James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2014

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Thelma Abeysinghe
Active Site Mutation and Altered Chemical Steps in the Mechanism of Thymidylate Synthase

Thymidylate synthase (TSase) catalyzes the de novo biosynthesis of the DNA building block thymidine, 2’–deoxythymidine 5’–monophosphate (dTMP) in most eukaryotes including human.
Histidine at 147 position of TSase controls a network of H-bonds that acts as the general acid/base in the protonation/deprotonation of the C4 carbonyl during the catalytic cycle and its 3.6 Å away from the O4 of the dUMP in the crystal structure of the active site of wild type (WT) Escherichia coli (ec) TSase (PDB entry 2KCE).  More interestingly, TSase from Bacillus subtilis (bs) has a valine at the position 147 and even more active than ecTSase. Therefore, H to V conversion and its effect on the nature of the H-transfers, in contrast to the barely active H147V ecTSase, would address the differences between the two proposed elimination steps.
The kinetic Isotope affects (KIEs) and steady-state kinetics of H147V mutant were measured. The reaction rate was slower by 15 fold. Interestingly, the mutant shows a steeper temperature dependence of the KIEs for hydride transfer step suggesting a role for H147 involving the enolate formation at O4 of dUMP supporting traditional mechanism of TSase. Also the KIEs for proton transfer step were inverse suggesting the H147V mutation mostly affects a step between the proton transfer and the hydride transfer.

Thelma Abeysinghe
Kinetic Isotope Effects and Structural Studies of Thymidylate Synthase

Thelma Abeysinghe and Amnon Kohen

Department of Chemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

The relationship between the protein motions, structure and catalytic activity is of contemporary interest in enzymology. Here, a combination of various techniques, including temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and other kinetic studies of both light and heavy enzymes was used in studying the catalytic mechanism of thymidylate synthase (TSase). TSase catalyzes the de novo biosynthesis of the DNA building block thymidine, 2’–deoxythymidine 5’–monophosphate (dTMP) in most organisms. It is a good model enzyme to study effects of protein vibrations that are likely to be altered by isotopically heavy enzyme. Our recent studies of a structurally identical but dynamically altered remote mutant of Escherichia Coli (ec)TSase, Y209W, showed that none of the chemical steps under study in this investigation were altered significantly [Wang, Z., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2012) 134, 17722-17730]. However, a comparison of observed KIEs to their intrinsic values indicated that other kinetic steps were dramatically affected, which together with anisotropic B-factors from X-ray crystallography reveal the importance of long-range dynamics of the enzymatic complex and its catalytic function. Additionally, a conserved histidine (H147 of ecTSase) appears to coordinate the hydrogen bonding network in the active site and has been proposed to play a major role in catalysis. In contrast to the WT and most other TSase mutants, the intrinsic KIEs of H147V mutant at physiological temperatures were temperature-dependent. These findings suggest that this histidine plays a major role in the hydride transfer step in ecTSase, supporting mechanisms that involve charge accumulation at carbonyl 4. Comparative studies of light vs. heavy WT ecTSase are used to elucidate the different effects of the vibrationally altered heavy enzyme on different kinetic steps along the catalytic cascade.

Hema Achanta
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Distributed Control Law for Optimum Sensor Placement

Authors: Hema Achanta, Soura Dasgupta, Raghuraman Mudumbai
The design of distributed algorithms for self organization in energy efficient networks with low communication overheads has gained considerable amount of research attention in the recent past. In this talk, I present the design and analysis of a distributed algorithm that guides the motion of the sensors in a network to form a particular network topology on the circumference of a circle. Each sensor communicates with one nearest neighbor in the clockwise direction and one in the ccounter clockwise direction. Our algorithm is based on gradient descent with an addition of a repulsion factor that prevents collisions between sensors. The surprising result is that our algorithm always reaches the global minimum (equal angular separations between all the sensor nodes) provided the algorithm is initialized by a set of distinct angular positions. I will present the simulation results for our algorithm.

Hema Achanta
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Distributed Control Law for Optimum Sensor Placement

The design of distributed algorithms for self organization in energy efficient networks with low communication overheads has gained considerable amount of research attention in the recent past. In this talk, I present the design and analysis of a distributed algorithm that guides the motion of the sensors in a network to form a particular network topology on the circumference of a circle. Each sensor communicates with one nearest neighbor in the clockwise direction and one in the ccounter clockwise direction. Our algorithm is based on gradient descent with an addition of a repulsion factor that prevents collisions between sensors. The surprising result is that our algorithm always reaches the global minimum (equal angular separations between all the sensor nodes) provided the algorithm is initialized by a set of distinct angular positions. I will present the simulation results for our algorithm.

Ryan Adam
Biomedical Engineering
Air Trapping Occurs Prior to the Onset of Airway Infection and Inflammation in Pigs with Cystic Fibrosis

Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis.  These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, and inflammation.  Objective: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present prior to the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis.  Methods: At birth, cystic fibrosis pigs lack airway infection and inflammation.  Therefore, we used newborn wild-type and cystic fibrosis pigs to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory x-ray computed tomography scans.  Micro-computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes.  Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator.  Results: At birth, cystic fibrosis pigs exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type pigs (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively).  Moreover, newborn cystic fibrosis pigls had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways.  Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn cystic fibrosis pigs, prior to the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation, indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development.  Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be due to congenital airway abnormalities.

Katelin Ahlers, Bahri Karacay, Daniel Bonthius, Michael Dailey
Rapid microglial activation and phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons following acute alcohol exposure in developing mouse brain

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with the death of many brain cells, leading to devastating life-long effects on the FAS child. Recent evidence suggests that the brain’s resident immune cells, called microglia (MG), may help clear dead cells and restore the FAS brain environment.  However, MG may also exacerbate FAS by releasing inflammatory factors, which transition from neuro-protective to -toxic roles when produced in excess.  Therefore, MG responses must be characterized in FAS in order to develop therapies that promote positive MG function.  My experiments used a mouse model of FAS in which neonatal mice (equivalent to third fetal trimester) are injected with alcohol.  Brain tissues were collected 12 hrs to 4 days later to assess MG activation and phagocytosis.  Also, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to construct a temporal profile of MG activation and inflammatory gene expression.  My data demonstrate that ethanol-induced cell death causes MG to undergo morphological and molecular activation, following which they migrate to regions of cell death, engulf dead cells, and produce inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF).  When dead cells are cleared, MG redistribute and return to a resting state.  Future studies will explore the hypothesis that TNF regulates these MG functions following alcohol-induced brain injury.

Kawther Ahmed
Pharmacy (PhD)
Assembly and Characterization of a Cell-particle Hybrid as a Potential Cancer Vaccine

      Cancer vaccines represent a promising treatment modality for a world-wide health problem. Cancer vaccines involve the administration of a tumor antigen along with an adjuvant. Whole cell tumor vaccines have shown promise in preclinical and clinical settings. This study involves the use of the avidin-biotin linkage to manufacture an irradiated tumor cell-particle hybrid as a prospective cancer vaccine where the tumor cell can be transduced to secrete immunostimulatory cytokine (e.g. GM-CSF) and the particles can be loaded with an adjuvant (e.g. CpG). The study represents a “proof of concept” of the possibility of manufacturing the proposed cancer vaccine.
      Polymeric poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Prepared particles were coated with streptavidin using EDC/NHS chemistry. Murine melanoma cells, B16.F10, were biotinylated indirectly using biotin-antibodies. Particles were assembled to cells under specific incubation conditions using two particle:cell ratios and subsequently irradiated. Successful cell-particle binding was confirmed by flow cytometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell-particle hybrids were also assembled using the murine prostatic cancer cell line, RM11, to demonstrate the generality of the method adopted in this study.  
     Particles were successfully coated with streptavidin. Cell-particle hybrids were successfylly assembled for both cell line tested with the extent of binding increasing as the particle:cell ratio increased. The assembled hybrid was intact subsequent to irradiation. The particles were localized on the cell surface as shown by microscopy images.
       The assembled hybrids have the potential of a prospective cancer vaccine that delivers tumor antigens (endogenous to the tumor cell) and an immunoadjuvant (encapsulated in the particles) to the same antigen presenting cell. 

Vinti Ahuja
Dental Public Health
Esthetic Perceptions and Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life in Adolescents

Objectives: Esthetic perceptions of facial appearance can impact an individual’s emotional and social well- being. The aim of this analysis was to compare responses to general questions about global aspects of appearance of teeth of 17-year olds (i.e., tooth color, shape, and appearance) vs. specific questions pertaining to emotional and social well-being. In addition, the Oral Health- Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) responses of adolescents and their parents were compared.
Methods: 17-year-olds in the Iowa Fluoride Study (n=394) and an accompanying parent completed separate questionnaires concerning the adolescents OHRQoL. They also reported on their satisfaction with the color, shape, and overall appearance of the adolescent’s teeth. Descriptive- statistics, Kendall’s-Tau, and Wilcoxon-Sign-rank tests were used to assess factors related to satisfaction.
Results: Strongest correlations were found between adolescent’s ‘satisfaction with appearance of teeth’ and: ‘concern about what other people think’(Τb=0.47),‘been upset’(Τb=0.37),‘felt shy/embarrassed’ (Τb=0.36,all p<0.0001). Adolescents reported less favorable scores for OHRQoL compared to parents for all four domains and the global rating question (all p<0.0001).
Conclusion: Adolescents tend to be more critical of their facial appearance compared to their parents. Lower satisfaction with tooth appearance and color may impact the emotional well-being of adolescents.

Michele Aichele
Illustriousness, Conceit, the Musical Profession, and Madrigals: Madalena Casulana and her 'Secondo libro de madrigali à Quattro voci'

Madalena Casulana, (c. 1540–c. 1590) an Italian madrigal composer, is the first known woman to have published her compositions. Using how Casulana dedicated her Secondo libro de madrigali à Quattro voci and the construction of this book of madrigals, this paper examines how Casulana navigated her place as a composer in the overwhelmingly masculine world of composition during the sixteenth century. Casulana’s dedication of her first book of madrigals to prominent female patron Isabella de Medici passionately declares her ability to compose alongside men. Casulana changes tactics with the dedication of the second book, which is dedicated to a male patron. The dedication makes no mention of the “conceited error of men” and is more subtle than the first. While she humbly writes that her madrigals “are not as excellent,” she also says they are “virtuous works” similar to her patron’s “illustrious character.” This paper also looks at the musical settings and texts Casulana included in her second book, demonstrating that Casulana was aware of the cultural and musical trends of her time. Through this analysis, we can understand how Casulana negotiated publishing her compositions in the gendered society of sixteenth-century Italy, thus opening the door for later composers such as Francesca Caccini and Barbara Strozzi.

Wisam Al-Bakri
Pharmacy (PhD)
Characterization of Atrazine Transport and Effects on Bovine Nasal Tissues

The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used pesticides in United States. Studies have reported that exposure to ATZ causes dopaminergic toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction; these cellular changes have been linked to an increase in the incidence of Parkinson’s disease. The objective of this study is to characterize ATZ effects on the respiratory and olfactory mucosae with specific attention to the potential for ATZ transfer to the brain via the olfactory system. Uptake of ATZ was investigated across excised nasal mucosal tissues equilibrated in Krebs’s buffer (KRB) or in a co-solvent system containing propylene glycol (PG), similar to the commercial herbicide product. Active uptake pathways were probed using 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a metabolic inhibitor. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess the effects of ATZ exposure on the tissues. ATZ was found to be transported across the nasal tissues in a manner consistent with passive diffusion, and 2,4-DNP did not reduce the overall uptake of ATZ. Microscopy results showed erosion of the epithelial surface following exposure to ATZ-PG-KRB when compared to control and ATZ -KRB. These results suggest a negative effect of the ATZ co-solvent formulations on nasal tissues with the potential for increased systemic and CNS exposure.

Manar Al-Ghabeish
Pharmacy (PhD)
Expression of Drug Transporters in the Nasal Mucosa of Animal Models

Mice and rats are commonly used to investigate nasal drug absorption, yet their small nasal cavities limit the use of their use for in-vitro investigations. Bovine tissue explants have been used to investigate drug transport through the nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosae, yet limited information is available regarding the similarities and differences among these various animal models compared to humans. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of drug transporters in the nasal mucosa of various species. The drug transporters of interest include the nucleoside transporters, cationic transporters, anionic transporters, peptide transporters, and multidrug resistance proteins. DNA microarray data from nasal mucosal samples from humans, rats and mice were obtained from GenBank. Both DNA microarray analysis and RT-PCR were obtained from bovine nasal explants. While slight differences in transporter expression profiles were observed between species, overall, all three animal species commonly used as models in nasal drug delivery research show similar patterns of transporter expression. The expression profiles are also similar to humans, suggesting that results obtained using animal models can be readily translated to humans.

Stephanie Alberico
Behavioral Treatment of Rotational Behavior in the Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

In the present study, hemi-parkinsonian rats (n=8) were produced using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). After recovery, subjects were tested for a rotational bias (clockwise or counter clockwise) following d-amphetamine administration (1.78 mg/kg). After bias testing, subjects underwent 17-one hour sessions of behavioral acquisition and maintenance, with positive reinforcement, of full rotations (360° turns) to the side of the observed bias. A successive approximation program was implemented until the rotational behavior was learned. Once the behavior was acquired, it was maintained under a continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule. Rats were deprived of water between 24 and 35 hours prior to each training session. Following the 17 sessions, the number of rotations was observed under three conditions: CRF without d-amphetamine, CRF and low dose d-amphetamine (0.56 mg/kg), and d-amphetamine (1.78 mg/kg) alone. It was found that the combination of CRF and low dose d-amphetamine test produced significantly more correct responses than either the CRF test or the d-amphetamine (1.78mg/kg) test alone, F(2,12) = 8.4, p < 0.05. The results of this study, along with other research, suggest that behavioral modification could become a major component in treatment for disorders or diseases such as PD and could be effective in reducing doses of particular drug treatments.

Sarah Alexander
Library and Information Science
Where the Queer Things Are: Library Services to LGBTQ Youth

In an age of shrinking budgets, tough decisions and political tensions, libraries must have a strong justification for LGBTQ youth services that is grounded in credible research. This paper examines not only what resources libraries can provide to young LGBTQ information seekers and how to best engage with this community, but also the question of why these services are essential in a world that is still unsafe for far too many queer identified youth. Examples of successful library programs are presented, as well as suggestions for the future and additional resources available. Literacy and education theory are used as a foundation for the examination of the impact literacy has on the development of self through the formation of personal identity, the importance of cultural allies, and the opportunity for action. These theories are presented independently and then applied specifically to the LGBTQ youth community. Though comparatively more research has being conducted in the last five years on the challenges facing the LGBTQ community, considerably more research is needed to ensure that the needs of LGBTQ youth are addressed. Hopefully, the arguments and research presented in his paper can be used by libraries to defend their position on the inclusion of services specifically for the LGBTQ youth community. 

Matthew Ampleman
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Patterns of Indicator Use by Federal Agencies in a Local Hazardous Waste Management Scenario, East Chicago, Indiana

Sustainability indicators constitute a promising means of informing local decision-makers of the salient elements of complex environmental and economic problems. However, most indicator frameworks developed by third parties have been underused by decision-makers at most scales, and few studies have examined the existing capacity of governing authorities to use indicators. This study analyzes how pre-existing indicators frameworks have been used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in a complex waste management scenario in East Chicago, Indiana. In evaluating options for the removal of sediment from an economically important canal, USACE used a decision-analysis framework that incorporated some relevant indicators but lacked rigor in its evaluation of those indicators. Of the four major decisions that were accompanied by alternatives analyses, three of them were largely determined by USACE’s narrow federal responsibilities to find the lowest cost feasible option that maintained navigational depths of the canal. Despite these limitations, USACE’s actions taken under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) created opportunities for community engagement and the development of decision-making networks among authorities. It is important to recognize these secondary benefits when evaluating the efficacy of indicator frameworks used by federal agencies and other entities.

Jennifer Andersen
School Psychology
Comparing the Use of an iPad App and Paper Picture Schedules during Vocational Work Routines for a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder

The use of picture schedules has been shown to increase on-task and on-schedule activities in students with disabilities (Spriggs, Gast, & Ayres, 2007). One recent study highlighted that while the use of visual schedules increased on-task behaviors in all student participants, preferences of individual students can lead to higher or lower outcomes depending on the modality chosen (Cihak, 2011).  In this assessment, an alternating treatments design was implemented with one student diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder using two differing visual schedule modalities (a teacher-made paper picture schedule and a visual scheduling app for the iPad).  Results discussed include which modality supported higher rates of independence of a vocational work task, as well as the student’s personal modality preference.

