewater systems. Some compounds are removed at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with their regular treatment process while other compounds are not fully removed due to a lack of equipment for the removal. People in downstream areas may take and use the water for drinking. The potential for adverse effects on ecosystems or human health is still unknown for most of the pharmaceuticals. The objectives of this study were to analyze the distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in Iowa and to assess potential health risks on human health. Ten pharmaceutical compounds were sampled at 37 sites in Iowa during 2003–2005. Currently, no drinking water guidelines are established for the ten compounds. To assess health risks from the compounds, a threshold was developed and compared with the maximum concentration of each compound. The result was that no pharmaceutical compounds exceeded the threshold, which may indicate no immediate threats on human health from the ten compounds. However, more studies will be needed to draw a conclusion due to many uncertainties and limitations of this study. 

Yuka Hiruma Kishida
History
The Experiences of Korean Students Enrolled at Kenkoku University in Japanese Occupied Manchuria

Kenkoku University (Nation-Building University, abbreviated as Kendai) was the university founded in 1938 by the Japanese Army in the northeastern provinces of China commonly designated Manchuria. As the highest intuition of learning in Manchukuo, Japan’s client state in Manchuria, Kendai recruited male students from Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Mongol, Manchuria, and Russia, and aimed to train the generation of leaders who would actualize the goal of ethnic harmony, one of the founding principles of Manchukuo. My presentation focuses on the experiences of Korean students enrolled at this university. As residents of Japan’s formal empire (since 1910), they possessed the dual identity of the colonized other and Japanese imperial subjects with many—though not all—rights of Japanese citizens. Based on the recollection essays written by Kendai’s former Korean students, my presentation will explore how the colonial status of these students shaped their experiences of Kendai, which arguably was the institution with the highest degree of commitment to the Pan-Asianist goal of ethnic harmony in Manchukuo. 

Brooke Holland
School Psychology
Effects of a token economy and help card: A comparison study of on-task behavior and spelling accuracy with a child diagnosed with ADHD

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a token economy with a help card on spelling accuracy and on-task behavior in a one-on-one setting.  The participant was an 8-year old boy diagnosed with ADHD and Dyslexia. The dependent variables were the percentage of intervals of on-task behavior and the percentage of trials of words spelled accurately.  All sessions were 5-minutes in length and conducted in a resource room three to four times a day for two days a week. A multielement and reversal design was used to evaluate on-task behavior and spelling accuracy in the presence and absence of a token economy and help card (e.g., treatment).  In specific, the treatment was implemented with either on-task behavior (condition one) or spelling accuracy (condition two) to determine if reinforcing one behavior had collateral effects on another behavior. Results of the study indicated that when treatment was added to the baseline condition, on-task behavior and spelling accuracy increased.  In Figure 1 (top panel), results indicated that on-task behavior increased when treatment was implemented about the same across both conditions.  In Figure 2 (bottom panel), results indicated that spelling accuracy increased when treatment was conducted across both conditions.

Sylvea Hollis
History
How did they manage?: Race, Gender, and the Multiple Meanings of Risk

On March of 1881 John Dryden the Secretary for Prudential Insurance Company of America advanced a circular to subordinate offices announcing the organization’s creation of racially based life tables. Prudential agents decreased the assured value of black adult’s life insurance policies and increased weekly premium rates for children.  These customers were compelled to pay high premiums while disproportionately employed in low paying wage work. In what ways did African Americans respond to insurer’s decisions to label them as risky? What did insurance and risk management mean to black families? How were their definitions gendered? My paper will respond to these questions by employing a local historical study approach.
 

Matt Horrell
Classics
Simplicity in Epicureanism

Epicureanism was an ancient philosophy founded on the beliefs that indivisible physical entities exist (atomism) and that only such things exist (materialism).  Through atomism Epicureans attempted to explain all phenomena without invoking divine creation.  Several scholars have written on the supposed explanatory economy of Epicurean atomism.  That is, many feel Epicureanism explained things in a simple, parsimonious way.  I aim to challenge this view through an examination of the varieties of simplicity described in modern analytic philosophy and an analysis of Epicurean epistemology and philosophy of science.

Xin Hu
Human Toxicology
Subchronic Inhalation Exposure Study of an Airborne Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Mixture Resembling the Chicago Ambient Air Congener Profile

PCBs are a family of 209 chlorinated hydrocarbons (congeners) found in environmental media and biota. Although inhalation of atmospheric PCBs is the most universal exposure route and a substantial concern in many areas, research is lacking to determine the body burden of inhaled PCBs and the consequent health effects. To reflect the Chicago airshed environment, we generated PCBs from Chicago Air Mixture (CAM), a mixture resembling the PCB profile in Chicago air. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the CAM vapor for 1.6 hr/day via nose-only inhalation for 4 weeks, at a dosage of 134 µg/rat. Congener-specific quantification was performed using GC/MS/MS. In contrast to the lower-chlorinated congener enriched vapor, body tissues mainly contained tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls. Congener profiles varied between vapor and tissues, and among different organs. We evaluated a variety of endpoints to catalog the effects of long-term inhalation exposure, including immune responses, enzyme induction, cellular toxicity and histopathologic abnormalities. GSSG/GSH ratio was increased in blood of exposed animals, accompanied by elevation of hematocrit. No other toxic evidence was found. This study demonstrated that inhalation contributed to the body burden of mostly tri- to hexa-chlorobiphenyls and produced a distinct profile of congeners in tissue, yet minimal toxicity was found.

Sally Huddle
Special Education
Classwide Peer Tutoring for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Strategy for Increasing Academic Achievement and Positive Behaviors

Students with emotional or behavioral disorders suffer some of the worst school outcomes of any group of students. Students with emotional or behavioral disorders are five times more likely to drop out of school than their non-disabled peers are, and learning disabilities are frequently co-morbid with emotional or behavioral disorders. Existing research indicates that in order to improve post-secondary outcomes for students with emotional or behavioral disorders, schools should implement research-based interventions that focus on both academics and behavior. However, few interventions target both academics and behavior. Classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) is one intervention that has the potential to be especially effective for students with emotional or behavioral disorders because it combines academic and behavior strategies into one intervention package. CWPT allows teachers to target both academic skill deficits and maladaptive behaviors at the same time. The primary purpose of this presentation is to examine the research on CWPT to determine if research supports the use of CWPT, to increase both academic achievement and positive behaviors, for students with emotional or behavioral disorders.  

Nicole Jardine
Psychology
Visual surveillance: What limits the perception of instantaneous information in dynamic displays?

Drivers, lifeguards, and air traffic controllers engage in surveillance, in which they monitor changing scenes over time to search for critical features or events (such as swerving cars or distressed swimmers).  Failures in surveillance result in collisions and drownings.  These failures are often attributed to fatigue or attentional limits, but they may actually be due to how we represent and update visual space.  We investigated causes of failures in a visual surveillance task.  Observers searched for and reported the orientation of a tilted bar among vertical and horizontal distractor bars. Under standard, non-moving search conditions, this is an easy task. However, adding image frames prior to and after the target display changes the task into search for a single state of the bars within a dynamic display. The target was a black 45° (left or right) bar and distractors were black 0° or 90° bars.  Static displays consisted of a single frame of targets and distractors.  Dynamic displays consisted of multiple frames in which each bar rotated clockwise or counter clockwise, passing through the critical 45°/0°/90° orientations in the middle frame. Left/Right accuracy was 85% for static displays but only 51% for dynamic displays (Experiment 1). This failure in surveillance may depend on the clutter of the moving scenes, or on having to report a changing feature. To test this we altered the displays so that during the critical 45°/0°/90° frame, bars were 3 of 4 possible colors and the task was to report the color of the target bar (Experiment 2).  Performance reporting the target color was much better, even though visual clutter was the same (static: 94%, dynamic: 80%). Similarly, reporting the changing orientation of the target bars in the color-change displays (Experiment 3) also yielded improved performance (static: 92%, dynamic: 72%), though accuracy in this Left/Right task was still lower than when people reported color. The unique color status may guide attention to the target, facilitating the extraction of the relevant information from temporally surrounding information more efficiently than when less guidance was available. Attentional guidance may be especially critical in surveillance to limit distraction from non-target objects.

Sonia Johnson
English-Literary Studies
Mary, Medb and the Menstruating Jew: Displacing Menstruation in <em>Ulysses<em>

Mary, Medb and the Menstruating Jew: Displacing Menstruation in Ulysses
The way cultures have talked (and not talked) about menstruation is a battleground for much broader issues of gender and power. In this paper, I argue that James Joyce’s representations of menstruation in his novel Ulysses draws on three different tropes of menstruation from the Mediveal period: the pure, non-menstruating Virgin Mary, abject Jewish men who take on the menstruation that Mary’s purity will not allow, and the Irish goddess Medb’s ambiguously powerful yet disempowering menstrual flow which can carve lakes but which disqualifies her from battle. I show that Joyce reverses the displacement of the menstrual from the Virgin Mary to the Jewish man, and then moves forward to retransfer this menstrual function onto the Irish goddess figure. These movements change Leopold Bloom, Joyce’s Irish Jewish protagonist, from a feminized, abject scapegoat figure of menstruating Jewish man to a heroic model of Irish masculinity, measured against the menstruating bodies of two female characters: Gerty McDowell, who represents the Virgin Mary, and Molly Bloom, who represents Medb. This revised and reconstructed masculinity should not be conflated with progressive, pro-feminist models of gender that refuse hierarchy and oppression: Bloom’s redemptive mythic identity is not won by transforming negative discourses regarding female bodies. Instead, it works by forcing negative stereotypes regarding menstruation back onto biologically female bodies.

Noah Johnson
Anthropology
Positional Tensegrity: A Framework for Examining Identity Construction and Representation in American Martial Arts

Identity has been a subject of interest in anthropology and allied fields for sometime, and has recently seen the advancement of theories regarding “positioning” or “positionings” to describe how groups and individuals identify and represent themselves. Though it has been remarked that these positionings are sometimes contrary in nature, no suitable framework has been advanced in anthropology to suitably deal with these contradictions. Incorporating the ideas of identity and positioning with the concept of tensegrity, wherein a structure is maintained against external as well as internal stress, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual framework for examining such issues. The introduction of the term “positional tensegrity” will prove useful to advancing studies of identity, positioning, and representation in anthropology as well as the other social sciences, where seemingly contradictory and competing positionings can be shown to exist in balance.

Lisa Johnson
Art
The Eva Luna Project

The Eva Luna Project is a collaborative arts ensemble of incarcerated women and community partners. The project was founded by Lisa Johnson is 2009. The Eva Luna Project creates new works of theatre and art that link the lives of incarcerated women with literary mythology. Works are performed inside prison facilities (by incarcerated cast members) and outside of these facilities (in local venues by local cast members). The ensemble has and produced two new plays, held arts workshops for incarcerated youth, and developed a quilting and storytelling project based on Arpillera history. We are currently working on an adaptation of Othello. The Eva Luna Project looks to connect incarcerated communities with their surrounding local communities, and to open dialogue about issues surrounding incarceration and humanitarian scholarship.