Rachel Anderson
Adrenocortical Status Predicts Age-Related Deficits in Prefrontal Structural Plasticity and Working Memory

Aging is associated with a gradual and steady decline in cognitive abilities, although considerable variability exists throughout the population. Previous work has linked individual differences in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and glucocorticoid secretion with age-related alterations in hippocampal dependent function, however the idea that these endocrine differences may predict vulnerability to other types of cognitive processes has largely been ignored. In the present study we interrogated the relationship between variations in HPA function in aging with prefrontal cortical structure and function. Aged (20 month-old) rats that underwent repeated blood sampling across a 24-hour period generally showed elevated AM and PM levels of corticosterone levels compared with 3 month-old rats, although variability was evident across both groups. Although aging was marked by a significant loss of dendritic spines and morphologic alterations in mPFC neurons, animals bearing elevated HPA output exclusively accounted for group differences.  In a separate experiment, adrenocortically characterized young and aged rats were tested on a spatial working memory task that is dependent on prefrontal cortex function. Impairments in performance resulted from an interaction between aging and increased HPA activity. These data suggest that age-related structural plasticity in mPFC and impairments in working memory may be largely accounted for by elevations in adrenocortical activity, and define a set of synaptic features that may help explain individual differences in cognitive functional capacity in aging.

Chaitra Anil Kumar
Association between dental status and time-to-death among nursing home residents in Eastern Iowa

In a retrospective cohort study of 586 residents of nursing homes in Eastern Iowa, the relationship between dental status and time-to-death was evaluated. Time-to-death is defined as the time period from the date of screening to date of death. Health conditions of the patient at screening were recorded and no interventions were done. Two years after the screenings, a follow up was done. Of the 586 residents screened, there had been 372 deaths. All residents screened were classified into 6 different groups based on the presence/absence of teeth and presence/absence of dentures. The highest percentage of deaths occurred in residents classified as having ‘no dentures and no teeth.’ Time-to-death in this group of residents was also the shortest with 73% of deaths occurring less than a year after screening.

Bryan Asbury
Communication Studies

This solo performance explores the ways in which personal identities are enhanced, challenged, accepted, and threatened in the institution and processes of education. The performance begins with early experiences of the performer through graduate school and explores teaching and learning.

Bryan Asbury
Communication Studies
Living Backstage: Autoethnographic Lessons Learned as Miss Gay Illinois USofA

This paper responds to the body of literature on drag as a gay cultural performance using the author's personal experiences as Miss Gay Illinois USofA 2004 as evidence for an alternative interpretation for these performances. Ultimately, this paper identifies that the drag performance is as much a personal endeavor as it is a cultural artifact. By ignoring the lives of those performing in drag venues, previous research has underestimated the values and costs of performing.

Asih Asikin-Garmager
Educational Policy and Leadership
Implementing Distributed Leadership in K-12 Education to Create a Sustainable Improvement

The passing of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) in 2001 has changed the landscape of the K-12 education system in the United States.  The Act, which focuses on the output of education, holds schools accountable on the achievement of their students through high-stakes standardized testing.  One unintended consequence of this reform is in the shift of the focus of education, from the teaching and learning process to test scores.  More often than not, this results in teachers and school leaders finding quick fixes to improve students’ test scores, such as by teaching to the test.  This presentation explores the idea of implementing distributed leadership to create a sustainable and meaningful improvement on both students’ test scores and the quality of instruction.  Distributed leadership is based on the premise that school leaders, teachers, and administrators are working together to create improved instructional practices that allow teachers to personalize instruction to the needs of their students.  By applying this framework of distributed leadership, educators can not only respond to the demand of NCLB but also keep the integrity of school as a place for students to explore and gain the knowledge they will need to contribute to their community.    

Tejasi Avasare
Dental Public Health
Poject Sealed

Allamakee County is the county on the north-east corner of Iowa. The county of total population 14330 is underserved from the dental care perspective. It does not have any community health center and has only four private dentists. Its poverty rate is 22.3% which is higher than that of the state of Iowa. There are almost 1400 Allamakee children enrolled in Medicaid with no dentist to go to for their dental care. Poor dental health was noticed by the school nurses, and the College of Dentistry was approached by the Allamakee County Board of Health.  In response to that request, The College of Dentistry has designed clinical outreach activities for dental students and also collaborated with the College of Education for dental career development of school children of grades first-second and sixth-seventh. However both the outreach and dental career development components do not have evaluation component. I plan to design an evaluation component for both dental care-providers i.e. the dental students, and for the children who participate in career development component. The research questions are: 1) does clinical outreach activity in underserved communities during the dental school years help in changing the attitude toward practicing in similar setting after completion of dental education? 2) is there any change in the perception of dentistry as a career for children aged six to eight years and twelve to fourteen years before and after attending the career development seminar?

Rakesh Awasthi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Comparing THC Pharmacokinetics in Occasional and Chronic Marijuana Users

The increasing use of “medical marijuana” is associated with the need to understand the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of Δ9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive substance in marijuana.   The aim of this investigation is to identify potential THC pharmacokinetic (PK) differences between occasional and chronic users of marijuana. The bioavailability of THC from smoked marijuana appears to be highly variable, but this may be heavily influenced by user-controlled parameters such as the frequency and depth of inhalation. Such erratic, uncontrolled “dosing” regimens can present a challenge to perform accurate PK/PD analyses.  Previous modeling approaches used a single bolus administration of THC as the input, since THC reaches the systemic circulation rapidly following smoking. A preliminary, subset analysis of the THC plasma concentrations measured in subjects enrolled in a controlled marijuana smoking trial indicate that the use of a rapid, multiple bolus input model accurately describes the THC concentrations for both occasional and chronic users. Analysis of the PK results derived from IV literature data and for this subset of subjects suggests that there are no significant PK differences between occasional and chronic marijuana smokers for THC reaching the systemic circulation.  

Rakesh Awasthi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Prediction of THC Plasma and Brain Concentrations following Marijuana Administration: Approach and Challenges

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Increasing interest in the use of “medical marijuana” and the movement towards legalization of the recreational use of marijuana create an increased need to better understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this complex agent. Δ9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive substance in marijuana, has effects on a number of organs, including the cardiovascular system and the brain. THC, being highly lipophilic, distributes rapidly into vascularized tissues resulting in rapid onset of its pharmacologic and psychoactive effects. In order to predict drug concentrations in the brain, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) was developed using discrete major organs/tissue compartments with drug input and removal via the circulatory system. The model was initially parameterized based on data obtained from the intravenous administration of THC. The resulting simulations were used to predict brain THC concentrations, and the resulting peak concentration in the brain was observed to exceed that in the blood by at least four-fold. The brain THC concentrations were also considerably higher than the plasma concentrations at all times during 48 hour simulation, demonstrating the potential for longer-term psychoactive effects than would be predicted based on plasma THC concentrations. 

Yigit Aytac
Carrier Lifetime Measurements of Mid-wave Infrared InAs/InAsSb Superlattices

The ultrafast spectroscopic methods and the experiments using these methods to investigate dynamical processes of semiconductor systems are going to be discussed. More specifically, we present time-resolved differential transmission measurements using an electronically delayed pump-probe technique. The measurements of carrier recombination rates will be introduced for mid-wave infrared InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-2 superlattices (T2SLs). In this set of samples, by engineering the layer widths and antimony compositions a 16 K band-gap of ≈ 235 ± 10 meV was achieved for five unintentionally doped T2SLs. Shockley-Read-Hall, radiative and Auger recombination rates were determined by fitting a rate equation model to the density and temperature dependent data. Minority carrier lifetimes as long as 10 μs were measured. As a results, the minority-carrier and Auger lifetimes were observed to generally increase with increasing antimony content. However, the Auger recombination process was found to be more prominent in comparison to InAs/Ga(In)Sb T2SLs. 

Yigit Aytac
Carrier Lifetime Measurements of Mid-wave Infrared InAs/InAsSb Superlattices

The ultrafast spectroscopic methods and the experiments using these methods to investigate dynamical processes of semiconductor systems are going to be discussed. More specifically, we present time-resolved differential transmission measurements using an electronically delayed pump-probe technique. The measurements of carrier recombination rates will be introduced for mid-wave infrared InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-2 superlattices (T2SLs). In this set of samples, by engineering the layer widths and antimony compositions a 16 K band-gap of ≈ 235 ± 10 meV was achieved for five unintentionally doped T2SLs. Shockley-Read-Hall, radiative and Auger recombination rates were determined by fitting a rate equation model to the density and temperature dependent data. Minority carrier lifetimes as long as 10 μs were measured. As a results, the minority-carrier and Auger lifetimes were observed to generally increase with increasing antimony content. However, the Auger recombination process was found to be more prominent in comparison to InAs/Ga(In)Sb T2SLs. 

Catina Bacote
English-Nonfiction Writing
A Personal Narrative: Transforming Moral and Ethical Concerns into Art

The rate of violent crimes committed in the United States starts to rise in the 1980s and escalates at an alarming rate in poor urban areas.  By 1986, the murder rate has reached an unprecedented level in my hometown of New Haven, Connecticut. The local paper, the New Haven Register, reports that most of the homicides are tied to poverty and drugs.  The vast majority of the victims are African-American.  The population of New Haven is 130,000 and by 1989 there are more murders per capita than in Chicago, Los Angeles, or New York.       
The chaos happening in the rest of the city reaches the all-black housing projects I live in, Eastern Circle. It is a neighborhood with less than one hundred and fifty families, and in the span of four years, there are dozens of shootings and five murders. At the time, many policymakers dismiss the larger societal forces surrounding the violence in places like Eastern Circle by using the term “black on black violence.”  However, the violence is not inevitable, but is a result of political, economic, and social shifts in the country.  My personal essays have a very public dimension, but are ultimately an interrogation of how my family and our neighbors wrestle with a troubling and changing landscape.

Henry Baidoo-Williams
Electrical and Computer Engineering
On Sensors: Source Localization and Trajectory Tracking of Radioactive Sources

We present novel ideas on applications of sensor networks to localization and tracking of radioactive sources under some general conditions. We first consider the robust localization of radioactive sources by using their gamma-ray count at the smallest number of sensors needed to theoretically localize. We formulate a class of non-convex cost functions and consider their gradient descent optimization. We show that in N-dimensions, if there are exactly N +1 sensors and the source lies in their open convex hull, then this convex hull is devoid of false stationary points. We also show robust tracking of a source of radioactive material moving at a constant speed on a piecewise linear trajectory, with the speed known or unkown, usingcheap binary proximity sensors. We show that with probability 1, three sensors aresufficient to localize the 2D-trajectory of the source in the noise free case.

Na Mi Bang
Counselor Education and Supervision
The Content Analysis of Family Variables in Career Development

This presentation provides an opportunity to review and understand the impact of family variables on career development. Since understanding how the family affects vocational development decisions is a vital undertaking, exploring the influence of family on career development is required. In accordance with these needs, the presentation focuses on major themes and research trends in the literature regarding family influence on career trajectories. The researcher of this presentation examined studies conducted in relation to family variables and career development. This presentation provides the research results of analyzing publication trends, research, design, contents, leading authors, institutions, and journals. This presentation will benefit educators and counselors in understanding how family issues influence their clients so that they are able to provide more effective career counseling.

Mohammad Bataineh
Biomedical Engineering
Artificial Neural Network-Based Prediction of Human Posture

The use of an artificial neural network (ANN) in many practical complicated problems encourages its implementation in the digital human modeling (DHM) world. DHM problems are complicated and need powerful tools like ANN to provide acceptable solutions. Human posture prediction is one of the DHM fields that recently have been studied thoroughly.
This work focuses on using a general regression neural network (GRNN) for human posture prediction. This type of ANN has advantages over other types when incorporated in DHM problems like posture prediction. In addition, a new heuristic approach is presented in this study to determine the GRNN parameters that lead to the best performance and prediction capability. The results are promising; a high success rate is obtained for predicting 41 outputs, which represent the upper body degrees of freedom (DOF) of a human model. This work initiates future focus on embedding GRNN to generalize human posture prediction to be in a task-based manner.

Eddie Bauer

this is a test..

Bhanu Bejgum
Pharmacy (PhD)
Uptake and Transport Pathways for Ultrafine Nanoparticles (Quantum Dots) in the Nasal Mucosa

A wide variety of ultrafine nanoparticles (< 20 nm), including quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes, and viruses, have been shown to translocate across the nasal mucosa into the brain and the systemic circulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake and translocation mechanisms of QDs across nasal olfactory and respiratory tissue explants. The transport of QDs was evaluated by measuring the concentration of the QDs within the tissues using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Transport studies revealed that the uptake into the olfactory mucosa was ~2.5 fold higher compared to QDs uptake into the respiratory mucosa. Confocal visualization showed accumulation of QDs in the submucosal regions of both the respiratory and olfactory tissues.
Use of specific endocytosis inhibitors showed that the uptake of ultrafine nanoparticles in the respiratory nasal mucosa involved multiple pathways, including clathrin- mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis along with macropinocytosis. In comparison, additional energy-independent pathways, along with clatrhin-mediated endocytosis were observed in the olfactory mucosa.
These findings provide a fundamental understanding of ultrafine nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in the nasal mucosa and suggest that nanoparticulate delivery systems may be able to enhance material transfer across the nasal mucosa. 

Bhanu Bejgum
Pharmacy (PhD)
Uptake of Quantum Dots across Nasal Mucosa

The applications of nanotechnology in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, automobile, and electronic industries have expanded rapidly during the past decade. This increase in “nano” utilization also carries an increased risk of human exposure to free nanoparticles, including the inhalation of industrially produced airborne nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake of quantum dots (QDs, diameter < 20 nm) in the nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa. The uptake and transport of QDs was evaluated by measuring the concentration of the QDs in bovine nasal tissue explants. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method was used to quantify the cadmium component of the QDs, and this method showed good linearity over the range of 0.002 mg/mL to 0.1 mg/mL. Transport studies showed that 85 - 90% the starting concentration was taken up by the tissues within 120 min. surprisingly, the transfer of the QDs across the full thickness of the tissue was negligible. Confocal and transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the QDs were present in high concentrations in the submucosal region of both respiratory and olfactory tissues, and  this suggests that exposure to inhaled QDs may result in accumulation in the nasal tissue. 

Amy Belfi
Damage to the insula is associated with abnormal interpersonal trust

Reciprocal trust is a crucial component of cooperative, mutually beneficial relationships. Previous research has suggested that the insula may be an important structure involved in judging and expressing interpersonal trust. Here, we investigate the role of the insula in reciprocal trust during the Trust Game (TG), an interpersonal economic exchange.  We found that neurologically normal adults reciprocate trust in kind, i.e., they increase trust in response to increases from their partners, and decrease trust in response to decreases. In contrast, patients with damage to the insula displayed abnormal expressions of trust, both by behaving benevolently (expressing misplaced trust) and malevolently (violating trust). These findings suggest that the insula is necessary for expressing normal interpersonal trust.

Amy Belfi
Impaired naming of famous musical melodies is associated with left temporal polar damage

Previous research has shown that damage to the left temporal pole (LTP) is associated with impaired retrieval of words for unique entities, including names of famous people (Damasio et al., 1996) and landmarks (Tranel, 2006). Famous musical melodies are similar to famous people and landmarks in that they are unique entities associated with a specific name. However, it is not known whether retrieving names for famous melodies is associated with the LTP. In, the context of the theoretical framework positing that the LTP is specialized for proper name retrieval (Damasio et al., 2004), we predicted that damage to the LTP would be associated with impaired retrieval of names for famous musical melodies (but would not affect recognition).
A Melody Naming Test was administered to patients with LTP damage, brain damaged comparison (BDC) patients, and normal comparison participants (NC). This test included various well known melodies (e.g., “Pop Goes the Weasel”). After hearing each melody, participants were asked to rate their familiarity with the melody and identify it by name. LTP patients named significantly fewer melodies (M = 62%) than BDC (M = 79%, p = .03) and NC participants (M = 81%, p = .02). This study supports the theoretical notion that LTP is important for retrieving proper names for unique concepts, including famous musical melodies. 

Benjamin Berkowitz
Biomedical Engineering
A Novel Method for Automated Cerebral Aneurysm Morphological Evaluation

Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a major cause of death and permanent disability. Rupture rate, however, is low; therefore, a physician must weigh the risk of rupture against treatment risk. In order to help physicians determine the rupture risk of any particular case, studies have previously explored morphology as an indicator for mechanical and hemodynamic characteristics of rupture-prone aneurysms. Morphological characteristics of the aneurysms in these studies are often quantified with morphometric indices, or normalized measures of specific geometric traits. This study introduces several novel morphometric indices. 

Laurena Bernabo
Communication Studies
What in the World is a Gleek? Adapting Glee for Italian Audiences

Glee is notorious not just for its unique mixing of various genres, including musical and public service announcement, but for its depiction of diverse representations of gender and sexuality.  When Glee is aired around the globe, the program is accompanied by promotional materials that shape the ways in which Glee is received by heterogeneous audiences. Some of these paratexts are adapted from American commercials, while others are original creations of the importing country. This study seeks to examine the ways in which Italian television creates and adapts promotional materials for Glee that alter the original construction of the series. It finds that conflict between hegemonic and subversive/resistant constructions of gender and sexuality are largely erased. Glee is instead introduced and promoted as a generic teen program, largely stripped of social significance, and much of the emphasis falls on the show's more linguistically playful side. Future studies should interrogate the role of American producers and creative teams in promoting particular articulations of reinterpreted American programming abroad.

Youwei Bi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of depot testosterone cypionate in healthy male subjects

The illegal use of testosterone cypionate (TC) and other anabolic steroids by athletes to gain unfair advantage in athletic competition has been occurring for over 50 years. The pharmacokinetics of high doses of IM formulations of testosterone such as TC in this population have not been well described. Therefore a population PK/PD model was developed to describe the change in testosterone concentrations, luteinizing hormone and spermatogenesis following long-term dosing of TC. 31 healthy male subjects received 14 weekly IM injections of TC and were randomized into a dose group of either 100, 250 or 500mg/week. Following the last TC injection up to 16 serum total and free testosterone samples were obtained during a 14-day washout. A linear one-compartment model best described the concentration-time profile of both total and free testosterone. The population mean estimates of clearance (CL/F) for total and free testosterone were 2.34*103 and 6.07*105 L/day respectively. Weight, albumin and serum creatinine were identified as significant covariates and decreased the inter-individual variability of the PK parameters. The estimated potency of total testosterone with respect to suppression of LH secretion was 7.19ng/ml. The suppression of endogenous testosterone, luteinizing hormone and spermatogenesis after TC injection was estimated to be greatest in the highest dose level. 

Jeremy Blair
Engendered Human Rights

My  preliminary thesis research is an examining of gender performance as related to issues of human rights. The work of Judith Butler provides evidential support for the idea that gender is a constructed identity affected by cultural norms and expectations. Our gender identity is a performative act that can adhere to expectations, resist “normativity,” or challenges traditional bilateral classification. People in the United States are currently embroiled in legislature calling for human rights equality for all gender identities, but this struggle is even more difficult in many other areas of the world. The case of Soto Vega, who was denied asylum as a homosexual because he appeared “too straight,” is an example of gender performance obstructing universal human rights. Can gender construction and embodiment provide equal human rights for everyone?

Jeremy Blair
Masculinity in Performance

My choreographic research explores the behavior people adopt to suit social expectations of masculine or feminine gender identities. By addressing the contradiction between tolerance of sexual identification and expectations of gender conformity I want to create a forum in which people reexamine their assumption of a standard gender identity and repressed individuals feel at liberty to express themselves fully. My thesis performance draws inspiration from Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, who struggles with his identity after transforming from a man into a woman, I am asking my diverse cast to share their struggles with gender conformity as we investigate, through movement, the performance of gender.

Shamra Boel-Studt
Social Work
The effect of trauma informed treatments on promoting safety, permanency, and well-being among children and families in the child welfare system.

Objective: Recognition of the extensive trauma histories common to children in the child welfare system has lead to widespread implementation of trauma-informed child welfare services. However, the fit and effectiveness of such approaches in child welfare have not been fully examined. The results of a systematic review of trauma informed treatment outcomes studies are presented to determine: 1) the effects of trauma-informed treatment with child welfare populations and, 2) if evidence supports that trauma-informed treatments can help children achieve the child welfare system objectives of safety, permanency, and well-being (DHHS, 2012). Method: Thirty-nine outcomes studies evaluating 12 trauma-informed treatments for children were reviewed. Results: Five out of 12 treatments have been evaluated using child welfare samples. Of those, only two were considered evidence supported (CEBC, 2013). None of the treatments directly focused on achieving permanency however, evidence suggests that trauma-focused treatments may be a promising approach for promoting safety and well-being among children in the child welfare system. Conclusion: Given the current scarcity of trauma-informed treatment outcomes studies using child welfare samples, firm conclusions cannot be drawn concerning its effectiveness with this population and, further, the extent to which such approaches will help achieve the primary child welfare system objectives.

Nicholas Borcherding
WNT5a/ROR1 Axis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Progression and Potential Therapy.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15-20% of total invasive breast cancer. These tumors are more aggressive and have a worse prognosis relative to other types of breast cancer, partially due to the lack of FDA-approved targeted therapy. Utilizing the RNA-seq data for invasive breast cancer specimens deposited in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found that the mRNA expression of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) decreased in the luminal A (n=231), luminal B (n=128) and Her2+ (n=58) subtypes relative to their corresponding normal controls. In contrast, ROR1 expression increased in all the pathologic stages of TNBC samples relative to normal specimens and ROR1 expression correlates positively with progression of TNBC (n=78). ROR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is involved in embryonic patterning, but lacks expression in adult tissues. We undertook a series of mechanistic studies to understand the role of ROR1 in TNBC and evaluate ROR1 as a potential target for TNBC therapy. Using complex bioinformatics analysis, we found that ROR1 expression correlates with signature genes of TNBC, cancer stem cells, and TGFb/SMAD pathways, which, in addition to recent observation of potential crosstalk between WNT5A/ROR1 signaling with TGFb/SMAD, prompted us to examine if this crosstalk contributes to progression TNBC. Indeed, we found that WNT5a promotes SMAD2/3 activation in a ROR1- and TGFbR1-dependent manner. Inhibiting ROR1 by neutralizing antibody shifted cancer stem cells of TNBC to a more luminal-type, indicating a critical of ROR1 in self-renewal of cancer stem cells. SNAI1/2, master regulators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), are potentially involved in the WNT5a/ROR1-mediated self-renewal of cancer stem cells. In agreement with these findings, TNBC cell lines with the highest surface expression of ROR1 had a greater cancer stem cell (CSC) population (CD24-CD44high). In collaboration with Speed Biosystems LLC, we developed an anti-ROR1 immunotoxin that specifically kills ROR1-high TNBC cells but not ROR1-low breast cancer cells or normal epithelial cells. Our findings suggest a role of WNT5a/ROR1 signaling in the progression of TNBC, through its role in potentiating TGFb/SMAD/SNAI2 pathway thus promoting EMT and stem-like phenotype. ROR1 represents a novel therapeutic target for TNBC, especially for late-stage diseases. 

Daniel Boscaljon
English-Literary Studies
Owed to a Dead Cat

Artist Statement
            Much of my work wrestles with issues of human finitude, the limits of our capacity to act and interact with the larger world that envelops us. Rather than responding with fear or frustration to our boundaries, my work pushes readers to confront and accept what is unknowable as a valuable gift. Although such mysteries might rip at us, it is through these tears that our humanity is able to emerge.
            The circumstances surrounding the death of my cat brought much of my research and writing concerning death and love together in a revelatory way. I had spent most of my life overlooking my relationship with my cat, not listening to the ways that this love presented a powerful performance of Plato, Augustine, Kierkegaard, Rilke, Marquez and Shakespeare. What I do not know about other humans remains an infinite and frightful task, but my relationship with Lucy allowed me to think more concretely about the peculiar choreography of love and the role that fear, vulnerability, guilt and death play in its dance.
            Most of my work embraces unknowability on a larger scale, and the larger canvas allows more complicated themes to develop and emerge; however, working through the debt of love owed to my cat was helpful in allowing me to articulate a foundation that strengthens relationships that require far more words. Her unspeaking reluctance to be loved prompted questions within me concerning my responsibilities and desires toward others that I had never understood so clearly, and my thinking about love—and ways that I love now—have altered as a result of having thought through the problem of why the best loves are the most difficult. I wanted to allow at least this much of Lucy to live forever.

Jennifer Boylston
Molecular and Cellular Biology
FHIT loss promotes HMOX1 expression in bronchial epithelial cells

FHIT gene deletions are among the earliest and most frequent events in carcinogenesis. Mouse and cell culture models have established that FHIT is an authentic tumor suppressor, but the mechanism underlying the process remains unclear. Cellular transition from normal to cancer is multi-stepped and requires the accumulation of several genetic changes. This project aims to elucidate the mechanism by which FHIT-null cells are primed to promote progression of lung cancer.
Our data suggest that loss of FHIT in bronchial epithelial cells promotes enhanced and sustained induction of HMOX1 in response to cigarette smoke. Induction of HMOX1 is a cytoprotective mechanism that can diminish the rate of apoptosis. Consistent with this, HMOX1 overexpression is frequently detected in cancer. We investigated the mechanism by which FHIT modulates HMOX1 expression. Here, we describe how FHIT loss is associated with decreased expression of a primary repressor of HMOX1 expression, Bach1. 

Colleen Brehm
Civil and Environmental Engineering
How does product-to-parent reversion affect the transport and fate of Trenbolone in stream networks?

Colleen Brehm
Adam S. Ward
David M. Cwiertny
Edward P. Kolodziej 
Trenbolone (TBA) [17β-(acetyloxy)estra-4,9,11-trien-3-one] is a highly steroidal synthetic testosterone that is used as a growth promoter and injected into over 20 million cattle annually. It has been found that product-to-parent reversion occurs in environmental conditions, such as streams. The reversion that occurs causes regeneration of TBA during “non-light” periods (night) after it has photodecayed during daylight hours in recent laboratory studies. In streams, this would occur both during the night and in the near-stream subsurface, or hyporheic zone. To quantify the effect of the reversion reaction, we constructed a 1-D model of stream transport and fate for TBA. Reversion occurs in the near-stream subsurface (hyporheic zone) and stream channel itself; photodegradation occurs only in the stream during daylight hours and proportional to light intensity. We conducted a series of model experiments to quantify how much reversion affects the peak, mean, and minimum concentrations of TBA in a stream. The model showed that the reversion reaction results in indefinite persistence of about 40% of the TBA loading to the stream. In contrast, common rationale for the use of this steroid cites the rapid photodegradation as evidence of limited impact. The results of our modeling demonstrate the importance of the product-to-parent reversion process in stream networks, and suggest common environmental sampling and permitting procedures must be reconsidered for compounds with product-to-parent reversion processes.

Heather Brockway
A Novel Role for the CSN/COP9 Signalosome in Synaptonemal Complex assembly during Meiotic Prophase I.

Studies have shown up to 30% of human oocytes are aneuploid, which is the most common cause of birth defects and miscarriages in human reproduction. The synaptonemal complex  (SC) is a structure that holds together homologues chromosomes in meiotic prophase I to allow the formation of all crossover events.  SC morphogenesis is critical for crossover formation and therefore the proper segregation of chromosomes into gametes and yet, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of SC formation. Here, we examine the role of the CSN signalosome of SC assembly  in the model organism C. elegans. The CSN/COP9 signalosome is a key regulator of the ubiquitin degradation pathway and has been shown to interact with several meiotic specific proteins in C. elegans. We have shown that mutants in CSN subunits exhibit meiotic defects resulting in abnormal gonads and aberrant SC assembly. These defects are accompanied by a decrease in the association between homologous chromosomes and by reduction in the formation of crossover events between homologous chromosomes. Our work indicates a novel role for the CSN/COP9 signalosome in SC assembly in meiotic prophase I. 

Linh Bui
<i>CrMSP1<i>, a candidate gene involved in asexual reproduction in the fern <i> Ceratopteris richardii<i>

In land plants, the haploid gametophyte and the diploid sporophyte alternate to complete the life cycle. Sporophytes undergo meiosis to form spores, from which sexual gametes are derived. Fertilization restores the ploidy and the zygote develops into a sporophyte. While sexual reproduction is dominant in the plant kingdom, many species can reproduce asexually in the absence of meiosis and fertilization. Asexual reproduction has the advantage of perpetuating a desirable combination of the traits. Therefore, understanding the mechanism underlying asexual reproduction may lead to the harness of asexual reproduction of seeds in crop plants.
My research focuses on understanding the molecular mechanism underlying asexual reproduction pathways in fern Ceratopteris richardii. Both fern gametophytes and sporophytes are free-living, thus offer an ideal system for the research.  Asexual reproduction pathways in ferns include apogamy and apospory. In apogamy, a haploid sporophyte is formed from gametophytes without fertilization, while in apospory, sporophytes produce diploid gametophytes without meiosis. In C. richardii, neither processes occur in nature but can be induced easily in the laboratory. In this talk, I will focus on presenting preliminary results of one candidate gene, MULTIPLE SPOROCYTES 1 that may involve in asexual reproduction in C. richardii.  

Aaron Burns
Challenging Clouded Views of Aristophanes' <i>Clouds</i>

Aristophanes’ Clouds is a strange comedy with a shocking and surprisingly serious ending. It has received much attention due to the inclusion of Socrates as a main character and figurehead for the new, and often radical, intellectual movements that flourished in Athens in the late fifth century BCE. Because of his importance in the intellectual tradition, analysis of the play tends to focus on the character of Socrates, and tends to argue (or assume) that Aristophanes is hostile to either Socrates himself or the new learning of which Aristophanes has chosen to make him the representative. These arguments are often part of a larger view of Aristophanes as a defender of conservative values. While it would be going too far to suggest that Aristophanes supports or endorses the new learning, I think a closer examination of what actually happens in Clouds suggests that the message of the play (if indeed there is one) is not so clear or obvious. I argue that Aristophanes’ criticism is aimed not so much at Socrates and the new learning itself, but rather what the students do with it.

Aaron Buss
Integrating the behavioral and neural dynamics of task-switching in early childhood

Executive function (EF) refers to the higher-order cognitive processes that enable flexible shifts of behavior when contextual demands change. Theories of the development of EF face several complex challenges. First, EF is generally considered to consist of multiple component processes in the adult state, but these processes emerge and differentiate over development. Consequently, theories of EF must explain how each component develops and how these components differentiate and interact to create emerging EF skills over development. Second, a growing cognitive neuroscience literature demonstrates that theories must bridge the gap between brain and behavior. Here, we describe a Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) of the development of EF. This theory speaks to the multi-component nature of EF, and has shed light on the developmental mechanisms that underlie changes in key component processes as well as how these processes often seamlessly interact. Moreover, the theory has quantitatively captured behavioral patterns from a key EF task in early development—the Dimensional Change Card Sort task. I highlight recent work using near-infrared spectroscopy to probe whether the theory can both capture data at the neural level and generate novel neural predictions. We conclude by discussing prospects for the future and placing the DFT in the context of other approaches to EF.

Maggie Butler
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Fostering Self-Advocacy Among College Students with Disabilities Through Collaboration

As the presence of college students with disabilities continues to increase on campuses across the U.S., self-advocacy skills are essential to their persistence. The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS), Wagner, Newman, Cameto and Levine (2005) stated that although students with disabilities are present in postsecondary education a gap remains in their persistence in college compared to their peers without disabilities. The purpose of this poster is to identify the relevance of collaboration as it pertains to the development of self-advocacy skills among college students with disabilities and their persistence in college settings.

Natalie Butterfield
Radio Observations of Star Formation in the Galactic Center

Star formation in the inner regions of the Galactic Center differs strongly from star formation in the Galactic Disk. In order to see how environment plays a role in star formation, we must look at several stages of star formation, including past, current, and future star formation. In this study we looked at multiple star forming regions in the inner 50 parsec region of the Galactic Center that trace these different stages, using the VLA observatories. We present broadband continuum images of these regions. Since we are using multiple frequencies we can map the spectral index to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes taking place. We also present many molecular line transitions that allow us to trace the temperatures and physical conditions of these extreme environments.

Dmitry Chernikov
Industrial Engineering
A stochastic PDE-constrained optimization approach to vibration control of a composite plate subjected to mechanical and electromagnetic loads

It is known from previous studies that mechanical vibrations of a thin plate can be effectively damped by applying electromagnetic field to it. However, application of excessive electric current may lead to overheating and damage of the plate, thus it is crucial to find the proper profile of the electromagnetic field to apply. In addition, the mechanical load is assumed to be stochastic with known discrete distribution. In this work we address the problem to find the optimal profile of the electromagnetic field under stochastic mechanical load which is formulated as a stochastic PDE-constrained optimization problem. The governing system of PDEs is solved numerically and the optimization is done with the aid of a two-stage stochastic programming. The gradient of the objective function is found by using automatic differentiation. Numerical results are presented.

Nathaniel Chimhete
The Wanyamongo of Northern Tanzania in the Era of Neo-liberal Economic Reforms

Tanzania witnessed an influx of foreign-owned mining companies in the 1990s, following the country’s liberalization of the mining sector. Scholars and commentators have suggested that rural communities resisted this influx of foreign investment. Using the case of Nyamongo, located in Tarime district, Northern Tanzania, the paper engages this dominant narrative of rural communities’ encounter with foreign mining capital. It shows that when the Tanzanian government adopted neo-liberal economic reforms, the residents of Nyamongo embraced large-scale foreign investment in the form of an Australian-owned mining company. A big investor promised not only to provide both the technology and expertise to mine deeper deposits, but also to create employment opportunities for the local people. This embrace challenges the conventional view that depicts foreign mining companies as unwanted intruders in Tanzania’s mining communities, and local small-scale mines as victims of neo-liberal economic policies. The small-scale miners of Nyamongo were also able to extract concessions from the multi-national corporation and, in the process, powerfully reshaped the Structural Adjustment Program pursued by the government and international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Venkat Keshav Chivukula
Biomedical Engineering
A Novel Method to Simulate Red Blood Cells in the Human Circulation

The current research presents a novel method in which the red blood cell is modeled using a smooth representation using iso-geometric analysis, specifically Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in 3-D.  The use of NURBS ensures a geometrically accurate description of the red blood cell (RBC) using a coarse representation at all times, even when subjected to large deformations. Furthermore, the use of NURBS for iso-geometric deformation analysis enables the membrane mechanics to be efficiently captured, including enforcement of area dilatational constraints on the cell membrane. Details on RBC representation using accurate geometric description and material properties will be provided. The current work is generic in nature, with the approach being extensible to model any biological cell. The fundamental advantage of this method is the coupling of the geometrical description and the stress analysis of the cell membrane while maintaining a coarse but accurate representation. This work provides the framework for modeling a large number of 3-D deformable biological cells, each with its own geometrical description and membrane properties. It is envisioned to model various blood-borne cells with this method with an application to investigating cancer metastasis and cell-cell interaction.  To the best knowledge of the authors, this work is the first to utilize the properties of NURBS modeling and analysis for biological cells.