Randye Jones
Music
Improvising the Negro Spiritual

Compositions based on Negro Spirituals call upon a tradition where improvisation is not only accepted, but expected.  The performers of the spiritual art song can draw clues for improvisational options from the composer's score, the era of the composition, and from recordings of great vocalists of the era.  Of course, the singer's own musical skills play a role in the selection from the improvisational options available to the singer in order to add a distinctive "flavor" to the performance of the work.
Improvisation can range from the use of ribato--stealing rhythmic value from one note to give added focus to another--to highly florid passages more reminiscent of Gospel music.  The singer can choose to introduce Blue notes and other melodic or rhythmic options not present in the composer's score.
This lecture-recital will look at spirituals set by composers H. T. Burleigh, Margaret Bonds, and Moses Hogan.  Each song represents different eras of the 20th Century and different compositional influences, from Romanticism to Blues to Gospel.  The presentation will include discussion and performance of the songs and how one singer selects and integrates improvisation into the original compositions.

Sean Jules
Psychology
Examining the Wells Effect: Are Only Verdict Decisions Impacted?

People often consult statistical information when they make important decisions.  One type of statistical information that people often encounter is naked statistical information — decision-relevant base rate statistics that existed independently of a particular decision scenario.  The Wells Effect refers to a phenomenon where people trust naked statistics less than non-naked statistics even though they recognize that both types of statistics are mathematically equivalent.  This effect has only been examined within the context of legal verdict decisions.  Given that verdicts share similar characteristics with other high-stakes decisions, we explored whether the Wells Effect might impact non-legal decisions as well.  Though we failed to replicate the Wells Effect in non-verdict decisions, results indicated that naked statistics were still devalued in comparison to non-naked statistics.  Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

John Kennedy
Religious Studies
The Making of a Prominent Pilgrimage Site: A Historical Examination of the Holy Sepulchre as a Patristic Pilgrimage Site

Jerusalem has functioned as the archetypal pilgrimage destination in Christianity.  The city’s long history as the prominent pilgrimage site in Second Temple Judaism enhanced its value to Christians during the patristic era.  Christians in the fourth century and beyond appropriated Jerusalem’s rich symbols as they reimagined the Holy Land as Christian space.  This paper is a historical case study of the most prominent pilgrimage site in patristic Christianity, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.  Space will be allotted to discuss Jerusalem’s rich heritage as a Jewish pilgrimage site.  Afterwards, I shall trace the Holy Sepulchre’s promotion as a pilgrimage site during the fourth century.  I shall argue that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre can be conceived as a constructed holy space made possible by political means; therefore, the Holy Sepulchre served as a powerful symbol of Byzantine Christianity’s supremacy over its competitors, and that a concerted effort through building projects transformed Jerusalem into Christian holy space.  Drawing on the work of Catherine Bell and Glenn Bowman, I shall also contend that patristic pilgrims contributed to the imagining of the Holy Land by participating in ritualized acts with their bodies.

Mary Helen Kennerly
English-Nonfiction Writing
Two Dancing Bears, a Phoenix

Vladimir: I can’t go on like this.
Estragon: That’s what you think.
What to make of my generation’s apocalyptic preoccupation?  What to make of Americans’ increasing comparison of our country’s trajectory with Rome’s decline—or the intellectual class’ resignation to doomsday via either climate change or peak oil or both?  The gas crisis of the ‘70s induced this kind of dread; the Cold War introduced self-annihilation into the public consciousness; the Doomsday clock started its shifting back and forth toward midnight.  Are we really in for it this time?  Seems naive to think so.  Our country has seen these cultural-political moments before, and now here is another.  But this one is mine to describe. 
I began this project, a book-length collection of narrative essays, with a pairing of apocalyptic visions with my personal nihilism, my own sense of “turning and turning in the widening gyre.”  In 2001, I left South Carolina for Smith College, in Massachusetts.  That Fall, I watched the planes crash into the World Trade Center.  My best friend, who’d been spiraling into psychosis that summer, was hospitalized in a psychiatric ward.  The convergence of these events left me feeling unhinged, unable to make sense of things, unsure if the world had always been so screwed up, or if I’d realized only when I left small-town South Carolina.

Sarah Kucker
Psychology
When less structure in language can help: Learning names for non-solid substances

To accurately decipher the meaning of a new word, children must rely on multiple cognitive process in order to make the initial mapping between a word and object as well as to retain the new word in memory over time. The current work probes how retention of new name-referent mappings is influenced by the strength of children's prior knowledge of similar stimuli by teaching children the names for novel items from an infrequently experienced, unstructured material-based category of substances. By varying the solidity of the novel items we also manipulate the degree to which children can rely on their prior knowledge. We find that learning is actually stronger for names mapped to novel non-solid substances, likely because infants know overall fewer names for these kinds of categories early in vocabulary development and thus, there is less competition and structure to work through in order to encode new words in memory. The results suggest that the structure of prior knowledge is a critical component to the underlying cognitive capacities for learning and retaining words.

GUN SUNG LEE
School Psychology
Investigating the Relation between Emotional Clarity, Emotion Regulation, Ambivalence over Emotion Expressiveness, and Depression

This study was designed to identify predictors of depression, specifically: emotional clarity, emotion regulation, and ambivalence over emotion expressiveness. With growing interest in the field of emotion, a variety of researchers have indicated that emotional abilities and emotional intelligence can be important contributors to depression. For the current research project, it was hypothesized that emotional clarity, emotion regulation, and ambivalence over emotion expressiveness would predict depressive symptoms. Participants in this study include four hundred and ten college students. Statistical analysis indicated that twenty-six percent of the variance in depression was accounted for by emotion regulation, ambivalence over emotion expressiveness, and emotion clarity. These results indicate that depression can be influenced by the direct effect of emotion regulation, ambivalence over emotion expressiveness, and emotion clarity, and that emotional ability is an important and unique contributor to depression. The results have implications for clinicians identifying patients at-risk for developing depression.

GUN SUNG LEE
School Psychology
The Efficacy of Repeated Reading Intervention for a Low-Achieving Sixth-Grade Student with ADHD: A Case Study

Many techniques have been used to enhance oral reading fluency because it is believed that oral reading fluency is a good predictor of reading comprehension, which is the major goal of reading. One of the techniques that have been used frequently is repeated reading. Repeated reading requires a student to read a passage multiple times until criterion level of fluency is reached. A large body of research indicated that repeated reading can enhance the reading fluency of the struggling reader. This study was designed to ascertain if the repeated reading intervention was effective for improving oral reading fluency for a sixth-grade struggling reader with ADHD. The participant received an individualized repeated reading intervention for 20 minutes once a week over six weeks. Progress was monitored throughout the six weeks and a pre- and post-test were administered to measure overall progress. Paired-samples t-tests were run to determine if significant change occurred. The repeated reading intervention resulted in a statistically significant change in mean scores between pre-test and post-test for correct words read per minute.

Xing Li
Physics
Compensator-based intensity modulated brachytherapy for cervical cancer

We introduce compensator-based intensity modulated brachytherapy(CBT), a non-invasive alternative to interstitial BT that improves the dose conformity to bulky cervical cancer tumors. Conventional brachytherapy sources emit radiation symmetrically about the applicator, thus non-symmetric tumors are treated with symmetric radiation dose distributions, resulting in tumor underdosage. CBT dose distributions are generated by an electronic brachytherapy (eBT) source, wrapped in a novel compensator that is covered in varying thicknesses of high-Z material. This innovative compensator enables the radiation dose distribution to be tailored to the patient, preventing the underdosage problem that may cause patient cancer recurrence.
CBT has the potential to significantly improve cervical cancer dose distributions without the need for supplementary interstitial BT. The physician will have the freedom to optimize the tradeoff between increased delivery time and tumor dose conformity with CIMBT. We expect that patient-specific compensators can be constructed rapidly in clinical situations using various mechanical manufacturing approaches.

Shanju Lin
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Age effect on lexcial diversity

The purpose of this study is to examine whether age affects lexical diversity. Lexical diversity is indicated by the number of different words in a language sample, and it estimates a speaker’s lexical skills, such as vocabulary size, word knowledge, and access to the lexicon, or mental dictionary. Previous studies have shown that vocabulary knowledge/size increases with age, or at least is maintained into later adulthood, whereas word retrieval ability decreases with age, especially after 70 or 75. Given that both skills are assumed to be important for lexical diversity and that they show opposite age-related patterns, direct investigation of lexical diversity in the aging population may unveil which skill is more fundamental for lexical diversity. We investigated this by measuring lexical diversity in narratives, vocabulary size, and word retrieval ability in adults aged from 30 to 90. Our preliminary results showed that lexical diversity is similar across adults with different ages, indicating that vocabulary size and word retrieval ability both contribute to lexical diversity. The findings of this study suggest that vocabulary size and word retrieval ability trade off in spontaneous speech of aging adults.

Lea Ljumanovic
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Properties of Structural Batteries

 Batteries are the most popular rechargeable power supply source largely due to the fact that they are affordable. Their greatest shortfall is their energy density. Because the effectiveness of many systems is a function of their weight, direct reduction in weight can increase the systems functionality. One of the ways that this can be achieved is to incorporate the power supply into another subsystem of the device. By aiming to reduce the cost of their mechanisms engineers in the aerospace, automotive and defense industries suggested that structural batteries be included in the design of the systems. During this work, mechanical properties of structural batteries have been studied using several different theoretical techniques.  The overall properties were estimated using finite element method, bounding methods such as Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole and Voigt-Reuss, and direct method such as the Mori-Tanaka. 

Jershon Lopez
Physics
Kurtosis as an Index of Suprathermal Tail Strength in Collisionless Space Plasmas

Omnipresent suprathermal populations in collisionless space plasmas testify to the routine importance of kurtosis in their description. The kurtosis moment is the first mention that non-thermal physics is involved in the plasma being described. Kurtosis is often ignored in closure approximations adopted to truncate the infinite hierarchy of coupled fluid equations. These closures usually assume polytropic equations of state or phenomenological heat flux expressions that are more restatements of convenience than rigor. Without kurtosis, these moment level descriptions may be incomplete in an essential way. In this paper, we point out several types of kurtosis that may be computed with space plasma data that have different uses. Among these is an “intrinsic kurtosis” that reflects most nearly the non-thermal nature of f(v). We develop a procedure for estimating this intrinsic kurtosis from data, and show with Polar plasma data how this information can be significantly different than that contained in the standard definition of kurtosis from statistics. As an example, pressure anisotropy influences kurtosis, but not intrinsic kurtosis. The variation and interpretation of these quantities for plasma data acquired in the interplanetary medium, across the fore- and bow shocks, magnetosheath and reconnection layers will be presented. Attention will be focused on whether variations in kurtosis can be used as a marker for sites of suprathermal particle acceleration.

Kranti Mapuskar
Sirt3 is essential for maintaining intracellular pro-oxidant levels and plays a role in radiation-induced adaptive responses in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

Exposure of cells to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) is believed to affect oxidative metabolism which is thought to induce adaptive responses. Sirt3 is the major mitochondrial deacetylase though to play a role in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and oxidative metabolism in response to exogenous stresses such as ionizing radiation.
The data presented shows that Sirt-/- MEFs when exposed to low doses of 0.1 Gy and 2.0 Gy X-rays showed increased steady state levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as measured by DHE, MitoSOX and DCFHDA oxidation. The loss of Sirt3 however, did not affect radio-sensitivity in these MEFs as measured by clonogenic survival. In contrast, the loss of Sirt3 abrogated the adaptive response induced by a low priming dose of 0.1 Gy X-rays, relative to Sirt WT MEFs. This suggests that Sirt3 -/- MEFs are incapable of inducing a radio-adaptive response.
In conclusion, Sirt3 appears to be an essential component for maintaining the redox homeostasis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as playing a role in radiation induced adaptive responses. This work is supported DOE DE-SC0000830.

Rachel Marek
Civil and Environmental Engineering
PCBs and their Hydroxylated Metabolites in Children and their Mothers Living in Urban and Rural Communities

We have analyzed human blood serum collected since 2008 from adolescent children and their mothers in urban East Chicago, Indiana and rural Columbus Junction, Iowa for all 209 PCB congeners and 11 hydroxlyated PCBs (OH-PCBs). East Chicago is a heavily-industrialized residential community on the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan. Bisecting the area, and passing within 2 km of 2 schools, is the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal which volatilizes about 7.5 kg PCBs per year from contaminated sediment. In contrast, residents of the rural Columbus Junction area have no known PCB exposure from current or past industrial sources. We hypothesize that East Chicago residents have more total PCBs and a different PCB profile than Columbus Junction residents. We also hypothesize that metabolite concentrations correlate with their parent PCBs. Analysis of the first year of samples shows that East Chicago children are enriched in the lower molecular weight, more volatile PCBs. Interestingly, though mothers typically have about double the PCB body burden of their children, children have about the same amount of OH-PCBs as their mothers. Following analysis of a second round of blood sampling one year later, these trends are examined for continuity within the second year of data. We present the results of this analysis and possible implications of our findings.

Ashley Mason
Art History
Pierre Mignard's Portrait of Marquise de Maintenon as St. Frances of Rome: Rejection of Quietism

In France during the early 1690s, a controversy arose concerning Quietism and its leading proponent, Jeanne Bouvier de la Motte Guyon (1648-1717). On the other side of this scandal was the Marquise de Maintenon (1635-1719), founder of the Maison royale de Saint-Louis at Saint-Cyr, a school for girls at which Guyon had been teaching. Around 1694, Pierre Mignard painted the Portrait of Marquise de Maintenon as St. Frances of Rome. Neither the precise year that Maintenon began to be concerned by the potential negative aspects of Quietism, nor the exact year that Mignard painted this portrait, can be known, so the question arises: was this portrait inspired by the mystical elements of Quietism or does this work represent an attempt to distance Maintenon from the controversial Guyon? This paper explores this question by focusing on the didactic function of this portrait.

Lenore Maybaum
Language, Literacy and Culture
Language Experience Stories in the Community

Lenore D. Maybaum is a Ph.D. candidate in the Language, Literacy, and Culture program at University of Iowa, where she has taught Rhetoric, Language and Literacy, and Approaches to Teaching Writing.  She is currently writing her dissertation on critical literacy and autoethnography.  Her research is grounded in her experiences in the classroom with adult learners at Kirkwood Community College, where she has taught since 2005, most recently as full-time faculty of the English Department.  This presentation proposes a literacy project that draws on local G.E.D. students' literacy histories as the generative grounds from which “language experience stories” (orally dictated stories that are transcribed for basic readers/writers) will be created and eventually shared with the larger college community in a public reading.

Ruth Mercado-Cruz
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Work and Disability in Puerto Rico: An Ethnographic Case Study

This ethnography project studied a case-study of an employee with a disability from Puerto Rico. For this study, and in order to protect their privacy, I will call the participant (case-study) Denise and the informants by other names (e.g., Mom, Friend, and Coworker). The main focus of this case report is to examine employment in terms of people with disability’s effect on their inclusion in society. Some questions regarding this study are: (1) what are the challenges of becoming an employee with a disability in Puerto Rico; (2) what issues or barriers most affect your inclusion; and (3) what are your biggest supports to achieve inclusion. Although there are different perspectives regarding people with a disability, my focus is to understand those who have active work participation and explore their inclusion in a family, workplace, and neighborhood environment. In conclusion, the researcher is not able to generalize the data collected because Denise’s workplace does not represent a common office in Puerto Rico.  The researcher found components of successful inclusion in the workplace that included her coworkers’ awareness and empathy for people with disabilities. On the other hand, attitudinal barriers are found more tangible in the community.

Ruth Mercado-Cruz
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Ethical Issues Related to Record-keeping

The purpose of this presentation is to examine ethical issues related to record-keeping in counseling settings. The purpose of record-keeping is to benefit the person who is receiving the services and provides protection to the counselor. Records are used to transfer the information of a client. Counselors must be aware of the vital importance of written case notes to avoid cases of malpractice. There are some laws that affect clinical practice in counseling settings, such as, Public law 104-191, HIPAA, FERPA, and Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act. The purpose of those laws is to protect the privacy of individuals and provide a secure access to the records. Ethical issues related to case records are beyond maintaining the confidentiality of notes as described in the ACA and CRCC Code of Ethics.  Both ethics codes are intended to provide specific standards to cover most record-keeping situations encountered by counselors. Rehabilitation counselors need to know code of ethics, laws and how to apply ethical principles in their practice to prevent issues related to record-keeping. It is necessary that record-keeping skills can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs and provides methods and materials for rehabilitation educators.

Joshua Miner
English-Literary Studies
The 1491 Project

Joshua D. Miner is a third-year doctoral student in American literary studies and Native American studies and was a participant in the 2012 Obermann Graduate Institute on Engagemen and the Academy.  He brought together many of his diverse ideas for the 1491 Project through the Institute, and he hopes to debut the multimedia community web portal this year, with the goal of increasing the visibility of indigenous artists, authors, activists and professionals among the broader American public.

Tatiana Mishanina
Chemistry
Trapping of an Intermediate in the Reaction Catalyzed by Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase

Thymidylate, a DNA nucleotide, is essential for all organisms. Several human pathogens rely on flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) for production of thymidylate. The chemical mechanism of this enzyme differs from that of its human analog and is not entirely understood, which impedes the development of mechanism-based inhibitors. Several mechanisms have been proposed for FDTS catalysis, but identification of any intermediate(s) that may support a specific mechanism has never been reported. In this work, I report the chemical trapping and identification of such an intermediate in the FDTS-catalyzed reaction, using labeling of the substrates with radioactive isotopes and rapid-quenching techniques. The identity of the trapped intermediate sheds light on the nature of its proposed mechanism. The experimental approach provides an important tool for future studies of FDTS chemistry, knowledge of which may assist the efforts to rationally design inhibitors as leads for antibiotics.

Sudipta Mishra
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Inspite of our best effort, less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level.
Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales.  In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems.

Mauricio Monsalve
Computer Science
Bellwether states and data quality issues in syphilis forecasting in the US

Forecasting disease incidence enables public health institutions to promptly contain spreads. In the case of syphilis, most literature is concerned with long term forecasting, which is essential for resource allocation, while the short term, essential for the contingency, has been somewhat neglected. We address this problem by elaborating a linear model with lagged variables to predict disease incidence in each state. We used states as covariates in this model, assuming that the country is a connected sexual network. Our model successfully predicts the short term behavior of syphilis incidence, and confirms the sexual network assumption by demonstrating that the incidence in one state is a function of the past incidence in other states. Additionally, by controlling for overfitting, we found that only a few states, usually two, are enough to forecast another state optimally, and that a small set of states, which we call bellwether states, are enough to predict the incidence of syphilis in practically the whole country. We conclude by discussing some data quality issues that can undermine the quality of the forecasts, and introduce some tests to assess their problems.

Kyle Moody
Journalism
"Wii" Move Toward Surveillance: How Motion Control Devices Can Function as Surveillance in Gaming

With the widespread success of the Nintendo Wii and the introduction of the Microsoft Kinect hardware device to the market, motion detection has emerged as a viable alternative to the traditional handheld controller device for videogame consoles. This has allowed for new possible player-device interactions, including monitoring health and fitness of players. However, there has been relatively little scholarship regarding the potential for surveillance and gathering of player data through interaction with motion control devices. This census study was an introductory textual analysis of news stories on motion control devices, and is based on Foucault’s panoptic logic and Smythe’s political economy of communication approach. Findings suggest that the potential for motion controllers – especially the Microsoft Kinect – to act as panoptic devices that gather data on players may turn the gamer into a commodified element of the game developer, extending the potential power software developers have over consumers.

Joanna Morrissey
Health and Sport Studies
Family Matters: Specific Type(s) of Family Support in Adolescent Physical Activity Levels

In a population-based sample of 291 adolescents (mean age 13 yr), seven psychosocial factors, including family support, were examined in relation to accelerometry-derived physical activity (PA) measured after school and during the weekend. Gender-specific stepwise linear regression analyses determined which combinations of factors explained the variance in non-school moderate to vigorous PA and non-school total PA after adjusting for % BF, age, and maturity (p < 0.05). Being praised by a family member and % BF explained 13% of the variance in female non-school MVPA, while being praised and maturity explained 7% of the variance in non-school total PA. Having a family member watch him participate, % BF, and age explained 13% of the variance in male non-school MVPA, while having a family member participate with him explained 6.4% of the variance in non-school total PA.  Despite adolescents’ growing independence, family support continues to influence PA levels. 

Thuy Nguyen
Epidemiology
Transmitted Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in a Low HIV Prevalence Setting

Background:  Antiretroviral drug resistance is steadily growing in populations of HIV treatment-naive individuals due to person-to-person transmission.  However, Iowa-specific data for transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance-associated mutations prevalence has not been previously reported.  We hypothesize that the prevalence of drug resistance in Iowa does not differ significantly between HIV risk groups.
Methods:  Data were collected from electronic medical records and an HIV Program database between 2006 and 2011.  Information included viral load, CD4 count, CD4%, and other HIV risk factors.
Results:  Of HIV-infected patients entering initial clinical care, 60% (N=43) received antiviral resistance testing prior to initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy.  Evidence of resistance to at least one ARV agent occurred in 18.6% with 14% having resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class (NNRTI).  ARV resistance mutations data suggested that there was no association with race/ethnicity, gender, or HIV risk group
Conclusion:  Some question the practicality of implementing genotypic ARV resistance testing guidelines because of uncertainty about the prevalence of ARV drug resistance among treatment-naïve patients; however, lack of genotypic resistance mutations put these patients at high risk of failing effective, first-line therapies.