Matthew Chrisman
Community and Behavioral Health
Associations Between Perceived Environmental, Social and Policy Determinants and Domain- and Intensity-Specific Physical Activity in Rural Adults

Obesity levels have reached epidemic proportions in adults. One factor that contributes to this is a lack of physical activity. Physical activity enhances health, and a lack of physical activity has been associated with a greater risk of several chronic diseases, including obesity. Rural adults have higher levels of chronic disease than their urban and suburban counterparts, and engage in less physical activity. Physical activity may be influenced by perceived factors in social, physical and policy environments. It is important to study what factors influence whether one is active in order to increase domain- (i.e. work, leisure time, etc.) and intensity-specific (i.e. vigorous, moderate, etc.) physical activity and potentially reduce levels of chronic disease.
A cross-sectional survey was given to 143 adults residing in a rural Iowa county that assessed perceived social, environmental, and policy influences of physical activity. Multiple regressions were conducted to measure the associations between those determinants and physical activity. Social support from friends, environmental factors such as having hills, and policy attitudes towards using government funds for exercise resources were all associated with physical activity. Results support using a multilevel approach and provide evidence of many factors to target for increasing rural adults’ physical activity.

Justin Christopher
Educational Policy and Leadership
Inquiry, Knowledge, and Truth: Pragmatic Conceptions

Pragmatism, formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the 1870s, is a philosophical position characterized by its specific mode of inquiry, and an account of meaning.  Some individuals argue that Dewey’s and James’s philosophical conceptions of truth and knowledge diverge from that of Peirce.  I believe that Dewey’s conceptions of truth and knowledge remained more aligned with that of Peirce.  For James, all that is needed for a belief to be true is satisfactory relations with our experiences.  For Dewey, knowledge is re-conceptualized as warranted assertability.  An assertion is warranted by the inquiry process that culminates in the assertion.  The process of inquiry warrants the resulting belief or assertion.  Utilizing the tools of inquiry, conclusions can be reached, which are well warranted to be true.  Methods textbooks often cite the Jamesian form of pragmatism in their philosophical framework for research methods. In this paper, I will argue that Peirce’s conception of inquiry, knowledge and truth has great strengths. I will argue, further, that with respect to inquiry, knowledge, and truth, Dewey’s development of pragmatism remains consistent with that of Peirce, and that Jamesian pragmatism diverges sharply from Peirce and Dewey.  Greater understanding of truth, knowledge and inquiry is important from a philosophical standpoint as well as in educational research.  Implications for educational research are thus discussed.

Exploring the use of the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) with children

The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) with children to capture their developing health literacy.
An exploratory feasibility study using descriptive correlation design was used. Both parents and children within a convenience sample of 47 parent/child (7-12 years) dyads completed: (1) the Newest Vital Sign (NVS) to assess health literacy and (2) a Home Literacy Environment (HLE) single-item screening tool. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire.
Both children and parents completed the NVS without great difficulty. Mean NVS scores obtained from children and parents were not significantly different (4.8 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 1.6, respectively, p =.95) but were significantly correlated (rs=.35, p=.017). Children’s NVS scores significantly correlated with their HLE (rs=.363, p=.012), while parents’ NVS scores significantly correlated with parents’ HLE (rs=.438, p=.002). However, children’s NVS scores were not correlated with their parent’s HLE (rs=.06, p=.671).
The NVS feasibly assesses children’s health literacy at age 7-12 years. Children’s scores were similar to and correlated with their parents’, and each correlated with their own estimates of HLE. Future work should investigate the extent to which screening both parents and children using the NVS is redundant. 

Rachel Clark
Intensity-Dependent Effects of Voluntary Exercise

The current study examines the cognitive effects of varying intensities of voluntary exercise. 23 juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats either ran on an exercise wheel or were sedentary for thirty min/per six days per week for five weeks. Daily measures of intensity were recorded for the rats in the exercise condition, which allowed later identification as high-intensity or low-intensity. All rats were then tested in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), a task used to determine spatial memory ability. Data reveal significant cognitive benefits (in the form of MWM performance) in rats that ran at high intensity, compared with both rats that ran at low intensity and rats that remained sedentary. This study extends previous research by demonstrating benefits of long-term high intensity exercise, even under the limitation of thirty minutes per day. This suggests that voluntary exercise may work in an intensity-dependent manner to enhance cognitive abilities.

Ryan Cobb
A Difficulty for Rowe's Formulation of the Problem of Evil

 Bill Rowe, in his classic paper “The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism,” suggests that certain “natural evils”—instances of intense suffering for which humans are not responsible—provide good evidence that God does not exist. This paper challenges Rowe’s thesis in two parts. In part one, I explain Rowe’s argument, attempt to motivate it, and highlight what I think is a critical flaw. In part two, I examine an attempt to modify Rowe’s argument to avoid the flaw, and conclude that it is unsuccessful. I conclude that, barring a major reformulation, we have good reason to reject Rowe’s argument. This suggests that the theist can overcome the problem of (natural) evil.

Brian Collins
Understanding Aristotle’s Ethics Through His Politics

One of the most notorious debates surrounding Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics focuses on the interpretation of eudaimonia (happiness or human flourishing).  One camp takes an ‘inclusivist’ reading.  On this interpretation Aristotle regards eudaimonia to be a composite of all human goods or virtues.  The opposing camp takes a ‘dominant’ reading in which Aristotle understands eudaimonia to be a single dominant good, theōria (contemplation).  There has also been recent attempts to resolve this debate by arguing that the inclusive and dominant readings converge.  In this ‘all-inclusive’ interpretation, the Aristotelian contemplator actually possesses all the virtues.  This alternative reading of Aristotle is important because it grasps some important points that many scholars in the inclusive/dominant debate have overlooked.  After briefly describing the inclusive/dominant debate in the first section, I will explain the all-inclusive interpretation and offer a competing interpretation which is in some ways similar to the all-inclusive reading, but which relies heavily on Aristotle’s connection between ethics and politics.  More specifically I will argue that Aristotle’s notion of eudaimonia is dominant, not ‘all-inclusive,’ but which also has all the moral and intellectual virtues as a necessary conditions.

Heidi Collins
French and Francophone World Studies
The Legacy of the Romans de la Terre: The Effects of Sexual Repression on the Family in the Plays of Michel Tremblay

            Quebec’s Quiet Revolution sought to free people from the traditional social constraints enforced and perpetuated through the Catholic Church’s control of education and social aid. It also ushered in a new feminism in Quebec, one that was strongly tied to a growing sense of Quebec Nationalism. Many writers’ works during this period reflected this cultural revolution, including the plays of Michel Tremblay, in particular Les Belles-sœurs (1968) and À toi, pour toujours, ta Marie-Lou (1971). While many feminist works of the period, including the earlier of these two pieces, call for the sexual liberation of women and implicate the Catholic Church for its role in their sexual oppression, his later work reveals its influence over not only women, but men and the entire family unit as well. Through the example of early Quebecois novels such as Trente Arpents, we can see the dissemination of the traditional values and the strong tie between them and the Church, as well as the threatening arrival from the outside of more liberal ways of life. Tremblay shows the manifestation of these values in contemporary Quebec life showing the impact of sexual repression and the traditional dichotomy of female stereotypes, the virgin and the whore. Like many other plays of the period, Tremblay’s work is not only art but an important form of social activism.

Brian Collins
What is Philosophy and why is it important?

Studying and “doing” philosophy entails articulating a position or theory, supporting that position with arguments, anticipating objections, and formulating effective responses to those objections.  This practice helps to develop analytic and critical thinking skills that are extremely valuable and applicable in any academic field or career.  For these reasons, as well as many others, philosophy instruction is in a unique position to help encourage, and implement critical thinking into education curriculum and public discourse.  The goals of this presentation are (1) to increase awareness about ‘what philosophy is,’ (2) to increase awareness about pre-college philosophy, and (3) to share a “Pre-College Philosophy Project” I am working to develop which integrates explicit philosophical instruction into local school districts.  This project is “in progress” and my hopes with sharing it at the Jakobsen Conference are to start discussions, gather feedback, and engage potential advocates and collaborators.

Katharine Corum
Predicting Aqueous Aluminum Hydroxide Nanoparticle Reactivity

Due to their ubiquitous importance in contaminant fate and transport we are interested in the environmental chemistry and in the chemical reactions of metal hydroxides. A specific aluminum hydroxide nanoparticle recently synthesized by our collaborators shows promise in water remediation applications. This aluminum hydroxide nanoparticle, [Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)24]18+ (Al30), was shown to bind to hydrated copper(II), a metal contaminant that can be introduced into the environment through mining and the use of pesticides. Here we report on the reactivity of copper binding to Al30 at different locations on the nanoparticle using a computer-based simulation method called density functional theory (DFT). DFT is based on the electron density of the molecule and can be used to analyze the reactivity of the aluminum hydroxide nanoparticle at the molecular level. We use DFT in conjunction with an implicit solvation model to simulate aqueous effects. We carry out calculations for energetic, geometric, electronic, and electron static properties to explain predicted trends in the Al30 nanoparticle reactivity towards copper. We pose new reaction mechanisms that include direct involvement of aqueous counter ions in cluster reactivity; this new theoretical insight is guiding our ongoing and future collaborative work.

Joseph Cullin

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are unregulated constituents frequently detected in environmental waters that have the potential to cause a host of reproductive and developmental problems in humans and wildlife. The degradation pathways of some CECs are well-characterized in idealized laboratory settings, but CEC transport and fate in complex field settings is poorly understood. Here, we use a multi-tracer solute injection study to quantify physical transport and photodegradation in a wastewater effluent-impacted stream. Conservative tracers are used to quantify physical transport processes in the stream. By selecting tracers with differing rates of photolysis, we can isolate the relative contribution of photodegradation to transport and fate in the system. Following the generation of a calibrated one-dimensional transport model based on our field studies, we used forward modeling to predict the transport of sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic in the discharged effluent which is susceptible to photolysis, in the stream. Forward modeling will predict both temporal persistence of sulfamethoxazole in the stream and its spatial extent. Future work will quantify additional pathways (e.g., sorption) and predict the behavior of a larger suite of CECs.

Sheetal D'mello
Pharmacy (PhD)
Development of Novel Biodegradable and Biocompatible Poly(diaminosulfide) Microparticles as Chemotherapeutic Drug Carriers

Purpose: To develop and characterize a novel diaminosulfide polymer-based pH-sensitive microparticle drug delivery system.
Methods: FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-labeled dextran was entrapped into diaminosulfide polymers using a water-in-oil-in-water emulsification method. The microparticle size, surface charge and morphology, drug entrapment efficiency and drug loading were investigated. The in vitro degradation of microparticles was carried out in pH 7.4 and 5.2 buffers at 37oC. The in vitro qualitative cellular uptake of FITC-dextran microparticles in HEK-293 cells was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The biocompatibility of drug-free microparticles was also tested in HEK-293 cells. The microparticles were then loaded with doxorubicin and evaluated for chemotherapeutic efficacy in murine B-16 melanoma cells.
Results: Non-porous microparticles with smooth spherical surface morphology and uniform size were fabricated. The size was 657 nm. The drug-free microparticles were not toxic to HEK-293 cells over 24 h. Microparticle degradation was faster in the acidic buffer than at pH 7. CLSM images demonstrated uptake of microparticles within the cells. Doxorubicin microparticles were found to be more toxic to B-16 melanoma cells than soluble doxorubicin.
Conclusion: In this study, a microparticulate formulation utilizing a novel diaminosulfide polymer was successfully developed as a delivery vehicle for doxorubicin to B-16 melanoma cells.

Sheetal D'mello
Pharmacy (PhD)
The Enhancement of Bone Regeneration by Gene Activated Matrix Encoding for Platelet Derived Growth Factor

Purpose: To develop and test a non-viral gene delivery system for bone regeneration that utilizes collagen scaffolds to deliver polyethylenimine (PEI)-plasmid DNA (pDNA) [encoding platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B)] complexes.
Methods: PEI-pDNA (PDGF-B) complexes were synthesized and characterized for size and surface charge using Zetasizer Nano ZS and the collagen scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy of the synthesized complexes was evaluated in bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) using MTS assay and by quantifying the amount of secreted PDGF-BB in cell culture supernatants using ELISA. In addition, the influence of the complex-loaded scaffold on cellular proliferation was evaluated in vitro using confocal microscopy. The in vivo regenerative capacity of the gene delivery system was assessed in critical-sized calvarial defects in Fisher 344 rats.
Results: The complexes were ∼100 nm in size with a positive surface charge. Complexes prepared at an N/P ratio of 10 displayed low cytotoxicity as assessed by a cell viability assay. Confocal microscopy revealed significant proliferation of BMSCs on complex-loaded collagen scaffolds compared to empty scaffolds. In vivo studies showed significantly higher new bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) % in calvarial defects treated with the complex-activated scaffolds following 4 weeks of implantation (14- and 44-fold higher) when compared to empty defects or empty scaffolds, respectively.
Conclusion: Non-viral complex activated collagen scaffolds are an effective gene delivery and bone regeneration system with significant potential for clinical translation.

Colleen Davis
Like Other Mothers, Like A Mother: Edith Neal, Peg Mullen, and Public Roles for Mothers during the Vietnam War

“Why are you making such a fuss? Why can’t you be proud, like other mothers, that your son was killed in Vietnam?” These questions, perhaps rhetorical, were asked of an Iowa activist and quoted in a 1972 editorial in Burlington, Iowa’s local newspaper. What might it have meant to be “like other mothers” in the early 1970s in Iowa? How did being a mother relate to pride? How were expectations of motherhood changed during wartime?
This presentation looks at two Iowa mothers, Edith Neal and Peg Mullen, both of whom were active during the Vietnam War. Situating these two women within a larger history of motherhood and gendered patriotism in America, I argue that each woman used maternal stereotypes, while also expanding notions of motherhood and transforming her role as a mother, in order to meet her political needs; moreover, though the women used similar means, they sought different ends. Together, Neal and Mullen highlight a transition in discourse about motherhood that occurred throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. Though differing in many regards, the two shared one important quality: neither woman was particularly “like other mothers,” and, yet, each woman sought to be like a mother (figure) to countless American youths. 

Gemma de Choisy
Nonfiction Writing
Serpentecostal: Facebook Evangelism and Serpent-Handling Pentecostalism in Tennessee

On September 16th, 2013, Andrew Hamblin became a TV Celebrity. Last year, the 23-year-old star of NatGeo's "Snake Salvation" documentary miniseries was stocking shelves at an IGA grocery store to support his wife and five children. Now, Hamblin has a new plan. He wants to be the pastor of America's very first snake-handling megachurch. As career goals go, his is ambitious: his current venue, the Church of God with Signs following in Lafollete, Tennessee, is a squat, two room brick building in a residential neighborhood. On Friday evenings, Saturday afternoons, and Sunday mornings, Andrew Hamblin handles poisonous snakes - Timber Rattlers and Copperheads, mostly - while congregants and tourists pack the church. The windows are colored with tissue paper in lieu of stained glass, and the crux of his congregation's faith hinges on a literal interpretation of Mark 116:9-20, in which Jesus commands his disciples to spread the Gospel. Previously, writers who've reported on Hamblin so far have treated his church's methods and practices as outliers and anomalies, but remember: what they're dismissing as an antiquated form of backwards worship is what Hamblin wants to be the future of Christianity in America, the most Christian of nations. And his parish is growing.

Gemma de Choisy
Nonfiction Writing
Serpentecostal: Facebook Evangelism and Serpent-Handling Pentecostalism in Tennessee

On September 16th, 2013, Andrew Hamblin became a TV Celebrity. Last year, the 23-year-old star of NatGeo's "Snake Salvation" documentary miniseries was stocking shelves at an IGA grocery store to support his wife and five children. Now, Hamblin has a new plan. He wants to be the pastor of America's very first snake-handling megachurch. As career goals go, his is ambitious: his current venue, the Church of God with Signs following in Lafollete, Tennessee, is a squat, two room brick building in a residential neighborhood. On Friday evenings, Saturday afternoons, and Sunday mornings, Andrew Hamblin handles poisonous snakes - Timber Rattlers and Copperheads, mostly - while congregants and tourists pack the church. The windows are colored with tissue paper in lieu of stained glass, and the crux of his congregation's faith hinges on a literal interpretation of Mark 116:9-20, in which Jesus commands his disciples to spread the Gospel. Previously, writers who've reported on Hamblin so far have treated his church's methods and practices as outliers and anomalies, but remember: what they're dismissing as an antiquated form of backwards worship is what Hamblin wants to be the future of Christianity in America, the most Christian of nations. And his parish is growing.