Elizabeth Oberg
Pharmacology
A Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex that Selectively Targets the B'b Regulatory Subunit of PP2A

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitous and pleiotropic regulator of intracellular signal transduction. Composed of a core dimer bound to a variable B regulatory subunit, PP2A is a widely distributed mediator of several signaling pathways, the specificity of which is determined by the B subunit. B subunits are subdivided into three gene families; B, B′ and B" with limited structural or sequence similarity between them, lending diversity to their dephosphorylation targets. Interestingly, many PP2A holoenzymes act as critical regulators in many disease states, from cancer to neurodegeneration, identifying a need to determine regulatory mechanisms for their activity. A proteomic screen (LC-MS/MS) identified KLHL15 and Cullin 3 as unique interactors of the regulatory subunit, B’b. Cullin3 is a well-defined component of an E3 ligase complex. KLHL15 is a novel protein and member of a large superfamily of BTB/Kelch domain-containing proteins, many of which act as adaptor proteins that recruit substrates to Cullin3-based ubiquitin ligase complexes. Here we provide data to suggest a similar role for KLHL15, targeting PP2A/B’b to a Cullin3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex allowing for its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Our evidence ultimately suggests post-translational modification of B regulatory subunits as a critical layer of regulation for PP2A and a possible mediator of PP2A dephosphorylation events.
 
 

Nkechi Onwuameze
Educational Policy and Leadership
Climbing Up the Ladder: The experiences of African American Women at the University of Iowa, 1900-1950.

This historical research is focused on assessing the experiences of African American women students in a predominantly white institution (PWI), the University of Iowa from 1900-1950. Using primarily archival research method, the study assessed the campus racial climate and highlights the path to educational and career success for first attenders and early generations of African American women students at the University of Iowa (UI) before the Civil Rights movement that led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The result shows that from the very beginning when the UI admitted the first African American female student, Beulah Burton in 1907 and the following year, Adah Hyde and Letta Cary, these students experienced unfavorable campus racial climate including segregated living condition, and racial separation.  The individual and shared experiences of these first generation African America women students as well as several others that came after them reveal the consciousness of racial atmosphere on campus at the time.

Cristina Ortiz
Anthropology
"Family is Important": Kinship and Intimate Relationships in a Rural Midwest Meatpacking Town

One of the key reasons people come to and stay in Meatville is family.  Family is a key way in which the community imagines its organization and purpose.  Kinship represents a way of "knowing."  Belonging to a kin group is one way to be known to other people and can serve as a marker of "settlement" or responsibility.  Additionally, kinship is an important conduit for information, particularly about institutions, laws and policies.  Housing is a key local issue and scarcity of safe, affordable dwellings is one instance of the way some people can be made both visible (wide acknowledgement of run-down apartments and homes) and invisible (civic authorities' inability or unwillingness to act) at the same time.  The structure of low-wage, unstable work in the meatpacking industry also affects household divisions of labor, incidents of domestic violence, the formation of multiple households or intimate relationships, and parenting.  In a small face-to-face context, these tensions over what is "appropriate" for households, intimate relationships, parenting, and kin relationships can be particularly salient and demonstrate the slippage among an individual's roles in the community (as a parent, as a teacher, as a woman, as a council-person, etc.).

Tyler Ostergaard
A Failure to Launch: Science, Industry and Modern Allegory in Vernet’s Salle de la Paix murals

Horace Vernet was commissioned by the July Monarchy to paint the ceiling of the Salle de la Paix in the Palais Bourbon. His ceiling murals take the odd step of combining traditional allegoric elements including generic symbols of science with modern subjects. In the murals a telescope, astrolabe, and eighteenth-century air pump sit beside square chimneys, a steamboat and a large steam engine.
Vernet’s paintings were not well received when they were unveiled in 1847 due to this forced juxtaposition. Comparing the murals to Vernet’s close friend Theodore Géricault’s contemporaneous images of modernization and London’s urban poor shows that while both artists showed similar subjects, the modes Vernet and Géricault used differed dramatically. I will argued that comparison shows not only mural’s contrast between Géricault’s unflinching depiction of industrialization and Vernet’s overly positive images, but also that Vernet’s pointed use of mythological allegories and classical style suggested he was attempting to ameliorate the modern, coarse and explicitly British connotations of industry in early-nineteenth century France.
Still, Vernet’s images of modern Paris used allegoric elements, in the grand manner of history painting for an important civic space, but ultimately failed to integrate modern subject matter into French painting.
Vernet’s paintings were not well received when they were unveiled in 1847 due to this forced juxtaposition. Comparing the murals to Vernet’s close friend Theodore Géricault’s contemporaneous images of modernization and London’s urban poor shows that while both artists showed similar subjects, the modes Vernet and Géricault used differed dramatically. I will argued that comparison shows not only mural’s contrast between Géricault’s unflinching depiction of industrialization and Vernet’s overly positive images, but also that Vernet’s pointed use of mythological allegories and classical style suggested he was attempting to ameliorate the modern, coarse and explicitly British connotations of industry in early-nineteenth century France.
Still, Vernet’s images of modern Paris used allegoric elements, in the grand manner of history painting for an important civic space, but ultimately failed to integrate modern subject matter into French painting.

Zoraida Oyola-Rebaza
Music
Antonin Dvořák and the responses to the musical idiom of his American compositions

In the late nineteenth century many Americans believed that the idiom of Negro melodies, with their pentatonic scales and syncopated rhythms, had purely influenced the musical language used in the Czech composer Antonin Dvořák’s American compositions. Music critics, musicians and audiences reacted in different ways to the seemingly new and exotic musical language used in the works Dvořák composed in America. Until then no major European composer had considered Negro melodies as a source of inspiration for major works such as symphonies, quartets, quintets or concertos.
Dvořák expressed his ideas about Negro melodies and on the new idiomatic language of his American compositions in several newspaper articles. His ideas caused various reactions. Dvořák’s ideas were not always clear; some of his later letters written to publishers contradict some early interviews published in newspapers. Perhaps part of the confusion was caused by the fact that Dvořák was not an English native speaker and was not always able to express his thoughts clearly. However, what we know for sure is that the works Dvořák composed in America caused controversy. Some music critics in Boston wrote harsh articles in response to Dvořák’s ideas concerning Negro melodies.  
The purpose of this paper is to review those newspaper articles which write about  Dvořák  and his reception, and the interviews given by Dvořák, as well as some correspondence between the composer and friends.
 
 

Monica Paliwal
Biomedical Engineering
Assessment of Donder’s Law After Wrist Arthroplasty

Wrist stiffness in flexion-extension (FE) and radial ulnar deviation (RUD) is anisotropic, thus some movement paths during 2-D wrist motions in FE and RUD offer more impedance than others. Intrinsic kinematic constraints such as Donder’s law restrict motions to paths of minimum impedance. The aim of the study was to analyze changes in the execution of Donder’s law following wrist arthroplasty. Eight healthy subjects and nine patients who had undergone wrist arthroplasty were asked to perform two sets of FE, RUD, circumduction and dart throwing with pronation-supination (PS) degree of freedom constrained. The motion was captured and 3-D rotation vectors were fitted into 2-D plane surfaces. The deviation from best fitting surfaces, called as thickness of Donder’s surfaces was derived. The main finding of the study was that the patients were constrained to a greater extent, to follow Donder’s law while executing FE and dart throwing as compared to healthy subjects. Although, planning of wrist kinematics is done by central nervous system, the execution of motion is affected by biomechanics of the wrist.  Apart from limited range of motion, changes in the elastic properties of muscles/tendons, muscle stiffness, pain before surgery and changes in mass and inertia of joint due to implantation might have affected wrist biomechanics after arthroplasty. 

Hannah Papineschi
Urban and Regional Planning
Planning and Fiction:Mega-structures as Meta-homes

In this paper I analyze the role of environmental determinism in city planning and science fiction. Specifically, I examine the contributions of Le Corbusier and Paolo Soleri to the design of mega-structures which are advanced technology structures that house a high concentration of people. I use the work of Corbusier and Soleri to discuss other mega-structures both real and fictional. Masdar City in the UAE and the proposed Dongtan in China are some the newest reincarnations of the mega-structure. Both of these cities have been labeled as “eco-cities” because they were planned and designed to be energy independent communities. Robert Silverberg’s The World Inside offers us a look at possible mega-structures of the future. We witness that while the character’s living conditions are perfect, humanity is still as curious and wily as ever. Finally, I discuss the International Space Station as a mega-structure and introduce the possibility of space colonization. From these discussions I conclude with a recommendation for future space age civilizations.   

Ricardo Pena-Silva
Pharmacology
Impact of ACE2 Deficiency and Oxidative Stress on Cerebrovascular Function with Aging

Endothelial dysfunction is associated with angiotensin II signaling, hypertension and oxidative stress, and is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease.  Angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2) converts angiotensin II to angiotensin (1-7) and may protect against effects of angiotensin II.  In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ACE2 deficiency increases oxidative stress and vasomotor dysfunction in cerebral arteries, and examined the role of ACE2 in vascular aging.  Systolic blood pressure was similar in adult and old ACE2 KO and WT mice.  Vasomotor function was assessed in the basilar artery ex vivo of adult and old ACE2 knockout and wild type mice.  Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine was impaired in the basilar artery from adult ACE2 KO mice compared to adult WT.  In old mice, maximal relaxation to acetylcholine was impaired in WT mice and severely impaired in ACE2 KO mice.  The antioxidant tempol (1mM) improved responses to acetylcholine in adult and old ACE2 KO and WT mice.  Nytrotyrosine staining and expression of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits  Nox2 and p47Phox was increased in old animals and in ACE2 KO mice.  In conclusion, ACE2 deficiency impaired vasomotor function in cerebral arteries from adult mice and aggravates endothelial dysfunction with aging.  Oxidative stress plays a critical role in cerebrovascular dysfunction induced by ACE2 deficiency and aging.

Senthilkumar Perumal Kuppusamy
Human Toxicology
Telomere Dysfunction And Telomerase Reactivation In Human Skin Keratinocytes: A Possible New Mechanism Of PCB126 Carcinogenesis

Activation of telomerase activity and lengthening of telomeres are key steps in cancer progression. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), a group of 209 different congeners, are classified as probable human carcinogens. Immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat) were exposed to PCB126 at 5µM concentration for 48 days. Medium with compound was changed every 3rd day and every 6th day cells were re-seeded and telomerase activity, telomere length (qPCR), cMyc, hTERT, hTR, CYP1A1 mRNA (RT-PCR), CYP1A1 activity (EROD production), cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry), and superoxide level (DHE oxidation) were determined. PCB126 caused the significant reduction of telomerase activity (50%), hTR and hTERT mRNA (10%), telomere length (40%) and cell growth, along with an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA and activity, and in superoxide levels from day 6 to 48; Treatment with PCB126 was continued and from day 54 on, an increase in cell growth, cMyc, hTERT, and hTR mRNA level (to 130%) along with re-activation of telomerase activity (to 100%) and re-elongation of telomere length (to 90%) from day 54 to 90 was observed. This increase in cMYC, hTERT, and hTR transcripts after critical telomere shortening may be an indication of genomic instability, a hallmark of carcinogenesis.

Nicholas Petrich
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Quantifying meteorological artifacts in passive air sampling: implications for urban and regional POPs monitoring in the Great Lakes region

Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive air samplers are widely deployed to sample semi-volatile pollutants, but estimating concentrations from passive sampling requires constant empirical mass transfer rates, which add unquantified uncertainties to concentrations and the spatial and temporal information they contain. Here we present an approach for modeling hourly flow rates, mass transfer coefficients, and concentrations from hourly meteorology using first principles chemistry, physics, and fluid dynamics. This method is applied to polychlorinated biphenyls for 2008, using meteorological observations and those simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We quantify effects of meteorology on the spatial and seasonal variability in congener-specific sampling rates and their uncertainty, isolating influences of the Great Lakes on advection, diffusion, volatility, and PUF saturation on a 12 km grid across the region and at urban scale over Chicago. We highlight practical implications for sampling network design, including site density, monitor representativeness, co-location with weather observations, and sampling period, with case studies at the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network and the University of Iowa network in metropolitan Chicago.

Ryan Pittsinger
Counseling Psychology
Surfing As A Way To Cope With Traumatic Life Events: A Surfer's Perspective

Men and women both experience life stressors, however, men tend to cope in more maladaptive ways then do women.  Authors posited theories (gender role strain, adherence to masculine norms; Addis & Mahalik, 2003) and reasons why men eschew treatment (fear of being perceived weak or feminine).  Men may avoid traditional treatments because their masculinity may not be adequately recognized and integrated into treatment (Rabinowitz & Cochran, 2002).  Physical activity is one way men may feel comfortable expressing their masculinity.  This poster presents qualitative findings exploring the perspectives of male surfers and how surfing facilitates socio-emotional adjustment.  Results suggest that psychologist can integrate psychical activity into the treatment of men experiencing traumatic life events.
This study included 11 male surfers between the ages of 24-33 years of age who voluntarily surfed at a Southern California beach.  After receiving IRB approval, qualitative interviews were conducted in the ocean while the participants surfed.  Examples of the twenty-three interview questions are, “How has surfing helped you deal with a traumatic life event” and “What does surfing provide you emotionally?”  Responses were analyzed using Consensual Qualitative Research methodology (Hill et al., 2005).  Results reveal surfers engage in surfing to gain a sense of understanding into their life, cope with traumatic life events, and as an emotional outlet.  One participant explained, “Every traumatic event I have, I just feel like I gotta go surf, I gotta get out in the water.  I can’t go for a walk or go for a run… those just aren’t really options, I’d much rather be out here surfing.”
Surfing may provide men with the opportunity to experience physiological and psychological health benefits as well as cope with stressful and traumatic life events.  Understanding this link between physical activity and psychological health may allow psychologists varied ways to work with men.

Trenton Place
Molecular and Cellular Biology
HIF-Prolyl Hydroxylase 3 Expression is Silenced by DNA Methylation in Human Cancer Cell Lines and is Negatively Correlated With Markers of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

The prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) family of enzymes controls the cellular response to hypoxia by negatively regulating HIF-a proteins. One member of this family, PHD3, is itself hypoxia inducible and also plays a role in regulating pathways outside of the conventional hypoxia response pathway. We have previously shown that the hypoxia-inducible PHD3 gene is silenced by DNA methylation across a wide variety of malignant cell lines representing various tissues of origin. However, we and others have found no evidence of PHD3 silencing in primary human prostate or breast cancer specimens. Furthermore, murine models of PHD3 knockout fail to develop spontaneous tumors of any tissue, implying that silencing of PHD3 is not a tumor initiating event. Therefore, we hypothesize that PHD3 silencing promotes malignancy late in tumor progression, possibly at the stage of metastasis. To investigate this hypothesis, PC3 cell derivatives selected for their ability to transverse a trans-endothelial barrier (TEM4-18) or for the presence of E-cadherin expression (PC3-E) were evaluated for PHD3 mRNA expression. We found that TEM4-18 cells expressed very low to undetectable levels of PHD3 mRNA and E-cadherin, whereas cells sorted for E-cadherin expression express approximately 100 fold more PHD3 mRNA. We have found this correlation between E-cadherin and PHD3 mRNA expression to be true for most cancer cell lines we have tested to date. Future studies aim to determine the functional relationship between PHD3 and E-cadherin expression.

Tony Pomales
Anthropology
Extending Feminist and Queer Literatures to Studies of Men and Masculinities

This paper examines contemporary anthropological studies that have used feminist and queer literatures to critique and enrich the field of masculinities studies. I explore these ethnographies alongside other innovative texts drawn from “feminist cultural studies” and “new queer studies.” Following these examples, I suggest new directions for studies of men and masculinities. 

Jose Ramos
Business (MBA)
Perceived stress and coping styles among graduate students in distance learning and on-campus programs.

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in perceived stress and coping styles among non-traditional graduate students in both brick-and-mortar and distance-learning institutions. This study used a quantitative causal-comparative design that involved collecting survey data. The sample for this research study were 36 non-traditional graduate students that were enrolled in distance learning classes as well as 36 non-traditional students that attend traditional on-campus courses in a graduate campus. t test and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted to simultaneously assess the effects of group membership and all demographic variables on each of the dependent variables (stress and each coping style). An alpha level of .05 was used to establish statistical significance. Overall, we concluded that there is no significant difference between the coping styles and the perceived stress levels of graduate non-traditional students enrolled in distance-learning and in brick-and-mortar institutions. 

Rajiv Ranjan
Second Language Acquisition
Pedagogical Approach to Grammatical Gender in L2 Hindi/Urdu Classroom

The aim of this paper is to explore the pedagogical approach for the teaching and learning of grammatical gender in the L2 Hindi/Urdu classroom. This study also attempts to discover whether heritage speakers have the advantage of implicit knowledge of grammatical gender. In Hindi/Urdu, unlike other languages, there are no articles coupled with nouns reflecting their gender and the specific markers for masculine –aa and feminine –i are not always consistent. This study employs the psycholinguistic approach known as ‘chunking’. The idea is to couple nouns with adjectives that end in –aa for masculine and –i for feminine. The paper includes a pilot study that uses two groups, each with ten participants. Within each group there are five heritage and five non-native speakers. One group receives a list of nouns with explicit masculine and feminine levels. Another group receives the same nouns coupled with marked adjectives. After a week, both groups take a grammaticality judgment task. The result shows that the group that receives the nouns coupled with adjectives performs better. The result also shows that there is no significant difference between the heritage and the non-native participants.

Angelica Rankin
Educational Measurement and Statistics
Dual Purpose: How Components of Rater Training Relate to Teacher Learning

The current study examined discrete elements of training to better understand how the training/scoring process can enhance teacher learning. Teacher involvement in assessment-related activities can facilitate learning that can improve instructional practices by clarifying the connections between instruction, assessment, and student learning (Darling-Hammond & Pecheone, 2010). Teachers in this study trained to score statewide writing assessment. They completed surveys concerning experiences and how participation influenced instruction. Teachers identified the training elements they found most useful for scoring, which overlapped with the elements they found most applicable in their classrooms. Emphasizing these elements during rater training may help clarify scoring criteria and result in teacher learning. Teachers reported changing expectations regarding their teaching methods to enhance student performance. They reported altering expectations of their own teaching methods, including using clearer instructions and giving more explicit feedback to students. Teachers also found working with real student essays from multiple grades helped understand expectations across grade levels, which influenced their own instructional practices. These findings support the notion that assessment-related experiences may be an opportunity for teacher learning and professional development.

Malvika Rawal
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Manganoporphyrin MnTMPyP enhances ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells via generation of H2O2

High dose, pharmacological (i.v.) ascorbate is being investigated as a non-conventional therapy in pancreatic and other cancers. Ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity is thought to be mediated by generation of H2O2 in the extracellular fluid with ascorbate and its radical acting as electron donors. Our goal is to increase the effectiveness of this therapy by combining it with redox active molecules to increase the flux of H2O2.  We hypothesized that the SOD mimetic Mn (III) tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP) will increase the rate of oxidation of ascorbate thus increasing the flux of H2O2.  Addition of MnTMPyP to a near-neutral solution of ascorbate increased the level of ascorbate radical, consistent with an increased rate of ascorbate oxidation and formation of H2O2.  In vitro, exposure of human pancreatic cancer cell lines MIAPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 to 1 µM MnTMPyP or 1 mM ascorbate showed minimal effects on clonogenic survival. However, when combined, clonogenic survival was decreased synergistically. Superoxide dismutation activity was not responsible for the cytotoxicity since neither PEG-SOD nor AdEcSOD was able to replace MnTMPyP.  Inclusion of 100 U/mL PEG-SOD did not alter clonogenic survival indicating that superoxide is not directly involved in toxicity; addition of 120 U/mL PEG-catalase reversed cytotoxicity, consistent with a major role for H2O2. We conclude that: 1) MnTMPyP increases the rate of oxidation of ascorbate; leading to 2) an increase in the level of ascorbate radical; 3) an increase in the flux of H2O2; and 4) an increase in the toxicity of ascorbate in tumor cells.  Taken together, these preclinical findings suggest that MnTMPyP may be a promising adjuvant to pharmacological ascorbate to treat pancreatic and other cancers. 

Mark Reagan
Music
John Cosyn's Musike in Six and Five Partes Reconstructed and Newly Notated

John Cosyn’s Musike in Six and Five Partes
Reconstructed and Newly Notated
 
Abstract
 
by Mark Reagan, Doctor of Musical Arts Student
 
University of Iowa
 
 
During the Protestant Reformation, lay people were given the opportunity of singing in public worship, supplanting the long-standing tradition of praise sung by trained ecclesiastical choirs.  The Psalms were paraphrased in simple metrical-poetic patterns, then set to short, memorable tunes.  Congregants sang the psalm-settings in unison, without instruments.  Out of this monophonic music emerged harmonized musical settings, composed for trained amateurs to enjoy as domestic entertainment.
In 1585, English musician John Cosyn (d. 1609) published his Musike of Six, and Fiue partes, a collection of richly harmonized psalm settings.  Unfortunately this work has not survived in complete form to the present, nor has any significant portion of it been transcribed into modern notation.  This research reconstructs the missing voice part, combines it in full score with the remaining parts (altus, tenor, quintus, sextus, and bassus), and transcribes all into modern notation.  The intent of this research is to make a significant portion from Cosyn’s ambitious work accessible and available to modern scholars and performers for the first time.