Benjamin Deonovic
Genome Wide Association Study of Ideopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Purpose: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by chronically increased intracranial pressure without clinical evidence for space occupying lesions or hydrocephalus. Increased pressure leads to papilledema, which may lead to vision loss. Although there appear to be a variety of associated risk factors for the disease, further research is needed to identify genetic loci associated with the condition. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to further understand this disease. Methods: We analyzed 95 case subjects with IIH and 95 controls matched by sex, BMI, self-reported ethnicity, and distance to procurement site. The samples were genotyped using Illumina's Infinium HumanCoreExome v1-0 array which examined 538,448 SNPs. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model that controlled for population stratification by multidimensional scaling. Results: No SNPs were found to be significantly associated with IIH after adjusting for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to control for false discovery rate at 0.05. Quality control analysis uncovered a problem with the fourth batch of the data, resulting in an underpowered study. Conclusion: Further analysis is required to make a definitive statement of the genetic involvement to IIH. This paper exemplifies the impact of quality control analysis in GWAS.

Ian DeVolder
Naming Deficits in Children with Isolated Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Relationship to Left Inferior Temporal Lobe and Temporal Pole

Isolated cleft lip and/or palate (ICLP) is one of the most common congenital defects in the United States, affecting roughly 1 in 600 births annually. Along with the facial deformity, this population has been found to have a number of functional problems (including a deficit in object naming) and abnormal neurodevelopment. The current study examined both the structure and function of the left inferior temporal lobe and the left temporal pole cortical regions in children with ICLP. A large sample of 63 subjects with ICLP was compared to 92 healthy controls (aged 7-17 years). Brain structure was obtained via magnetic resonance imaging, generating regional brain measures (cortical region volumes). Overall cognitive measures were obtained for each subject, along with measures specific to object naming abilities. After controlling for intracranial volume, children with ICLP showed enlarged volumes of the left inferior temporal and temporal pole cortical regions. These enlarged areas correlated with measures of object naming (which were significantly lower for children with ICLP). This brain-structure function relationship was sex-dependent, as enlarged cortical volumes in boys with ICLP led to worse performance, while enlarged volumes in girls with ICLP led to better performance. The study provides a neurological correlate for the object naming deficits found in this population.

Kristi DiClemente
The Officialité of Paris: A Case for Marriage in the Late Fifteenth Century

During the late Middle Ages, the Officialité of Paris, ecclesiastical courts headed by the archdeacon of Paris, heard thousands of cases brought by church, and lay folk involving everything from disputes over property, to rowdy university students, to marriage problems. Although most of the records are no longer extant, we do have a group of around 10,000 cases from 1461-1482 that have survived the last 500 years; of these, roughly ten percent concern marriage. At a time when the majority of the European population were illiterate, and left no written records of their existence these court cases are the sole record of the lives of ordinary Parisians. Through an examination of the people who brought these cases to court, this paper opens a window into the lives of fifteenth-century Parisians that we otherwise would not have, and sheds light on the history of a social institution that is very much in the current consciousness.

Kamuran Dilsiz
Study of a Novel Cerenkov Detector for Particle Identification

Particle identification based on Cerenkov radiation has been utilized in many detector systems mostly with ring imaging Cerenkov detectors. Gas Cerenkov detectors have also been instrumented in the Fermilab and CERN test beam lines for beam users. Here we describe a novel, tracking Cerenkov detector constructed with a quartz-based crystal read out with multiple, directly coupled photomultiplier tubes. Upon optimization, the idea can be generalized to particle identification systems in the future collider detector experiments as well as Compton polarimeters. 

Kamuran Dilsiz
Effects of Aging in the HF on the VBF Higgs Search

Compact Muon Selenoid (CMS) is one of the main detectors used with Large Hadron Collider Experiment at CERN, and Hadronic Forward Calorimeter (HF) is one of the fundamental calorimeters in the CMS. There are two purposes served by the HF. The first purpose is to enhance the measurement of the missing transverse energy () in the experiment. The second purpose is to identify high energy jets from the collision. In accordance with the second purpose of the HF, we try to identify the effects of the aging in the HF on VBF Higgs by using Fast Simulations (FastSim). Specifically, we look at the forward jets in the VBF Higgs and look at the jet-tagging efficiency for different levels of radiation damage. In this presentation, we briefly explain the results from forward jet analyses.  

Jared Downard
Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols Impacted by the Iowa City Landfill Tire Fire

Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosols Impacted by the Iowa City Landfill Tire Fire
Jared Downard and Elizabeth Stone
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242
The Iowa City landfill fire started on May 26th, 2012 and burned for 18 days affecting local ambient air quality. The landfill’s drainage layer, made of approximately 1.3 million shredded tires, burned, emitting particles and gases to the atmosphere while leaving behind pyrolytic oil and ash. During the tire fire period, ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected at a nearby sampling site. Filter samples were analyzed for total organic and elemental (soot) carbon using thermo-optical techniques and for organic species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS).  On days were the smoke plume impacted the site, levels of elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were greatly enhanced. On June 2nd the 24-hour average concentration of PAHs peaked at 31.9 ng m-3, which was 75 times higher than observed background levels from May-June 2011. Of particular interest were the levels of benzo(a)pyrene, a highly carcinogenic compound, that reached a maximum concentration of  1.56 ng m-3 on this day. Ambient emissions from the Iowa City tire fire were also compared to other tire fire emissions data including an actual soot sample and a simulated open air burning. Results showed similar PAHs were identified in all three studies, including chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. Ongoing research includes analyzing samples collected during a laboratory experiment of a tire burning and using laboratory and field data to identify characteristic organic markers of tire fire emissions. 

Alan Edwards
Medicine (MD)
Modified LPE Measurement vs. Actual Transfer Distance in Fulkerson Osteotomy Patients

Purpose: To identify a correlation between tibial tubercle transfer distance and modified Lateral Patella Edge (LPE) measurement on quadriceps active extension MRI scans in patients undergoing Fulkerson Osteotomy procedures for recurrent lateral patellar instability.
Methods: 24 Fulkerson Osteotomy patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data and final transfer distance were then collected from the operative note. A modified LPE was measured on preopertive quadriceps active knee extension MRI scans. A reference line was drawn tangentially to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles at the deepest point of the intercondylar notch. A line perpendicular to the reference was then drawn through the apex of the lateral femoral condyle. The distance from the patella's center to its lateral ege was measured.
Results: There was a correlation of 0.655 of the modified LPE measurement with final tibial tubercle transfer distance. The statistical significance was less than <0.001
Conclusions: This Modified LPE measurement can be used as an accurate predictor of final tibial tubercle transfer distance needed to achieve maximal patellafemoral congruency in Fulkerson Osteotomy patients with a good volitional contraction of the quadriceps muscles on a quadriceps active extension MRI scan.

Alan Edwards
Medicine (MD)
Modified LPE Measurement vs. Actual Transfer Distance in Fulkerson Osteotomy Patients

Purpose: To identify a correlation between tibial tubercle transfer distance and modified Lateral Patella Edge (LPE) measurement on quadriceps active extension MRI scans in patients undergoing Fulkerson Osteotomy procedures for recurrent lateral patellar instability.
Methods: 24 Fulkerson Osteotomy patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data and final transfer distance were then collected from the operative note. A modified LPE was measured on preopertive quadriceps active knee extension MRI scans. A reference line was drawn tangentially to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyles at the deepest point of the intercondylar notch. A line perpendicular to the reference was then drawn through the apex of the lateral femoral condyle. The distance from the patella's center to its lateral ege was measured.
Results: There was a correlation of 0.655 of the modified LPE measurement with final tibial tubercle transfer distance. The statistical significance was less than <0.001
Conclusions: This Modified LPE measurement can be used as an accurate predictor of final tibial tubercle transfer distance needed to achieve maximal patellafemoral congruency in Fulkerson Osteotomy patients with a good volitional contraction of the quadriceps muscles on a quadriceps active extension MRI scan.

Mieke Eerkens
Nonfiction Writing

To what extent are the relationships we create throughout our lives contracts? To what extent are they contracts with ourselves? How does the contract change as we grow older and gain experience? This is a work of creative nonfiction that aims to explore those questions through personal narrative and the use of unconventional form. I believe that form should always follow function in art. It is my aim with this personal essay to have its form and content speak to one another, creating their own relationship. Typically a more conventional writer, this work represents some of my first attempts at experimentation with form to underscore the ideas I put forth in my text. Adopting the form of an actual contract, I trace the ways my expectations change with each relationship I have. Ultimately, the contract is with myself.

Sarah Eikleberry
Health and Sport Studies
More than Milk and Cookies: Pre-Title IX Play Days for College Women, 1926-1971

2012 marked the fortieth anniversary of Title IX and the first Summer Olympic Games in which all attending nations sent female competitors.  In the field of sport history, scholars have conservatively chronicled the experiences of girls and women as a narrative of progress.  Women’s sport participation in higher education is particularly framed as a linear narrative beginning with the “new woman’s” foray in college physical training, the non-competitive interwar coed, and the liberated Varsity sportswoman of the 1970s.  It is within this narrative that the college play day, a sport practice emerging in California and Washington in 1926 is too often interpreted as a pedagogical misstep or competitive faux pas.  Through an archival examination of the college play day, this paper considers how this sport practice was more than a decrepit stepping stone traversed by the American sportswoman.  By the late 1920s college play days emerged and served as a mainstay of many women’s physical education curriculums, dotting the calendars of Women’s Athletic Association and Majors Clubs’ schedules until the early 1970s.  It was during this time the innovation of the college play day served as a flexible spectacle whose purpose shifted to suit its users for half a century.

Eric Eitrheim
Dual-Labeling for Nuclear and Fluorescence Molecular Imaging

Molecular imaging probes used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) have been used to image cancer cells using radioactive elements attached to an imaging probe that emits a positron. These compounds bio-accumulate in the cancer tissue where they can be imaged. Our current goal is to synthesize a molecule with the intent to use it as an imaging vector for melanoma cancer cells that utilize two imaging agents, fluorescence and PET imaging, in one dual-labeled molecular imaging probe. This would enable targeted molecular imaging of cancers as well as intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. Fluorescence from a molecular imaging agent could enable real-time visual detection of the cancer enabling precise excision of the cancer by the surgeon, increasing survival rates and decreasing the need for more surgeries or further treatments. Some similar compounds have been synthesized that are currently in clinical trials that utilize Near-Infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dyes that are always fluorescing.  The molecular agent we will employ has precedence for only fluorescing when aggregating to other molecules, for example, on a cancer cell surface. This shows promise in decreasing background in fluorescence imaging as compared to NIRF molecules currently being utilized.

Landon D. C. Elkind
An Emotivist Natural Law Jurisprudence

I argue that the natural law school of jurisprudence should dispense with the claims of natural law theory. I develop a natural law jurisprudence that keeps the core claim of the natural law school while avoiding the more contentious claims of natural law theory. If my approach succeeds in retaining the main thesis of the natural law school, then we should abandon the broader natural law theory for purposes of jurisprudence.

William Ettema
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Alternative Tile Intake Design for Tile Drainage: A Case Study

The goal of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of an alternative tile intake (ATI) at reducing runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads from agricultural fields during extreme storm events in the Clear Creek, IA watershed.  An ATI is a best management practice (BMP) consisting of a gravel intake modified with a layer of wood chips.  Gravel intakes have been shown to be highly efficient at trapping sediment and sediment-bound particulates, like phosphorus, by enhancing settling through ponding and filtration, while the addition of the wood chips is to facilitate denitrification, similar to a bioreactor.  These intakes can help attenuate runoff relative to conventional intakes by reducing the flow rate of runoff into the subsurface tile drainage.  To date, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has been used to simulate field conditions at the demonstration site for calculating runoff volumes and sediment fluxes to the ATI for different magnitude events.  A physical model of the installed ATIs at the demonstration site is currently being used in the laboratory to quantify the saturated hydraulic conductivity and filter efficiency of different combinations of pea gravel and wood chips.  These laboratory experiments will be complemented with analytical exercises and infield monitoring of the installed ATIs.  Preliminary measurements suggest that ATIs have a filtering efficiency of about 80%.

Matthew J. Even
Designing a field and numerical experiment to evaluate the resilience of vegetation communities to climate change at the Ciha Fen (Johnson County, IA, USA)

The distribution of water availability and soil properties at a site creates a suite of hydrological niches occupied by different vegetation communities.  Water availability is a primary determinant of vegetation pattering, and is itself a function of soil properties, landscape position, climate, and other factors. Here, we take the Ciha Fen (Johnson County, IA, USA) as a case study in the resilience of current vegetation communities to potential future climate scenarios. We present a field monitoring plan that will assess three vegetation communities (wetland, transitional, upland) occupying at least three unique soil types at the site.  Field data will support the calibration of a 1-D numerical model to predict water availability as a function of future climate, using changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration to drive the model. The research design will ultimately predict the magnitude of hydrological change required for vegetation patterning to change on the landscape (i.e., for the hydrological conditions in one soil type to become more suitable for a different vegetation community). Results of this study will support ongoing management of the Ciha Fen preserve.

Laurel Fantauzzo
English-Nonfiction Writing
Balikbayan Nonfiction

With my creative project, Balikbayan Nonfiction, I’m exploring how creative nonfiction available online can act as a bridge for diasporic publics around the world—specifically, for people of and for the Philippines.
“Balikbayan” is the Tagalog term for a Filipino who returns to the country. By collecting Philippine-themed nonfiction from outlets at home and abroad, and introducing essays in one clean, easy-to-read format, the website Balikbayan Nonfiction will act as a narrative bridge between Filipinos and Filipinos abroad. It will favor narrative nonfiction pieces of 1,500 words or more, with some measure of introspection, clarity, depth, personal reflection, and analysis. It will put Filipinos in meaningful conversation with each other, wherever they are in the world.
The site takes its aesthetic lead from Longreads, a clean, simple, easy-to-read site collecting nonfiction from online outlets around America.
The website Balikbayan Nonfiction can potentially also act as a model for other diasporic, emigrant publics who want similar, online access to a variety of insightful nonfiction about subjects that concern their communities.

Gavin Feller
Communication Studies
Weak Ties, Neck Ties, Tongue-Tied: Navigating Theoretical Challenges in the Study of Mormon Missionary Social Media Use

This paper explores theoretical challenges to the study of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ (LDS) missionary media communication. I utilize diffusion of innovations theory and media multiplexity theory to highlight the LDS Church’s emerging social media strategy. While the LDS Church’s most recent missionary communication efforts closely mirror both theories in several ways, important discursive and cultural considerations are not addressed in either theory. I present a few dominant discursive struggles within LDS culture to demonstrate the need for further research on the relationship between religious media discourse and media use. I argue that research on LDS missionary communication, and media and religion more broadly, must be more conscious of the competing theological, technological and cultural discourses surrounding the value of media in religious and social life in order to understand the role of digital media in the construction of religious identity. 

Gavin Feller
Communication Studies
Weak Ties, Neck Ties, Tongue-Tied: Navigating Theoretical Challenges in the Study of Mormon Missionary Social Media Use

This paper explores theoretical challenges to the study of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ (LDS) missionary media communication. I utilize diffusion of innovations theory and media multiplexity theory to highlight the LDS Church’s emerging social media strategy. While the LDS Church’s most recent missionary communication efforts closely mirror both theories in several ways, important discursive and cultural considerations are not addressed in either theory. I present a few dominant discursive struggles within LDS culture to demonstrate the need for further research on the relationship between religious media discourse and media use. I argue that research on LDS missionary communication, and media and religion more broadly, must be more conscious of the competing theological, technological and cultural discourses surrounding the value of media in religious and social life in order to understand the role of digital media in the construction of religious identity. 

Ana Ferreira
Pharmacy (PhD)
Expression and Activity of an L-Type Amino Acid Transporter in Bovine Nasal Mucosa

The passage of molecules from the circulatory system into the brain is regulated and limited by the blood brain barrier (BBB). One approach to overcome the BBB is to deliver drugs via the olfactory route from the nasal cavity. Uptake transporters may assist in the distribution of molecules between the nasal mucosa and the brain, and the current study focuses on demonstrating that L-Type amino acid transporters, specifically LAT-2, are expressed in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa and act to increase the uptake of amino acid-like substrates. RT-PCR was used to determine the gene expression of LAT-2 in bovine respiratory and olfactory tissues. The localization of the transporter in the tissue was determined using immunohistochemistry. The activity of the transporter was assessed by measuring gabapentin, an LAT-2 substrate, flux across excised nasal mucosa. It was found that LAT-2 is expressed in both respiratory and olfactory bovine tissues and is localized in the glandular region of the respiratory tissue. The uptake of gabapentin in nasal tissues showed to be an active, saturable process, which may be mediated by the action of the LAT-2 transporter.