Michael Ridge Jr.
History
“A Pictorial Survey of Leftist Critiques of U.S. Economic Expansion into Mexico, 1906-1911”

My project analyzes the first concentrated critique of the role of U.S. capital in Mexico at the beginning of the 20th century by leftist critics in the United States, through the lens of editorial cartoons in various socialist and labor publications. While mainstream publications described U.S. economic expansion in self-congratulatory terms at the beginning of the 20th century, labor and socialist critics would critique the effects of the expansion of U.S. capital as well as U.S. policy towards Mexico and other Latin American countries. Rather than viewing the results of the expansion of U.S. capitalism into Mexico as a benevolent mission, working-class critics of the U.S. capitalist and industrial order viewed it as an expansion of the exploitation by many of the same trusts and capitalists with which American workers had clashed with for years. Strongly influenced by the critiques of Mexican exiles living in the United States, labor and socialist critics would critique U.S. economic expansion, U.S. support for the repressive Diaz regime and would tenaciously attack the “Diaz Legend” which had been carefully created by Mexican officials and U.S. supporters in the mainstream press for decades.
 

Micheal Ridlen
Art History
The Melancholy Dances of Toulouse-Lautrec and George Seurat

Artists are often considered to have a special sensitivity to the social conditions, moral climate, and general emotional atmosphere of their own time.
 The temperaments of their surroundings are transferred to their art as extensions of their personal style. This extra sensitivity leads to the association of artists with madmen and depressives, though this apparent madness is often more a function of the external world than the internal. Drawing on a time of transition, luxury and self indulgence in late nineteenth century France, two artists emerged who displayed the pervasive melancholy of their age in scenes from the cafes of Montmartre: George Seurat and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec.
The sensitivity of the artists at the end of the century allowed them to capture the uneasy transformation taking place in the cafe culture of Montmartre around 1890, where both George Seurat and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec lived.  The melancholy they depicted and exhibited in 1890, then reflects a sort of emotional truth about the end of the century and its spiritual malaise. 

Stacy Ross
Pharmacy (PhD)
Reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Growth with Antibiotics and Nutrient Dispersion Compounds

Bacterial biofilms consist of bacteria that have adhered to a surface and generate a polysaccharide matrix that protects the bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of mortality among cystic fibrosis patients. Current antibiotic treatments for these infections are ineffective and can lead to antibiotic resistance. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination therapy containing a nutrient dispersion compound and a traditional antibiotic on biofilm eradication. We hypothesized that the nutrient dispersion compound would entice bacteria to exit the biofilm and enhance the ability of the antibiotic to kill the bacteria. The study focused on six common antibiotics (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, amikacin disulfate, tobramycin sulfate, colistin sulfate, colistin methanesulfonate, and polymyxin B sulfate) and four nutrient dispersion compounds (sodium citrate, succinic acid, xylitol, and glutamic acid). Biofilms were grown in the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration assay and the dose response of the biofilms to various concentrations of compounds evaluated. Our results show that amikacin disulfate was synergistic with three dispersion compounds, while tobramycin sulfate, colistin methanesulfonate, and polymyxin B sulfate were synergistic with all four.

Kristin Russell
Journalism
Unmasking Media: _The New York Observer_ Frames Anonymous and Occupy Wall Street

This study examines The New York Observer’s coverage of the online collective, Anonymous, and its relation to Occupy Wall Street, from the beginning of the Occupy movement through January 2012. Through textual analysis and the lens of framing theory, this study seeks to uncover the ways in which each group is portrayed in connection in the popular New York City weekly and online news outlet. Faced with fragmented, leaderless groups that relied upon and augmented mass self-communication and resistance to institutionalized power structures, journalists at The Observer used existing frames of Anonymous and portrayed them as ridiculous, childish hackers at the upstart of the Occupy movement but pegged them as celebrity and potential hero for the movement toward the close of coverage. This exploration has proven that Anonymous and the Occupy movement have complicated and problematized journalistic routines. As mass self-communicators with the potential for producing counter-power, Anonymous and the Occupy movement have troubled reporter-source relationships and challenged institutionalized journalistic power.

Mark Schall
Industrial Engineering
Utility of Actigraphy in Long Term Tracking of Sleep Quality in Patients Treated with CPAP

This study examined systematic differences in sensitivity settings of wrist-worn actigraphy watches in relation to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) dosage, subjective ratings of sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and matched controls over a 3.5 month-period.
19 patients with OSA and 7 controls in an ongoing study of real-world driving in OSA participated in the study. Actigraphy data were collected for two weeks before CPAP treatment, and during the first three months of CPAP treatment at three-levels of motion sensitivity: low, medium, and high. Participants completed Epworth Sleepiness, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality, and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaires at pre-treatment, and monthly thereafter. 
Sensitivity settings produced large mean differences in sleep efficiency, wake minutes after sleep onset (WASO) and number of awakenings (all p’s < .001). Among these parameters, number of awakenings was significantly inversely correlated with CPAP dosage only when they were obtained at low sensitivity settings (p < .05). Furthermore, only the low sensitivity settings identified improvements in number of awakenings after CPAP treatment (p < .05). Finally, subjective ratings of sleep significantly improved over the course of treatment but they were not related to objective actigraph-based measures of sleep. 

Carolan Schroeder
Health and Sport Studies
The 'First Mother': Maternalism and Michelle Obama's Let's Move! Campaign

In October of 2008, Michael Pollan authored a piece for the New York Times Magazine addressing the President-Elect to be.  In “Farmer in Chief,” Pollan warned of a nation at peril and advocated for Presidential support of food reform and a re-imagined Victory Garden scheme that would target high food prices, problematic diets, and a sedentary population.  It was not the “Farmer in Chief,” however, who would answer Pollan’s public call to action.  Instead, it was Michelle Obama -- the ‘First Mother’ -- who has taken up the cause of children’s health, wellness, and obesity as her personal platform through the Let’s Move! campaign.
This paper explores the emergence of the childhood obesity crisis in America and the subsequent launch of Let’s Move!.  I endeavor to understand this campaign in relation to a history of reform campaigns focused specifically on children and the body.  I argue that Let’s Move! is the latest iteration of maternalistic reform, and like its predecessors, is born out of a crisis of change and flux, endeavors to educate and shape children, and ultimately, seeks to provide (problematic) prescriptions and a constructed community to combat societal ills.    

Shihao Shen
Biostatistics
MATS: a Bayesian framework for flexible detection of differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data

Ultra-deep RNA sequencing has become a powerful approach for genome-wide analysis of pre-mRNA alternative splicing. We develop MATS (multivariate analysis of transcript splicing), a Bayesian statistical framework for flexible hypothesis testing of differential alternative splicing patterns on RNA-Seq data. MATS uses a multivariate uniform prior to model the between-sample correlation in exon splicing patterns, and a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method coupled with a simulation-based adaptive sampling procedure to calculate the P-value and false discovery rate (FDR) of differential alternative splicing. Importantly, the MATS approach is applicable to almost any type of null hypotheses of interest, providing the flexibility to identify differential alternative splicing events that match a given user-defined pattern. We evaluated the performance of MATS using simulated and real RNA-Seq data sets. In the RNA-Seq analysis of alternative splicing events regulated by the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1, we obtained a high RT–PCR validation rate of 86% for differential exon skipping events with a MATS FDR of <10%. Additionally, over the full list of RT–PCR tested exons, the MATS FDR estimates matched well with the experimental validation rate. Our results demonstrate that MATS is an effective and flexible approach for detecting differential alternative splicing from RNA-Seq data.

Nathan Shepard
Art History
Edward Moran’s <u>The Valley in the Sea</u>: America’s First Underwater Panorama

Edward Moran, the older brother of the better-known Thomas Moran, was considered the premier American seascape painter at the time of his death in 1901.  Most of his paintings are idyllic coastal or oceanic scenes populated by boats or ships.  However, early in his career he painted The Valley in the Sea in 1862.  This painting is unique, not only in Moran’s oeuvre but in 19th century American art as well, because it shows an underwater panorama.   The Valley in the Sea shows influences from two contemporary books, Ocean Life, written by James M. Sommerville in 1859, and The Physical Geography of the Seas, written by Matthew F. Maury in 1860.  Using the biological descriptions from Sommerville and the geographical descriptions from Maury, Moran created an undersea landscape, the first and perhaps only such painting in 19th century America.  Additionally, the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1858.  The prospect of near-instant trans-Atlantic communication as well as mid-19th century advances in oceanic exploration excited the public about seascapes in a similar, yet subdued, manner as the excitement surrounding westward expansion.  Edward Moran, The Valley in the Sea, and his other seascapes, deserve greater exposure, appreciation, and explanation within the context of 19th century oceanic exploration.

Jennifer Shook
English-Literary Studies
Bridging Public Circles and Artistic Forms: Engaging Collaboration through Interdisciplinary Responses to Poetry

While literature may pose and respond to the big questions of life, poems provide a distilled opportunity for communities to reflect and respond. Crafting creative responses to shared poetry can build bridges between artistic and scholarly disciplines and with members of other publics. Such “translations” also deepen students’ understanding of ideas and of forms. Meanwhile, on the broader university and city level, connections may be made through the work’s themes. Such efforts have proven successful with DePaul University’s Chicago-wide Year of Antigones, Caffeine Theatre’s Coffeehouse series, and the Old Capitol Museum Creepy Campus Crawls, where students have adapted and performed works of literature for family audiences. 
This spring The Derek Project embarks on its second such engagement, as students, community members, and teaching artists of several disciplines collaboratively respond to poems from Natasha Trethewey’s Native Guard, involving themes including place memory, domestic violence, and the experiences of African American Civil War soldiers. With the assistance of many university departments, local high school students, and organizations such as United Action for Youth and the Domestic Violence Intervention Project, this collaboration will culminate in a community art share and reading on April 19, and will be documented by student blogs to feed future projects.

stef shuster
Sociology
Building Transgender Communities of Care in Eastern Iowa

Transgender studies is an emergent cross-disciplinary field of inquiry. Scholars have been attentive to identity formation, transgender communities, and the many ways in which social inequality impacts transgender people in institutional settings, such as healthcare. Concurrently, activists in transgender social justice movements have focused attention on disrupting mainstream narratives of identities, body politics, legislative reform, and access issues in healthcare settings.