Ana Ferreira
Pharmacy (PhD)
Expression and Activity of the LAT-2 Transporter in Bovine Nasal Mucosa

The passage of molecules from the circulatory system into the brain is regulated and limited by the blood brain barrier (BBB). One approach to overcome the BBB is to deliver drugs via the olfactory route from the nasal cavity. Uptake transporters may assist in the distribution of molecules between the nasal mucosa and the brain, and the current study focuses on the expression of L-Type amino acid transporters, specifically LAT-2, in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa whose action may increase the uptake of amino acid-like substrates. The localization of LAT-2 in nasal mucosal tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the activity of the transporter was assessed by measuring the flux of gabapentin, an LAT-2 substrate, across excised tissues. Active uptake of gabapentin was probed using 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) and L-alaline, LAT-1,2 and LAT-2 selective inhibitors, respectively. IHC demonstrated that LAT-2 is expressed in both respiratory and olfactory bovine tissues and is localized primarily in the glandular region of the respiratory tissues. The uptake of gabapentin was via an active, saturable process which was inhibited by both BCH and L-alanine, clearly showing that amino acid transporters play an important role in the transfer of substrates across nasal tissues.

Lindsay Fox
International Studies MA
Diaspora, Identity, Social Media: Rajoana and the Sikhs

In March 2012, Balwant Rajoana, a Sikh, was scheduled to be hung for his role in the 1995 assassination of the Chief Minister of Punjab, Beant Singh. The execution appeared straightforward: Rajoana admitted his role, and no one contested his innocence. However, many Sikhs protested the execution (resulting in a stay), not to contest the facts, but to recast Rajoana as a political actor. Having experienced Sikh-targeted violence under Singh’s political regime, many saw Rajoana as a savior, operating within the context of a longstanding antagonism between Sikhs and the Indian government. This antagonism is critical to modern Sikh collective memory, and as Rajoana was increasingly incorporated into this narrative, symbolic-Rajoana became linked to identity-shaping collective memory.
The Sikh diaspora have been active in this shaping of Rajoana as a symbol of collective memory, particularly in Spring 2012. I will analyze diaspora-generated online media to demonstrate the role that the symbolic Rajoana plays in the assertion of a collective identity amongst the Sikh diaspora. These expressions are not just an affirmation of Sikh identity, but also suggest that the nature of the collective Sikh identity may be shifting: away from a geographically-linked cultural-religious paradigm, into a dynamic, transnational identity.

Michael Freedberg
Comparing the effect of positive and negative feedback in categorical learning

     One critical way that humans learn a new skill is through feedback.  For example, a teacher may tell a student they are correct when the student answers a math question with the right answer (an example of “positive feedback”), or the teacher may tell the student they are incorrect when the student responds with the wrong answer (an example of “negative feedback”).  The purpose of the current research study was to compare the effectiveness of positive and negative feedback to categorical learning.  Participants were asked to categorize stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories by integrating two features of the stimulus (the frequency and angle of the stimulus).  Participants received partial positive or partial negative feedback depending on whether they were assigned to the positive (PFB) or negative feedback (NFB) group (N = 20; 10 per group).  A custom-written algorithm controlled the amount of feedback that participants received throughout the experiment so that both groups received feedback on a similar amount of trials (~ 25% of trials).  Preliminary data shows that positive feedback is more effective in supporting categorical learning than negative feedback.  These results suggest that humans may show better learning in the presence of positive feedback than in the presence of negative feedback.   

Lauren Freese
Art History
Crafting an Image of Unity: The New York Federal Procession, 1788

On July 23, 1788 at ten o’clock in the morning, thousands of people processed through New York City in celebration of the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by ten states. While New York State would not ratify the document until three days later on July 26, 1788, the Federalist Party elected to stage the New York Federal Procession. The procession was a carefully crafted spectacle designed by New York Federalists to display a homogeneously pro-Constitution image of New York State. In the midst of heated debates and violent riots, the New York Federal Procession served a propagandistic function in order to present New York State as unified in support of the Constitution. A cohesive program of imagery and ephemeral architecture obscured political tensions and worked to promote Federalist ideology as a source of unity and prosperity. 
This cohesive visual program opens an avenue for the interpretation of the use of spectacle in the Early Republic as a potent social tool. While scholars have considered individual components of the procession imagery and the larger political landscape of New York State, this paper considers visual imagery and ephemeral architecture produced for the procession as a unified whole.
In the context of political unrest, the Federalist Party utilized the New York Federal Procession as a platform to present imagery that worked to obscure tension in favor of political homogeneity. Therefore, the imagery and architecture designed for the procession clearly express Federalist desires rather than political reality.

Erika Frierdich
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement with English Language Learners

For the past few decades, the education system in the United States has gone through a rapid increase in the enrollment of students who are culturally and linguistically diverse, many of whom have been classified as English language learners (ELLs).  Due to their limited English proficiency, ELLs may be inappropriately identified for special education services.  In order to effectively implement Response to Intervention, a method that can aid with the efforts to accurately identify ELLs, schools must have valid, reliable assessment tools to screen for academic difficulties, monitor student progress, and indicate when instructional changes are warranted.   Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a promising approach for these purposes.  CBM allows teachers to measure students’ growth over time by sampling students’ performance multiple times within one academic year.  Additionally, teachers may be able to use the data collected to measure the effectiveness of new strategies or to decide to further test their ELL students for possible learning difficulties. 

Jacob Frueh
Design of Multifunctional Resurrecting Agents for Aged AChE-OP Adducts

            Organophosphates (OP) are effective transition state inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE).  Due to the effectiveness of these compounds to act as inhibitors of AChE, particularly as chemical warfare agents, new remedies must be developed in order to avoid the high number of mortality cases being reported each year due to unintended or intended exposure.  The most common used antidote, Pralidoxime (2-PAM), has several deficiencies, most significantly its failure to reactivate the “aged” AChE-OP adducts.  To solve this dilemma, several multifunctional methylating agents, including some containing a skeletal structure similar to the Alzheimer medication Aricept, are being developed to help resurrect/reactivate “aged” AChE by methylating the AChE-OP adducts.  Presented here are initial results of employing thiomethyl ethers as methyl transfer agents and the kinetic analysis of a model system.      

Adriana Gama
On Oligopoly with Perfect Complements and Cournot Oligopoly

Previous literature suggests that oligopoly with perfect complements is the dual problem to Cournot oligopoly model. This result crucially relies on the assumption that the firms have zero costs. This paper shows that if the production costs of the firms are different from zero, the nice duality between these two oligopoly settings breaks down. One implication of this break down is that oligopoly with perfect complements can easily be a game of strategic complements while Cournot oligopoly cannot be so in a global sense.
On the other hand, Buchanan and Yoon (2000) argue that the effects on equilibrium profits of having one versus more than one firm are the same in both models, but we show that this need not be the case when costs are included. Using linear demand and linear costs, it is shown that the loss in equilibrium profit relative to the cartel/monopoly is bigger under Cournot oligopoly than under oligopoly with perfect complements.

Reddy Pratap Gandrajula
First Observation of B^+→ψ(2S)ϕK^+

Recently CDF, CMS and D0 collaborations reported evidence for a new structure in mass spectrum in exclusive decays that could not be explained using traditional quarkonium knowledge. A natural extension to this exotic structure is a possible   structure. We conducted a study for   structure in exclusive   decays, where  and using proton-proton collision data at  collected by the CMS detector. We report the first observation of with a statistical significance above 5 standard deviations and the branching fraction measurement.

Aruni Gankanda
Nitrate Photochemistry in Zeolite NaY: Product Formation and Product Stability under Different Environmental Conditions

In the atmosphere, mineral dust particles are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides. Nitrate ions associated with mineral dust particles can undergo further reaction including those initiated by solar radiation. Although nitrate photochemistry in aqueous media is fairly well studied, much less is known about the photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on mineral dust particles. In this study, the photochemistry of nitrate from HNO3 adsorption in NaY zeolite under different environmental conditions has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. NaY zeolite is used as a model zeolite for studying reactions that can occur in confined space such as those found in porous materials. Upon nitrate photolysis under dry conditions (relative humidity < 1%), surface nitrite is formed as the major adsorbed product. Although nitrite has been proposed as a product in the photochemistry of nitrate adsorbed on metal oxide particle surfaces, such as on alumina, it has not been previously detected. The stability of nitrite in NaY is attributed to the confined three-dimensional structure of the porous zeolite which contains a charge compensating cation that can stabilize the nitrite ion product. Besides adsorbed nitrite, small amounts of gas phase products are observed as well including NO2, NO and N2O at long irradiation times. The amount of nitrite formed via nitrate photochemistry decreases with increasing relative humidity whereas gas phase NO and N2O become the only detectable products. Gas-phase NO2 does not form at RH > 1%. In the presence of gas phase ammonia, ammonium nitrate is formed in NaY zeolite. Photochemistry of ammonium nitrate yields gas phase N2O as the sole gas phase product. Evidence for an NH2 intermediate in the formation of N2O is identified with FTIR spectroscopy for HNO3 adsorption and photochemistry in NH4Y zeolite.

Mohsen Ghamari
Mechanical Engineering
Numerical Modeling of Urea Injection and NO Emission in a Stoker Boiler

The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of NO emission was investigated for a coal stoker boiler by establishing a comprehensive model in ANSYS FLUENT. Once a good accuracy of comprehensive model was achieved through comparison with experimental data, FLUENT Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) was considered to simulate urea-water solution injection into the boiler. For this purpose, several injection rates as well as different injection arrangements and velocities were examined to characterize SNCR process. Results revealed the importance of temperature zone to which urea is injected. A temperature window to have maximum NO reduction while keeping the ammonia slip at its low levels was found to be about 1250-1420 K. It was also found that the nozzles closer to the corners of the wall are more likely to be in this temperature zone and would provide more satisfactory result than injection through middle ones or the innermost. The results showed that injection from higher elevation could provide better result in terms of higher NO reduction and lower ammonia slip by means of more even temperature profile and being closer to the flue gases. It was also found that for the case of injection through middle nozzles and at the elevation of secondary air, urea should have high momentum in order to penetrate into the right temperature window and prevent from high amount of ammonia slip.

Hamidreza Ghasemi Damavandi
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Analyzing Chemical Data as a pattern Recognition Problem

Analyzing the chemical data, by studying their underlying components may be of paramount importance for the chemical engineers, trying to find the chemical properties of the chemical elements. In our research, we are trying to turn the chemical problem of analysis of chemical data to a pattern recognition probelm and use the signal processing approaches to study them.

Tariq Ghazal
Dental Public Health
Prevalence and Incidence of Early Childhood Caries among African-American Children in Alabama

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and incidence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in African-American pre-school children.Methods: A cohort of 91 low socioeconomic status, high caries risk, African-American children aged 8-18 months at baseline was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama from July-2008 to December-2009 and followed prospectively. Oral examinations were given annually by one of three trained/calibrated dentists using portable equipment including mirrors, light and compressed air, without radiographs. Dental examinations included dmfs defined as cavitated, missing due to caries or filled surfaces using WHO criteria.Results: The prevalence of dmfs was: 1.10% (all d) at baseline (n=91); 12.79% (d=10.47% & f=4.65%) at 12-month follow-up(n=86); 39.29% (d=21.43%, m=2.38% & f=22.62%) at 24-month follow-up(n=84); and 65.75% (d=28.77%, m=5.48 & f=46.58%) at 36-month follow-up(n=73) follow-up. The percentages of total surfaces of all teeth that were decayed/missing/filled were 0.07% (n=3,047), 1.37% (n=7,430), 6.24% (n=8,350) and 10.38% (n=7,255) at the baseline and three follow-up examinations, respectively. The percentages of dmf on incisors, canines, first molars and second molars were: 0.08%, 0.00%, 0.00% and 0.00% at baseline; 2.44%, 0.06%, 0.76%, and 0.58% at 12-month follow-up; 8.24%, 0.83%, 7.56%, and 6.32% at 24-month follow-up; and 10.19%, 2.19%, 12.60% and 16.71% at 36-month follow-up, respectively. The three one-year person-level incidence rates were 12.50% (n=80), 38.55% (n=83), and 57.53% (n=73). Two-year and 3-year incidence rates from baseline were 23.08% (n=78) and 32.84 (n=67), respectively, while two-year caries incidence from 12-month to 36-month follow-ups was 59.72% (n=72).Conclusion: Both prevalence and incidence of ECC and the proportions of tooth surfaces with caries experience increased with age during the 3-year follow-up. Although these children received preventive care, including fluoride varnish treatments at 6 month intervals, the high caries risk of this population was significant. Further studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing to determine foci for prevention of caries.

Tariq Ghazal
Oral Science
Factors Associated with Early Childhood Caries Incidence among African-American Children in Alabama

Objectives: To assess the relationships between behavioral factors and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in African-American pre-school children.
Methods: Ninety-six African-American children were recruited by word of mouth from Perry County, Alabama (non-fluoridated community) at 12 months of age, and followed for three years. Dental examinations were conducted annually (baseline, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-up) and dental caries incidence was calculated.  Parents provided detailed oral hygiene and dietary information every six months by questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable relationships between caries incidence and different behavioral factors were assessed using logistic regression for dichotomous dependent variables and negative binomial modeling for count dependent variables.
Results: Relatively high percentages of children at baseline (about one year old) reportedly brushed their teeth (41.5%) and used toothpaste (33.3%). Almost all children (99%) consumed sugar-added beverages at the 2nd follow-up. Greater baseline frequency of toothbrushing and 100% juice consumption were associated with lower incidence of dental caries (ORs=0.34 and 0.37, P-values=0.01 and 0.049, respectively). More frequent consumption of sweetened foods was associated with greater incidence of ECC (OR=9.22, P-value=0.002).
Conclusion: For those living in a non-fluoridated community, frequency of sweetened food consumption (greater), 100% juice consumption (lower), toothbrushing (lower) were associated with more ECC incidence.

Shane Gibbons
Counseling Psychology
Psychologist Adoption of Group-Buying Auctions as Referral Pathways

If you were an independently practicing psychologist in need of new clients would you consider advertising on a Group-Buying Auction (GBA) website? Despite GBAs (e.g. Groupon and LivingSocial) success, many psychologists remain absent from GBA websites. This paper explores the history of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) advertising policies and provides a rationale for a shift in current adverting practices and ethical standards. Although it is not expressly prohibited by the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2010), group-buying auction advertising strategies have drawn consternation. The position is taken that psychologists can stay within their ethical boundaries using these types of advertising practices while promoting the welfare of clients and maintaining financial stability.

Gwendolyn Gillson
Religious Studies
Speaking of the Pure Land: A Comparison of the Commentaries on the Guan Wuliangshoujing of Huiyuan and Shandao

Pure Land Buddhism in China has long been characterized as constituting two different strains, monastic and lay. This ideology stems largely from two commentaries on the Guan Wuliangshoujing written during the Sui-Tang period with Huiyuan (523-592) representing monastics and Shandao (613-681) representing laity. However, there has been little scholarly comparison of the texts of these two commentaries to examine if there is textual evidence for these historical strains. This study looks at English translations of each commentator’s interpretation of various passages from the Guanjing; what appears are the actual relative similarities between the two commentators. It becomes clear that their ideas are not nearly as divisive as they have been historically interpreted and that even the obvious differences point to common understandings of the purpose and intent of the Guanjing. While these two strands were historically real, this study demonstrates how important it is for scholarship to distinguish between historical interpretations and textual evidence in examining the sources of Pure Land tradition.

Gwendolyn Gillson
Religious Studies
Pure Land and Politics: An Examination of the Religious Underpinnings of Burakumin Political Action in the Postwar Period





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Japanese burakumin (untouchables) have had great political success since World War II. However, little scholarship has examined the reasons that burakumin were inspired to become politically active. One potential source of political action is the religious community amongst burakumin. The instances of adherents to the True Pure Land Buddhist School among burakumin has always been far higher than among the general populace. True Pure Land itself accepted burakumin much more than the general populace and its doctrine of the decline of Buddhist law enabled burakumin to imagine a world where they were social equals with other Japanese people. Booklets published following World War II in English also point to an ideological basis in True Pure Land that burakumin may have identified which spurred political action. Furthermore, the figure of Shinran, the founder of True Pure Land, presented a model figure of resistant to dominate authority. This presentation uses these points to argue that the history of True Pure Land Buddhism amongst burakumin was one of the major factors that created the ideological basis for robust burakumin political action in the post-war period.

Javier Gomez
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Understanding the Unfolded Protein Response Signaling Network During Chronic Stress

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a transcriptional mechanism set to deal with imbalances in protein processing capacity within the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The UPR is composed of three ER-resident transmembrane sensors: PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. These sensors and their downstream reestablish ER homeostasis through several mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation. The UPR signaling framework is also been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, among them Obesity. A hallmark of UPR activation is upregulation of molecular chaperones, of which Bip is one. However we have shown that obesity causes suppression of Bip mRNA in mice and humans. We hypothesize that chronic stress, and in particular obesity, lead to changes in the UPR signaling cascade which inhibit its ability to reestablish homeostasis. Treatment of mice with a prolonged low dose pharmacological agent induces downregulation of chaperone mRNA. The main UPR transcriptional sensor involved in chaperone gene regulation is ATF6. Mice lacking ATF6 are not able reconstitute the downregulation phenotype. Furthermore, assessment of gene expression through real-time PCR analysis suggests that this downregulation is limited to targets of ATF6. This gives evidence that chronic stress changes the UPR transcriptional response and may challenge the protective function of the UPR.

Javier A Gomez
Molecular and Cellular Biology
A Computational Approach to the Unfolded Protein Response

Many Neurodegenerative diseases have a basis in protein misfolding. In the cell, the organelle charged with the major folding and quality control of proteins is the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Under normal conditions the ER senses these misfolded proteins and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a transcriptional cascade set to deal with protein folding stress through three ER transmembrane proteins: PERK, ATF6 and IRE1. This transcriptional remodeling leads to either, adaptation to stress or apoptosis when the insult cannot be cleared. The UPR is also engaged in many physiological processes and helps maintain homeostasis, such as during antibody production. Our interest in this system is to discriminate between activation profiles for the UPR and how variation in type, intensity and length of stress can be differentially sensed and a specific response tailored. We use transgenic mice with ablations of key components in each arm of the UPR to identify their individual contributions under different conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of the UPR is aided by the creation of a computational model that can simulate the ER response. This allows us to gain insight about the cooperativity of each individual arm, or the influence of feedback loops in adapting the response to the type of stress. This is important to better understand how the UPR is involved in cellular adaptation and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. 

Allison Gorga
The Production and Maintenance of Female Hegemonic Masculinity in a Women’s Prison

The current paper takes advantage of the unique microcosm of a women’s prison to explore female hegemonic masculinity. Using semi-structured interviews with 27 individuals living at Midwestern Correctional Facility for Women (MCFW), I found that masculine women in prison, referred to as “studs,” were held to more rigid gender expectations and were frequent victims of gender policing. These studs, however, obtained high status among those incarcerated and received certain benefits if they could successfully achieve masculinity. Interestingly, both masculine and feminine individuals at MCFW produced definitions of masculinity, suggesting that multiple individuals are responsible for (re)producing the gender system, while several individuals questioned or challenged the current rigid definition of “stud masculinity.” Ultimately, this study illustrates how hegemonic masculinity can be produced and maintained among a group of females, while also showing how others can be complicit in its maintenance.

Dana Gravesen
Communication Studies
"'I'm Home': <i>In the Heights</i> and the Narrative of U.S. Dominican Transnationalism"

Broadway musical In the Heights tells the story of first generation U.S. Latinos in the New York City neighborhood of Washington Heights. The majority of the characters are of Dominican descent, representative of the over 250,000 actual U.S. Dominicans who reside and work in Bronx County, NY. Every character in the musical, from bodega owner to hairstylist, dreams of winning a $96,000 lottery pot when it is discovered the winning ticket was sold in the neighborhood. For this presentation, which consists of work drafted as part of my dissertation Turbulent Nationalism on media narratives and the complexities of Dominican transnationalism, I will argue two primary points. First: In the Heights is a metaphor for the specific experiences of Dominican transnationals, with each character’s expressed desires regarding the lottery money illustrating their allegorical position as it relates to the multifarious particulars of Dominican transnationalism (e.g., assimilation, social and racial stratification, neighborhood sustainability, cultural awareness, a return to the Dominican Republic). Second: In addition to the characters, In the Heights’s settings—street, bodega, beauty salon, taxi hub, night club—serve to demonstrate the complicated negotiation of Dominican transnationalism with regard to a definition of “home,” as the musical dialogue consistently takes place in public neighborhood spaces.

Nicholas Gregory
Fatigue-Enhanced Hyperalgesia in Response to Muscle Insult: Induction and Development Occur in a Sex-Dependent Manner

Chronic muscle pain affects 20-50% of the population, is more common in women than men, and is associated with increased pain during exercise. Muscle fatigue is common in people with chronic muscle pain, occurs in response to exercise, and is associated with release of fatigue metabolites. Fatigue metabolites can sensitize muscle nociceptors and enhance pain. Using a mouse model we tested whether fatigue of a single muscle, induced by electrical stimulation, resulted in muscle hyperalgesia and if the hyperalgesia was more pronounced in female mice.  Fatigue was induced in combination with sub-threshold muscle insult (pH 5.0 saline) in both male and female mice. Mice fatigued immediately prior to muscle insult in the same muscle develop hyperalgesia 24h later.  However, female mice also develop hyperalgesia when muscle fatigue and muscle insult occur in different muscles, and when muscle insult is administered 24 hours after fatigue in the same muscle. Further, hyperalgesia lasts significantly longer in females. Finally, muscle insult with or without fatigue results in minimal inflammatory changes in muscle. The model mimics muscle fatigue enhanced pain observed in human chronic muscle pain conditions. Interactions between fatigue and muscle insult may underlie the development of chronic widespread pain with an associated female predominance observed in human subjects.

Rebecca Grekin
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

Research has demonstrated that women develop postpartum PTSD.  Prevalence of postpartum PTSD has ranged from 1% to 30%, and many risk factors have been identified as predictors of postpartum PTSD.  While qualitative reviews have identified patterns of risk, the lack of quantitative reviews prevents the field from identifying specific risk factors and making a single estimate of the prevalence of postpartum PTSD.  The current meta-analysis investigated prevalence and risk factors of postpartum PTSD among community and targeted samples.  Prevalence of postpartum PTSD in community samples was estimated to be 3.1% and in at-risk samples at 15.7%.  Important risk factors included postpartum depression, history of psychopathology, interactions with medical staff, as well as postpartum social support.   Further research should investigate how attitudes towards pregnancy and childbirth may interact with women’s experiences during delivery.  Additionally, studies need to begin to evaluate possible long-term effects that these symptoms may have on women and their families.

Brett Gross
Developing a New Immunotherapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer

Women today face a 1 in 8 lifetime probability of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Although existing interventions are effective in treating localized tumors, metastatic disease remains incurable and is responsible for approximately 90% of breast cancer deaths. The therapeutic induction of systemic anti-tumor immunity is a promising approach for treating metastatic disease. Here, we identify a novel vaccination protocol that significantly reduces lung metastases in a pre-clinical murine model of breast cancer.
In our studies, mice are challenged in the mammary gland with a bioluminescent breast cancer cell line that readily forms primary tumors and spontaneously metastasizes to the lungs. Six days after tumor challenge, mice receive a priming therapy consisting of tumor lysates encapsulated within polymer microspheres. Five days later, mice receive a boost therapy comprised of free tumor lysates plus a number of adjuvants. At 25 days post-tumor challenge, mice are euthanized and lungs are excised. Lung metastases are then quantified using the bioluminescent light flux emitted by the tumor cells.
Treated mice have a significant (p = 0.002) reduction in lung metastases, with an average 47% decrease relative to no therapy controls. We are currently exploring the mechanism(s) responsible for our vaccine’s efficacy.

Qi Guo
Remote Mutant Affects Enzyme Active Site Dynamics Revealed by Two Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

One hotly debated topic in enzymology is the role of fast protein structural fluctuations in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is selected as a model system because its transition state analogue inhibitor, azide, enables us to study the fs to ps time scale dynamics using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR). Previous work on commercial Candida boidinii FDH through kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and 2D IR suggests that the active site structure in the transition state (TS) is rigid reflecting the fact that the native tunneling ready state is well organized for efficient hydride transfer. On the other hand, recombinant FDH showed significant different 2D IR result, suggesting that the active site of the recombinant FDH undergoes a different dynamic process. DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant FDH has several amino acids that are different from the commercial enzyme. While none of them is in the vicinity of the active site and most of them are reported as ‘natural variants’, combination of these mutations has an impact on the active site. Understanding the structural and kinetic differences and probing the dynamic motions between the commercial and the recombinant may clarify the dynamic network of the distal mutations in FDH.

Genevieve Guzman
Comparative Literature/Translation
A View onto Ruins: Joseph Brodsky's "Roman Elegies"

Nobel-prizewinning Russian poet Joseph Brodsky, a lifetime lover of Italy, pays homage to the artistic inspiration of the city of Rome in his “Roman Elegies,” a twelve-part poetic cycle first published in his collection To Urania (Ardis, 1984). As a translator from Russian to English, I am drawn to the existentially fraught, lovelorn, yet unsentimental lyric voice that Brodsky employed throughout his oeuvre, including these elegies.  Because he knew English and self-translated or collaborated with other poet-translators on self-translations, Brodsky scholars favor the work in which he himself had a hand, despite the fact that these versions, while authorized, frequently do not read like poetry in English, but rather, as we say in the field, “translatese”: awkward attempts to hew too closely to the devices of the original at the expense of the translation. So while an English version of this cycle appears in Joseph Brodsky: Collected Poems in English (FSG, 2000), in my translation I attempt to capture the elegant density of the original Russian, which to my mind is bloated with explicitations in the existing translation. I also strive to maintain a cohesive register throughout, and to render Brodsky’s arresting metaphors with the most vivid images in English I can conjure. By these efforts, I hope my resultant version distinguishes itself as translation and poetry alike.

D. Emily Ha
Nonfiction Writing
The Valley of Opportunity

The essay explores the myth of America as a Promised Land and its impact on immigrants by looking at two milestones in the history of the city of Binghamton, New York: the prosperous days of the Endicott-Johnson Shoe Company in the 1930s and the American Civic Association shooting that occurred in April 2009. 

Josh Hainy
Art History
John Flaxman’s Visual Translations

John Flaxman's illustrations depicting scenes from works by Homer, Aeschylus, and Dante have dominated the scholarship on the British sculptor and draughtsman. The interest in these illustrations relates to their use of the contour style, where a simple line defines all elements of the composition with little to no interior modeling. In discussions of his illustrations, scholars have not investigated the ways in which Flaxman depicts his narratives. Because Flaxman intended these illustrations to be published independently from their textual sources, they are images that stand in for the text, not ones meant to accompany it. In other words, Flaxman works as a translator of his sources, but by using images, instead of words. This paper uses three examples from Flaxman's illustrations for Homer's Iliad as case studies to demonstrate how Flaxman creates narratives that visually translate their written sources.  

Sarah Hale
Educational Policy and Leadership
Politics, Policy, and School Leadership in the Post-Reform Era

The landscape of leadership is changing under the constantly shifting contexts of policy, politics, and school reform.  Contemporary ideas of leadership don’t accurately represent today’s reform-minded agenda.  Concepts like distributed leadership construe leadership as a shared endeavor, flat across the organization.  However, the modern era of school reform has shifted the way that policy pressure is exerted upon school organizations. Rather than power being distributed across an organization, power is being distributed upwards by centralizing policy and implementing reforms like mayoral control.  Pressure is more likely to come from the top down with these centralized reforms and federal policy mandates such as Race to the Top and the Common Core Standards.

Katherine Hall
School Psychology
Psychopathy: Correlates of the MMPI-2-RF and PPI-R

The present study sought to examine the utility of the MMPI-2-RF in assessing psychopathic personality traits.  The aim of  the study validated and built upon the previous research (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) by re-examining the Restructured C­linical scales (RC4, RC9, RC7, and RC2) and investigate the MMPI-2-RF fear scales (Behavioral-Restricting Fears & Multiple Specific Fears), High-Order Scale (Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction), Externalizing Scale (Juvenile Conduct Problems and Substance Abuse) and the Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Negative-Emotionality/Neuroticism-Revised & Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality-Revised).  It was hypothesized that the RC scales 4 and 9 would be positively correlated with psychopathy while RC scales 7 and 2 would be negatively correlated with psychopathy as shown in previous research (Sellbom, Ben-Porath, & Graham, 2005).  In addition, it was hypothesized that Behavior-Restricting Fears and Multiple Specific Fears scales would have negative correlation with psychopathy.  In conjecture, the High-Order scale and the Externalizing scales would be positively correlated with psychopathy. In general, the Psychopathology Five Negative-Emotionality/Neuroticism-Revised and Introversion/Low Positive Emotionality-Revised scales will be negatively correlated with psychopathic factors while the Disconstraint-Revised will be positively correlated with psychopathic factors.  Overall, the results supported the hypotheses with selected MMPI-2-RF scales effectively assessing psychopathic traits in nonclinical samples as measured by the PPI-R.

Gabriela Hamerlinck
Can preexisting trait variation predict the outcomes of parasitoid competition in novel habitats?

Parasitoid wasps often specialize on one or a few hosts, usually resulting in reproductively isolated populations which may explain high parasitoid diversity. In this study we ask if different parasitoids compete for new hosts and if some species possess preexisting traits that enable them to more easily colonize a novel host. Further, we ask if we can predict successful host shifts based on analyses of characteristics of the ancestral system. We have designed a mathematical model describing the effects of morphological differences between competing parasitoids on colonization of a novel host. As a case study, we use races of the wasp Diachasma alloeum that attack Rhagoletis larvae in hawthorn and blueberry fruit  to determine their ability to attack Rhagoletis larvae in a new plant host, apple. This model evaluates morphological characters that may allow one ancestral D. alloeum race to successfully utilize its host in a novel fruit over the other. Results of this work will ultimately be broad in scope; they will help inform general predictive models of insect host shifts, and have potential use in the evaluation of parasitoids for biological control of non-native pest insects.

Jaclyn Haugsdal
Medicine (MD)
Vascular Disruption of the Talus: Comparison of Two Approaches for Triple Arthrodesis.

Background: For triple arthrodesis, a single-medial-incision approach has been proposed to avoid lateral wound complications. This study aimed to compare the operative disruption to the arterial supply of the talus between the new approach and the two- incision approach, which is an important for adequate fusion and perfusion of the talus.
Methods: The two approaches were compared by analyzing the disruption of arterial vasculature in 14 cadaveric specimens in randomized fashion. The arterial disruption was determined using CT guided, microscopic dissection. The area of joint preparation was also analyzed and compared.
Results: The single-medial-incision approach caused high incidence of damage to the deltoid artery (86%) and the artery of the tarsal canal (100%). The two-incision approach caused damage to the artery of the tarsal sinus in all seven specimens (100%). Using the single-medial-incision approach the area of calcaneocuboid joint debridement (36%) was significantly lower compared to the two-incision approach (85%), p<0.01.
Conclusion: Vascular sparing to the talus should be considered when selecting an appropriate approach for triple arthrodesis. From this cadaveric study, the two-incision approach is preferred when a total ankle replacement is contemplated due to the lesser degree of vascular disruption and reduced risk of avascular necrosis and failure.

Nanseol Heo
Counselor Education and Supervision
Educational Aspirations, Career decision profile,and Career value of Gifted adolescents; Examining the difference by Gender, Grade and Parent education

Past research has described that gifted students tend to have higher levels of career maturity and educational aspirations compared to non-gifted students (Cobb &Yvett, 2008; Kelly, 1996).  While gifted students have been characterized as superior in their career development compared to their non-gifted peers, the differences of career developmental characteristics within the gifted population have been relatively less studied.  In this study, career values, educational aspirations, and career decision-making variables were examined by gender and parents’ educational level.  Participants in this study were 78 intellectually gifted students  in an academic talent search program in 2012.  Educational aspirations of participants were significantly different by father’s educational level; no differences were found by gender and mothers’ educational level. With regard to the important career values, gifted adolescents tend to consider the extrinsically oriented values more importantly, compared to the intrinsically oriented values representing attributes or qualities of works.  Finally, gifted students showed significantly higher scores than criterion values in five sub-scales of career decision profile scale (Jones &Lohmann, 1998), except for recognition of career choice importance.  Implications for career counseling of gifted students were discussed.

Jeevapani Hettige
Anions, the Main Reporters of Ionic Liquid Structure in X-ray Scattering Experiments

Anions, the Main Reporters of Ionic Liquid Structure in X-ray Scattering Experiments
In this Molecular Dynamics Simulation work we discuss why whereas cations are commonly the most structurally rich species in room-temperature ionic-liquids it is often instead the anions the ones that we must rely on to learn about their topology. By predicting the structure function of a set of ionic liquids composed of the same cation but with varying anions in a recent article we describe some of the features of these systems such as charge and polarity alternation. In cases where these peaks are missing in the experimentally obtained overall structure function we are still able to recover this information by looking at specific partitions of the structure function. Specifically, the cationic polar head-anion subcomponent of structure function.

Brooke Holland
School Psychology
A simultaneous evaluation: Effects of quality of attention on liquid consumption and liquid preference

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low quality attention on milk consumption.  Additionally, we evaluated preference for white and chocolate milk under each condition (i.e., high and low quality attention).  The participant, Carrie, was a 5-year-old female diagnosed with feeding difficulties, gastroesophageal reflux disease, developmental delays, and chromosomal abnormality.  Interobserver agreement was assessed across 35% of sessions and averaged 92%.  Low quality attention was defined as infrequent eye contact, no physical contact, no physical orientation towards Carrie, and encouragement in a flat/monotone vocal intonation.  High quality attention was defined as frequent eye contact, physical contact or close proximity, physical orientation towards Carrie, enthusiastic encouragement, and enthusiastic and specific praise.  The results of the study demonstrated that high quality attention increased consumption of both white and chocolate milk and that Carrie demonstrated a preference for chocolate milk.       