This project is the culmination of my dissertation research on transgender communities and my social justice work in the Eastern Iowa area. Throughout my time as a graduate student, I have attempted to bride my academic work as a Ph.D. candidate with my social justice activism in (trans)gender communities. The Iowa City transgender and ally community has been successful in building internal networks with each other and what Sally Hines (2007) calls “communities of care.” This phrase reflects the idea that because of barriers that restrict access to vital resources, oppressed groups must develop our own structures and communities of caring. Through the Obermann Graduate Institute, I developed a website and blog to help foster rich networks across Eastern Iowa, provide basic information frequently requested of the transgender activist group I work with (called TransCollaborations), and help create sustained dialogue around issues that transgender people face in our everyday lives.

Bhupinder Singh
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
'Factors to be considered in Prescribing Exercise Interventions for Obese Individuals

Objective:  To investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals.
Subjects: Ten obese subjects age 54.1±5.52 with elevated BMI 39.04±5.02 kg m-2participated in the study.
Measurements: Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system.
Results: The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17±5.18 % of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by 16.5±6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact.
Conclusion: In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact exerts a considerable force, and decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.

Priyanka Singh
Chemistry
Exploring the Role of Global Networks in Enzymatic Catalysis Through the Study of Distal Mutants of Dihydrofolate Reductase Using Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 7, 8-dihydrofolate (DHF) to 5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydrofolate using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as a coenzyme. It plays an important role in biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and amino acids and thus is a target for various antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs. In our study, we have used this enzyme as a model to address whether enzymes have evolved networks of coupled motions across the protein to enhance the catalyzed chemical transformation. DHFR has been a frequent subject of study in the context of protein dynamics, because of its size, ubiquity, and well established structural, kinetic and mechanistic characteristics. Previously, the hydride transfer step in the remote active site mutants G121V and M42W were studied and compared to the wild type enzyme. These residues were found to be part of a network of coupled motions that enhance the catalyzed hydride transfer through measurements of the temperature dependence of intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). In my current work, temperature-dependence of intrinsic KIEs for W133F, F125M and F125M-M42W DHFR have been studied using the previously established methods. Based on the results, W133F does not appear to affect the chemical step or be important for hydrophobic stabilization of the protein. However, F125M shows inflated KIEs and substantial temperature-dependence indicative of residues that do participate in the network of coupled promoting motions in EcDHFR. In contrast to W133, F125 is thus likely new residue that is the part of the global dynamic network in EcDHFRs. To examine this possibility, the temperature dependence of the intrinsic KIEs for a double mutant, F125M-M42W DHFR was measured and was found to be steeply temperature dependent. The findings for F125M-M42W ecDHFR were compared with those for the F125M, M42W, and wild type enzymes. The comparison indicates that the nature of the hydride transfer is slightly changed for the F125M and M42W mutants, but is significantly altered for the F125M–M42W double mutant. This strongly supports that the F125M is a new residue that is the part of the global dynamic network in EcDHFRs.

Astha Singhal
Oral Science
Emergency Department use for Dental Conditions: Trends over 10 years

Background: Emergency department (ED) use for dental conditions is a growing concern due to reliance on EDs as a safety net for unmet dental needs and significant costs associated with it.
Objectives: To understand the trends in ED use for dental conditions over 10 years and identify the characteristics of patients who seek care at EDs for dental conditions.
Methods: Data from NHAMCS- a national probability sample survey of hospital ED visits conducted by the CDC, were utilized from 2000-2009. Ten year trends in ED visits for dental conditions were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors associated with having ED dental visits.
Results: ED visits for dental conditions as a proportion has significantly linearly increased from 2000-2009. Compared to year 2000, racial minorities and those with public insurance or uninsured were more likely to have an ED dental visit in 2009. More than 90% of such patients received a medication prescription and referral for follow-up while less than 12% of such visits resulted in medical procedures.
Conclusion: Significant increasing trend in proportion of ED visits for dental care, especially by racial minorities, uninsured and Medicaid enrollees highlights the increasing disparities in access to oral healthcare. Only palliative treatment, most often only medications are provided at EDs for dental problems.

Induni Siriwardane
Chemistry
Citric Acid Adsorption on Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions at Acidic and Circumneutral pH

Citric acid is a naturally abundant organic acid, which can play an important role in determining the environmental fate of nanomaterials. This study focuses on citric acid adsorption onto cerium oxide nanoparticles with a particle diameter of ca. 4 nm and ca. 9 nm. Speciation of adsorbed citric acid on CeO2 nanoparticles as a function of pH, has probed using ATR-FTIR measurements, whereas the zeta potential measurements and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used as the supplementary experiments. The results show that the surface speciation of citric acid differs from that of bulk solution in all pHs: 2.0, 4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. In addition, the fully deprotonated form of adsorbed citric acid is prominent in all pHs, which is a distinct difference from the speciation of citric acid on other metal oxide nanoparticles reported up to date. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed some distinct adsorption bands for citric acid adsorbed on ca. 4 nm particles compared to 9 nm particles. These bands can be attributed to adsorbed citric acid onto specific sites which are widely available on very small nanoparticles. These trends in surface adsorption of citric acid on ceria provide an insight in to the behavior of some smallest CeO2 particles and their surface chemistry with citric acid.

Hojin Song
Communication Studies
Julia Pastrana’s Beard: Fortifying the Gender Binary in Victorian England

This paper examines the story of the bearded lady Julia Pastrana, a famous performer and an object of freak exhibition in the 1800s. Because of her hirsuteness, Pastrana has been interpreted by scholars, especially Garland Thomson (1996 & 1998), to complicate binary categories such as gender or normalcy. I offer an alternative reading of Julia Pastrana’s identity presentation with the emphasis on sex/gender binaries in the mid-1800s Victorian England. Although Pastrana’s body offers various interpretations in other categories, the Victorian context of the relationship between facial hair and gender is noteworthy since gender fortification bore important social meanings. The naturalness of her facial hair complicated the notion of biological sex and gender, but the presentation of her identity was carefully constructed to fortify the social construction of sex/gender. By analyzing medical and promotional artifacts, I argue that Pastrana’s case reifies the binary because she was punished by not being one or the other.

Emily Spencer
Music
Congregational Singing in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Nineteenth Century Anglo-American Influences and the Contemporary Unison-Singing Movement

Abstract
            In spite of its long-standing tradition of congregational part-singing, there is a movement within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints advocating a shift to unison-singing.  The debate is best understood within the context of the nineteenth-century Anglo-American influences that have shaped the church’s congregational singing to the present day.  Though the earliest singing was likely in unison, Joseph Smith instituted a singing school like the American singing schools that were en vogue at the time.  The schools’ use of note-reading pedagogies such as the Curwen Sol-fa method and printed hymnals fostered musical literacy amongst members, facilitating a shift towards part-singing.  An influx of British converts further encouraged the trend, as many of the church’s earliest musical leaders were British immigrants.  Immigrants not assuming leadership positions also contributed to the shift, drawing from their part-singing choral traditions.       
            Today, the camps each seek to enhance worship through congregational singing, but disagree as to how to do so.  Unison-singing advocates argue that unison singing unites the congregation by making the music more accessible, thus increasing participation.  Part-singing advocates argue that singing in parts more readily engages participants, offering more choice, and more aptly symbolizes unity achieved through harmony as diverse elements comprise a meaningful whole.  Study of the church’s historical singing practices to the present day reveals that, while the methods change, the final aim is to draw church members closer to God.

Jason Sprague
Religious Studies
Catholic Pilgrimage in Northern Michigan

This paper explores the development of a Catholic pilgrimage site in northern Michigan by utilizing a historical methodology and theoretical lenses concerning pilgrimage, sacred space, place, memory, and tourism.  These theories are demonstrated by examining The National Shrine of the Cross in the Woods in Indian River, Michigan as a case study which shows that a site’s development and popularity is often the result of the actions of an individual or a group of individuals who have a vested interest in the place for the pilgrimage site and have a personal devotion to the individual for whom the site is being dedicated.  The original object of devotion in this case study is Kateri Tekakwitha.  The main focus of this paper is on the efforts of individual devotees and their ability to effectively gain community support for the construction and maintenance of pilgrimage sites.

Samuel Taylor
Philosophy
Attention and Introspection

Ernest Sosa has argued that various internalist views of epistemic justification, those that claim that our direct awareness of our mental states provides the foundation for all of our justified beliefs, fall prey to the problem of the speckled hen.  Such views are often criticized for their tendency to lead to external world skepticism; Sosa’s objection, however, is more worrisome since it threatens internalists’ ability to give an adequate account of their supposed paradigm case of justification: the justification of introspective beliefs.  This paper is part of a larger project where I argue that the internalist ought to reject a variety of proposed responses in favor of what I refer to as ‘the attention strategy’.  Due to space considerations I cannot argue against all of the alternatives to the attention strategy so I focus on what I label the phenomenal concepts strategy (one of the strongest alternatives to my own view).

Emrah Tiras
Physics
HF Upgrade Studies: Characterization of Photo-Multiplier Tubes

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large general-purpose particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. CMS has two forward hadronic calorimeters (HF) at either ends of the detector. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are directly positioned behind HF to detect the energy signatures of hadronic collisions. The Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group at the University of Iowa is responsible for testing the 2000 new PMTs for the 2013 HF upgrade. The tests are designed in three categories to test seventeen different parameters for each PMT. The three most basic and most important groups of parameters are: dark current, gain(anode and cathode), and timing. There are secondary tests which are performed on a smaller percentage of the PMTs such as surface uniformity, double pulse and single photo-electron resolution. CMS has specific requirements for each PMT to be installed in the HF calorimeter. Before installing PMTs in the CMS experiment, their quality control demands need to be satisfied. In this presentation, we briefly explain the results of 900 PMTs for six basic parameters and discuss whether or not they meet the specifications of HF.

Sarah Trabert
Anthropology
Using Archaeology to Study the Indirect Effects of Spanish Colonialism

The colonization of North America had profound demographic, social, and economic effects on Native Americans who came into direct contact with Europeans. But what about those Native American groups who never actually saw a European, how were they impacted by the colonization of their continent? This paper briefly describes how archaeologists might approach studying the down-the-line effects of colonialism and provides an archeological case study where some of these methods have been tested.  Dismal River aspect people, an archaeological culture dating from AD 1650-1725 on the High Plains, lived in an excellent temporal and geographic location to experience indirect effects of Spanish colonialism originating in the U.S. Southwest. Puebloan groups fled the U.S. Southwest hoping to escape Spanish oppression and interference and joined with Dismal Rive aspect people living in Kansas.  Ceramics from these sites in Kansas indicate the blending of cultural traditions and likely identities of Plains and Puebloan groups. Analysis of sites in Nebraska however, have shown a drop-off in evidence for indirect effects of colonialism, supporting earlier assumptions that geographic distance played a crucial role in how Native Americans were affected by colonialism. 

Summer Trentin
Art History
Motion and Perception: Viewing the Garden of the House of Marcus Lucretius in Pompeii

Domestic gardens in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii were important status symbols adorned with sculpture, pools, fountains, and colonnades. Placed along the visual axis from the entrance doorway, the peristyle garden was meant to be visible to guests and passersby alike. Yet despite the importance of peristyles to the Pompeians, garden decoration is often either overlooked by scholars or considered separately from its original setting. Using the House of Marcus Lucretius as a case study and contextualizing its garden decoration, I argue that gardens served as visual and thematic unifying features in the Roman house and that careful placement of decorative elements within an architectural framework created a multivalent environment capable of serving a variety of aesthetic purposes. To the casual visitor in the more public areas of the House of Marcus Lucretius, the garden statues and water features formed a symmetrical and harmonious tableau, but the privileged guest following the labyrinthine route toward more intimate rooms glimpsed the garden through windows of various sizes, creating vignettes that changed as he or she moved through the house. Through juxtapositions of decorative elements, the homeowner challenged viewers’ expectations, controlled their perceptions, and increased the visual impact of his small garden.

Teniell Trolian
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Effects of College Cocurricular Involvement on Social and Political Involvement

This study is concerned with the influence of college experiences on students’ attitudes about the importance of social and political involvement behaviors such as volunteering, providing community leadership, keeping up-to-date with political affairs, and influencing the political structure.  Specifically, the purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between college cocurricular involvement and the importance students place on social and political involvement.  Results indicate that college cocurricular involvement is positively related to social and political involvement at the end of the fourth year of college.  In particular, membership in a student organization; membership in a religious congregation or group; whether a student held a leadership position in a student club, campus organization, residence hall, or fraternity/sorority; whether a student participated in an intramural sports activity; whether a student served as a peer educator in a non-academic area; and whether a student served as a student orientation leader all had significant positive effects on the importance that students placed on social and political involvement.

Mai Tu
An Application of Design of Experiment in Fabricating Antimicrobial-loaded Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

The goal of the present study was to develop erythromycin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with optimized size, drug loading and surface characteristics for the treatment of invasive lung infections.
Nanoparticles were fabricated using the solvent diffusion method. The biodegradable polymer PLGA was used to entrap the antibiotic erythromycin and to enable sustained release of the drug upon polymer degradation. Using a full factorial design, formulation and process parameters (injection needle diameter, concentrations of PLGA, erythromycin and the surfactant poly (ethylene maleic anhydrite) used during formulation) were varied to yield particles that were nanosized, to enable particle uptake into lung cells, and with maximum drug loading. Drug release rate was quantified by UV spectroscopy. 
To enhance specific uptake of the particles into lung cells, particles were coated with a bacterial lipooligosaccharide from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. This ligand has previously been shown to facilitate the attachment and uptake of bacteria into lung cells. The degree of conjugation was monitored by measuring changes to the surface charge of the particles.
Successful fabrication of these nanoparticles will provide a sustained-release formulation for targeted delivery of erythromycin to lung epithelial cells.

Gabriele von Roedern
History
Gatekeepers of Honor and Arbitrators of the Past: Public Prosecutors, Defamation Suits, and the Nazi Past in West Germany, 1957-1969

Following the end of World War Two, Germans who had lived under and collaborated with the Nazis continued to live in West Germany. Despite the fact that the Nazi past became a taboo topic in West German public discourse, several individuals found themselves the targets of public accusations regarding their actions during the Nazi era. At stake for those accused was their honor. My paper examines court cases initiated by individuals who hoped public prosecutors would file criminal defamation charges on their behalf. In making the decision to pursue a criminal defamation suit, public prosecutors weighed issues such as whether the case had public interest and whether the accusations were indeed true. As a result, public prosecutors served as gatekeepers in another side to the legal battles fought over the Nazi past in postwar Germany. Despite historiographical agreement that the West German legal system made minimal efforts to pursue and convict Nazi criminals, my research reveals that public prosecutors were unprepared to publicly ally themselves with accused former Nazis, unless that accused former Nazi represented state honor.

Zhen Wang
Chemistry
Protein Motions in Thymidylate Synthase Catalyzed Reactions: Experiments and Theories

Thymidylate synthase (TSase) is involved in the de novo DNA biosynthesis and hence is a target for many antibiotic and anti-cancer drugs. In order to direct those drug designs, we must understand the mechanism of TSase, which requires an integration of experimental methods and theoretical approaches. TSase catalyzes a complex reaction that includes two important C-H bond cleavages: a rate-limiting C-H-C hydride transfer and a non-rate-limiting C-H-O proton transfer. We have developed both experimental and theoretical methods to investigate the nature of both C-H cleavages, primarily by using temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. Our experimental data revealed different temperature-dependence of KIEs on these two steps, indicating different cleaving mechanisms of the two C-H bonds. Our QM/MM calculations provide atom-level insights into the different mechanisms of the hydride transfer and proton transfer steps, and suggest that protein motions play a critical role in both C-H bond cleavages. Furthermore, our calculations indicate that the proton transfers by a different mechanism than the conventionally proposed one. The new mechanism proposes a new reaction intermediate that can be verified by future experiments, and may provide a novel direction for drug designs that target TSase.

Kehla West
Urban and Regional Planning
Zoning, Total Car Ratios, and Housing – A study of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana

The purpose of this report is to analyze the feasibility and political likelihood of implementing minor residential zoning changes in Indianapolis, Indiana. More specifically, it would benefit the downtown area of Indianapolis if the Total Car Ratio were reduced or eliminated for apartment buildings and if the city instituted a policy of encouraging the decoupling of parking from housing. This would create an incentive for builders to create lower-cost small-unit housing for young professionals and the elderly, two populations which are being underserved in this part of the city.

Rae Winkelstein-Duveneck
Creative Writing
Wide Thaw

This will be a combined poetry reading in which the readers respond to one another.

Michael Winslow
American Studies
Immaterial Goods: Antitrust Law, Theater, and the Cultural Redefinition of Commerce

This paper examines the application of antitrust law to the sphere of entertainment and culture, comparing film and theater in the first half of the twentieth century. I argue that the record left by courts grappling over whether film and theater could be considered “commerce” reveals the growth of an economy based in information. While in early cases theater was deemed not to fit within the scope of antitrust law because it could not be classified as interstate commerce, by the end of World War II, the increasing number of media industries based in intangible flows of information led to a U.S. Supreme Court decision that classified the theater as commerce. In the process, this shift reveals the ways in which the growth of an economic sector centered around mass media had led to a fundamentally altered definition of the marketplace and its terms. In addition to showing important developments in American law and culture, this historical trajectory reveals an increasingly consumer-oriented relationship of Americans to art and culture.

Sojeong Yoon
Communication Sciences and Disorders
The Pink Elephant Project: An Early Language Education Program

One of the central challenges in education is the development of early childhood education programs to offset the potential impact an intellectually impoverished environment might have on children. In a striking study of vocabulary use in families of varying socio-economic status (Hart & Risley, 1995), the amount of speech directed to children from impoverished families was 32 million words fewer than children from wealthy families, and it directly mirrored children’s small vocabulary attainment. Over the first three years of life, children from impoverished families learned around 500 words while children from wealthy families learned about 1,100 words, and this huge vocabulary gap is correlated with children’s later vocabulary growth rate, use, as well as IQ test scores.
Despite the general consensus on the benefit of early childhood education programs (e.g. Head Start), previous investigations have not addressed “which skills” are critical in early childhood (Gormley, 2011). Based on findings in Communication Sciences, the Pink Elephant Project emphasizes early language education that improves school readiness. This program provides evidence-based practices in Communication throughout the context of play and parent teaching.

Hart, B., and Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Brookes Publishing
Gormley, W. T. (2011). From Science to Policy in Early Childhood Education. Science 333, 978-981

Rachel Yucuis
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Determination of Urban, Transition, and Rural Concentrations of Three Cyclic Siloxanes in Air Using a Low-Volume Active Sampling Method

The organosilicon compounds octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dododecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) are widely used in household goods and personal care products. Due to their prevalence and chemical behavior, cyclic siloxanes have been targeted for study as possible persistent organic pollutants.  We have applied an active method to collect airborne siloxanes in urban and rural environments and analyzed the samples using the internal standard method (internal standard tetrakis trimethyl-siloxysilane, M4Q) and gas chromatography with electronic impact mass detection.   Quality assurance metrics included sample replicates, field and laboratory blanks, laboratory background measurements, sampling media breakthrough, instrument linearity, and spike recoveries.   The method was applied onboard the EPA R/V Lake Guardian, in urban Chicago, and in rural and suburban Iowa.  We have found siloxanes to be present in every environment tested with an increase in concentration with population density.  The average concentrations of sum siloxanes (D4+D5+D6) in the rural, suburban, and urban environments are 31, 71, and 290 ng m-3 respectively. A diurnal trend is apparent in the results from Chicago, with siloxane concentrations approximately two times greater at night than during the day.

Yan Zhang
Genetics
Physcial and genetic interaction between Cep290 and other BBS proteins

SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/merf4181/Downloads/abstract-1.doc @font-face { font-family: "Times New Roman"; }@font-face { font-family: "宋体"; }@font-face { font-family: "Calibri"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: Calibri; }table.MsoNormalTable { font-size: 10pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }
Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal-recessive inherited ciliopathy generally associated with retinal degeneration and obesity, but the underlying mechanism remains hypothetical. So far, there are 14 BBS genes found. Seven BBS proteins form a complex, called BBSome, and three other proteins function as chaperons to help the formation of BBSome. However, the interaction or function of other BBS proteins remains to be investigated. Recent studies have shown that mutation of a novel centrosomal protein Cep290, also called NPHP6 and BBS14, results in BBS and other ciliopathies, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we examined the BBS-related function of Cep290 and interaction between Cep290 and other BBS proteins. Here, we demonstrated that Cep290 interacts with BBS4 and BBS9, which are the components of BBSome. Besides, we found that BBSome is required for correct localization of Cep290 in RPE Cells. Also, Cep290 is mislocalized in retina in BBS1 KI mice, which has a knock in mutation in BBS1 and results in abnormal function of BBS1. Moreover, the body weight and leptin level of BBS4 +/- Cep290 +/- mice are higher than those single heterozygotes. Similar results were also found when BBS4 +/- Cep290 -/- mice were compared to BBS4 +/+ Cep290 -/- mice. BBS4 +/- Cep290 +/- mice also show leptin resistance compared to the single heterozygote. These data strongly suggest that there is physical and genetic interaction between Cep290 and BBSome.

Yan Zhang
Genetics
Interaction between CEP290 and BBSome genes is required for mediating cilia function in retina

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogenous autosomal recessive inherited disorder with clinical features that include retinal degeneration, obesity and developmental anomalies. We tried to find the mechanism behind BBS and figureed out the interactions between BBS genes.