Hyeri Hong
Curriculum and Supervision (Education)
The Association between School Environmental Factors and Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Authority in an Age of Standardized Testing

Using the national data from the Survey of the Status of Social Studies (S4), this study examines the associations between school environmental factors and the self-reported levels of authority and control over key classroom tasks among middle and junior high school social studies teachers in the context of standardized testing. Employing the analytic sample of middle and junior high school social studies teachers (N=2,050), multiple regression analysis was conducted. The findings from this study indicate that the more minority and more low-income students are enrolled in the school setting, the less authority and control middle and junior high school social studies teachers reported. Much research supports that teachers’ professional authority has brought about a lot of positive effects on teachers’ professional lives, their instruction, student academic achievement and learning, and effective operation of schools. Teachers’ undermined authority and control in high-minority and low-income schools may generate negative consequences. It may degrade the quality of social studies instruction because administrators pressure teachers to focus on teaching literacy skills rather than social studies content, and teaching to the standards and the state tests so that their students can pass the state tests. Also, teachers who feel they lose professional authority, creativity, and flexibility tend to leave the schools they work or leave the profession completely. In this regard, this study is significant in that it sheds light on the issue that standardized testing force may disadvantage low-income, minority children’s social studies learning and quality of education.

Anna Hoppe
Biomedical Engineering
Cerebral Aneurysm Growth as the Etiology of Recurrence After Successful Coil Embolization

A cerebral aneurysm occurs when a portion of a blood vessel in the brain dilates. Over time the aneurysm can remain dilated but stable, or grow or rupture. Doctors may choose to treat aneurysms because rupture may lead to death.  A less invasive treatment method is the catheter placement of metal wires into the aneurysm sac. These wires act to slow in-coming blood into the dilation, which initiates the blood-clotting cascade and leads to occlusion of the aneurysm. Yet in some patients complete aneurysm occlusion may not be maintained indefinitely. Either because of changes in aneurysm or wire-clot morphology over time blood can re-enter the aneurysm, necessitating additional treatment. The conventional belief is that compaction of the wire-clot within the aneurysm is the mechanism behind this phenomenon, but the supporting evidence is weak. Instead we hypothesize that the aneurysm continues to grow even after placement of the metal wires. To assess this hypothesis we used 3D image processing techniques to quantify aneurysm and wire-clot volume over time in patients treated with metal wires. Paired Student’s T-Tests (p<0.05) were done to assess whether the change in aneurysm and wire-clot volume was statistically significant. The findings indicate that aneurysm growth is primarily responsible for aneurysm blood re-entry and re-treatment over time in this study population.

Anna Hoppe
Biomedical Engineering
Cerebral aneurysm sac growth as the etiology of recurrence after successful coil embolization

A cerebral aneurysm occurs when a portion of a blood vessel in the brain dilates. Over time, it may remain dilated but stable or grow or even rupture. Physicians often choose to treat these types of aneurysms because rupture may lead to neurological deficit and death. A less invasive treatment method for brain aneurysms is the catheter placement of many metal wires into the aneurysm sac. These wires slow down the flow of blood into the aneurysm and thereby initiate the blood-clotting cascade, resulting in the complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac. This helps to direct blood flow along the healthy portion of the blood vessel. However in some patients the complete occlusion of the aneurysm is not maintained indefinitely and, either because of changes in the aneurysm or wire-clot mass morphology blood is able to eventually re-enter the sac, necessitating additional treatment measures. The conventional belief is that compaction of the wire-clot mass within the aneurysm is the primary mechanism behind this phenomenon. Yet the evidence to support this premise is weak. Instead we hypothesize that in some patients, even after the placement of the metal wires, the aneurysm continues to grow. This growth would allow the wire-clot mass to change orientation within the sac and provide a pathway for the re-entry of blood. Therefore the study objective was to use 3D image processing techniques to test this hypothesis by quantitatively assessing aneurysm sac and wire-clot mass size over time in cerebral aneurysm patients treated with metal wires.

Mehrdad Hosnieh Farahani
Biomedical Engineering
A Parallel Simulation of Self-Sustained Oscillation of Vocal Folds in a Human Larynx

The air flow is modeled using a massively parallel incompressible solver. The flow solver is based on immersed boundary method in which the laryngeal boundaries are embedded in a fixed Cartesian grid and are represented using level-set approach. To improve load-balancing and memory performance, the Cartesian mesh interior to the tissue that is not required for the ghost fluid treatment is pruned during the initialization of the simulation. The small-scale flow structures in the glottal flow are resolved using an adaptive octree-based local mesh refinement. The results provide detailed information about the flow structures of the glottal flow in the physiological flow.

Xu Huang
First-principles extrapolation procedure for accurate NO chemisorption energies

First-principles extrapolation procedure for accurate NO chemisorption energiesDensity functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to investigate the adsorption NO on transition metal surfaces in an effort to track and correct for quantitative errors in the theoretical chemisorption energy. While DFT correctly predicts the preferred adsorption site of NO on transition metal surfaces, the absolute values of the chemisorption energy are known to vary considerably based on the choice of exchange correlation functional or other details of the simulation method. In our approach we vary the calculation parameters to obtain trends in chemisorption energy as a function of NO electronic structure. We apply this method to a variety of metal surfaces and NO adsorption sites, and use the obtained trends in DFT chemisorption energies to suggest correction schemes for more consistently accurate DFT predictions of adsorption energetics. The outcome of this work is the development of fast and more accurate simulation methods for determining the reactivity of catalytic surfaces, which has broad impact on the fields of heterogeneous catalysis, materials science, and chemical physics.

John Hughes
Texture as a Dramatic and Hermeneutic Device in Leonhard Lechner's St. John Passion (1593)

Reformation-era Lutheran piety was centered on the Passion story. Many composers, especially J.S. Bach (1685–1750), are known for their Passion settings. A precursor to Bach’s famous Passions, Leonhard Lechner’s Passion (Nuremberg, 1593) is often cited as the epitome of the Motet Passion subgenre. Although many scholars point to Lechner’s work as the climax of the Motet Passion, little analysis of the construction of the work and the compositional devices Lechner employs exists. An examination of Lechner’s novel use of vocal textures reveals an attempt to heighten the listener’s understanding of and interaction with the theology of Passion story. Lechner’s textural manipulation not only demonstrates his compositional creativity, but could also be interpreted as conveying the story’s dramatic and hermeneutic import. This paper explores the history of musical settings of the Passion and analyzes Lechner’s use of texture. The paper further demonstrates that Lechner’s textural manipulation was an attempt to encourage the common congregant to interact more directly with God, a central tenant of the Lutheran Reformation.

Sara Hussain
Integrative Physiology
Perturbation schedule does not alter retention of a locomotor adaptation across days

One important feature of locomotion is the ability to adjust the walking pattern in response to altered conditions. The central nervous system achieves this by using both feedback and feedforward control.  Locomotor adaptation is one way that locomotor patterns are modified in a predictive manner, specifically in response to a perturbation that becomes predictable over time. During motor adaptation, the central nervous system experiences an error signal that drives the updating of predictive motor commands in order to adjust the movement to better suit the current context.

Motor adaptation in response to gradual versus abrupt perturbation schedules may involve different neural mechanisms, potentially leading to different levels of motor memory.  However, no study has investigated whether perturbation schedule alters memory of a locomotor adaptation across days.  We measured adaptation and retention (memory) of altered interlimb symmetry during walking in two groups of participants over two days. On day 1, participants adapted to either a single, large perturbation (abrupt schedule) or a series of small perturbations that increased in size over time (gradual schedule).  Retention was examined on day 2.  On day 1, initial error sizes for swing time and foot placement symmetry differed between groups, but overall adaptation magnitudes were similar.  On day 2, participants in both groups showed similar retention, re-adaptation, and aftereffect sizes, although there were some trends for improved memory in the abrupt group.  These results conflict with previous data, but are consistent with newer studies reporting no behavioral differences following adaptation using abrupt versus gradual schedules.  Although memory levels were very similar between groups, we cannot rule out the possibility that the neural mechanisms underlying this memory storage differ.  Overall, it appears that adaptation of locomotor patterns via abrupt and gradual perturbation schedules produces similar expression of locomotor memories across days.


Mahmut Ilerisoy
Understanding the Risks in First-Loss Tranche Positions in Synthetic CDO Investments

Credit derivatives were among the most criticized financial instruments in the recent credit crises. Given their short history, finance professionals are still researching to discover effective ways to reduce the mark-to-market (MTM) volatility in credit derivatives, especially in turbulent market conditions.
Many credit portfolios struggled to find out appropriate tools and techniques to help them navigate the recent credit crises and hedge mark-to-market volatility in their portfolios. In this study we provide a framework to help understand the risks in structured credit portfolios. We analyze the risk factors that impact the MTM volatility in CDX tranches; namely Spread Risk, Correlation Risk, Dispersion Risk, and Curve Risk. We focus our analysis in explaining the risks in the equity tranche as this is the riskiest tranche in the capital structure. We show that all four risks introduced are critical in explaining MTM volatility in equity tranches. We also perform multiple regression analysis to show the correlations between different risk factors. We show that, when combined, spread, correlation, and dispersion risks are the most important risk factors in analyzing MTM fluctuations in equity tranche. Curve risk can be used as an add-on risk to further explain local instances. After understanding various risk factors that impact the MTM changes in equity tranche, we put this knowledge to work to analyze two instances in 2008 in which we experienced significant spread widening in CDX.IG equity tranche. Both examples show that a good understanding of the risks that drive MTM changes in CDX tranches is critical in making informed trading decisions.

Anna Ing
School Psychology
An Evaluation of the Presence or Absence of Tangibles in the Functional Analysis Escape Condition

The purpose of this poster is to evaluate the influence of the presence or absence of tangibles on the behavior exhibited during an escape functional analysis condition. Previous studies have reported concerns with the tangible condition (Rooker et al. 2011). We will be presenting data on problem behavior and task completion during the presentation of demands and during reinforcement both with and without tangibles present within the demand context. Participants within our study were individuals with developmental disabilities who displayed problem behavior within functional analysis designs. Functional analysis escape conditions initially displayed elevated levels of problem behavior (based on a 6-second partial interval recording system; IOA conducted for 57% of sessions and averaged 96%) suggesting problem behavior was motivated by access to negative reinforcement. We compared escape conditions which included either the presence or absence of tangibles throughout the session. Our results suggest that an absence of tangibles during an escape condition may increase problem behaviors and decrease task completion when compared to escape conditions conducted with noncontingent access to tangibles. Results will be discussed in terms of the implications of ambiguous functional analysis results on treatment recommendations and outcomes.

Leonid Iogansen
Painting: an Artist's Universe?

Representational artists frequently set a goal to portray the existing world as justly as possible, with an addition of a degree of “artistry”. Such portrayal relies primarily on observation of the existing phenomena and their physical properties, rather than on one’s imagination. The act of representing in this case is an act of performance, similar to a musical performance, in which a pre-composed piece is rendered through the mastery and self-expression of a performer. However, when a painting is constructed with recognizable objects (such as mountains, trees, people, etc.) an observer may feel invited to recognize the existing Universe in such an artwork. Yet, a given painting may not necessarily strive to reflect the known Universe, but rather rather build a new Universe, through a poetic and a dialectic use of color and form, often creating artistic uncertainty and indeterminacy. In my paintings, I explore this very vision of mergence of poetry and indeterminacy with improvisation of the existing objects, creating my own Universe. An observer is to ask oneself: is the light reflected or radiated by the painted mountains? Is the light source singular, or are there infinite number of light sources?

Amanda Irish
Integrative Physiology
Evaluation of a Modified Paleolithic Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Improvements in fatigue and quality of life seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients adhering to a modified Paleolithic dietary intervention (MPDI), nutritional supplement, exercise, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation regime are hypothesized to be due primarily to the effect of diet. However, no research has been conducted evaluating the dietary intervention alone.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate a MPDI in the treatment of Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS). We evaluated effects of the MPDI in nine men and women (mean age: 36.0 yrs ±6.0) with neurologist-verified RRMS. Four subjects were randomized to a "usual care" (control) group and five were taught the MPDI and asked to follow it for three months.
Our preliminary results indicate trends for improved Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, p=0.18) and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54-Mental (MSQOL-M, p=0.16) scores from baseline in MPDI subjects compared to controls at 3 months. Time to complete non-dominant hand 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, p=0.11), and 25-Foot Walk (25-FW, p=0.13) decreased in MPDI subjects at 3 months compared to controls. Decreases in serum highly-sensitive C-Reactive Protein levels (hs-CRP, p=0.12) were also observed in MPDI subjects at 3 months compared to controls. We expect these and other outcome measures to show statistical significance in the MPDI group versus controls as more subjects (n=20) complete the intervention.

Anna Isbell
Art History
Speaking to the Dead: The Permanence of Memory through Late Gothic Tomb Sculpture

Mortuary monuments, specifically tombs, are one of the most easily recognizable forms of the visual manifestation of cultural memory. The tombs of the late Gothic were created, not as an expression of artistic individuality or personality but as a way to commemorate the dead. In this manner, they served as a reminder that all must return to God in the end. But this was not the only way they shaped cultural memory. Indeed, the mortuary monument of the Middle Ages served as a reminder of the dead to the living, effectively creating a cult of remembrance. This is illustrated through the different type of tombs created in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Case studies of grave slabs, tomb reliefs, and transi tombs exhibit the different artistic interpretations of memorializing the dead. This paper focuses on how the different influences of the socio-cultural environment shaped the forms of the death culture and visual manifestation of the Christian beliefs about death. Special practices were put into place in order to maintain the remembrance of the dead through prayer, intercession, and commemoration. Placement of the dead and mortuary monuments acted as a focus for the prayers concerning the souls of the dead. Just as important as the idea of the soul continuing to exist after death was the concept of the memory and identity of the person living on after death. The slabs, themselves, symbolize the permanence of the memory of the deceased in the minds of the living. The intransience of the stones combined with portraits of the deceased stress the importance of being remembered by future generations. In this way, the dead were never truly forgotten and were eternally fixed in the memory of the living.

j j
Computer Science


Hannibal Jackson
Spinoza's Necessitarianism: Strong or Moderate?

Edwin Curley and Gregory Walski in their paper ‘Spinoza’s Necessitarianism Reconsidered’ argue that Spinoza did not hold the view that they term 'strong necessitarianism', but rather he supported ‘moderate necessitarianism’.  Michael V. Griffin in his essay “Necessitarianism in Spinoza and Leibniz” argues against Curley and Walski and maintains that Spinoza supported 'strong necessitarianism'.  In this paper I will defend Curley and Walski against Griffin’s objections, though I will suggest an improvement to Griffin's argument that might allow the 'strong necessitarian' view to be successful.

Nicole Jardine
The mind does not take snapshots: Visual search in static and dynamic displays

People engage in visual search when we look for ketchup bottles in the refrigerator or open lanes on the highway.  The use of laboratory visual search tasks with simple visual features has enabled us to develop theories of basic feature processing as well as generate predictive models of human visual search in complex scenes. A potential fundamental problem with this work, however, is that it relies on research done with static displays presented as snapshots. In the real world, we do not often encounter static displays; features can change over time.  People do take samples of visual information, but do we engage in visual search over a series of independent snapshots? This project evaluates the hypotheses that (1) search is not the same for an image presented as a single snapshot compared to the same image embedded as part of a series of snapshots, and (2) searching for features that occur over time is as difficult as search for features positioned across space. We find that people cannot isolate one snapshot from the movie that occurs before and after it; temporal dynamics severely reduce search accuracy. Features in dynamic scenes are processed fundamentally differently from static features.  Current basic theories of feature processing and models of visual search performance do not predict this dynamic search impairment, but we discuss some potential avenues of research to describe and model human visual processing in dynamic scenes. 

Frank Jareczek
The decreased antinociceptive efficacy of epibatidine in the rostral ventromedial medulla after peripheral inflammatory injury is not explained by decreases in α4β2 nicotinic receptor number or binding affinity

Smoking accounts for ~5 million deaths annually and 15% of healthcare expenditures worldwide.  Chronic pain exacts a similarly high toll on individuals and society.  The interplay between chronic pain and smoking has been evident for decades.  Smoking prevalence among individuals seeking chronic pain management is twice that in the general population, and smoking exacerbates both the intensity and associated impairment of chronic pain.  Although the analgesic effects of nicotine in the acute setting are well-established, the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists in persistent pain states has not been systematically examined.  Our behavioral data indicate that the antinociceptive efficacy of an α4β2 nAChR agonist microinjected in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is diminished in a time-dependent manner following peripheral inflammatory injury induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA).  A decrease in number (Bmax) or binding affinity (KD) of α4β2 nAChRs in the RVM could underlie this effect.  To examine this possibility, membrane homogenates of the RVM were prepared for radioligand binding.  In saline-treated rats, the Bmax ranged from 22-25 fmol/mg protein and the KD of [3H]epibatidine was ~15 pM; these values did not differ over time.  In CFA-treated rats, neither Bmax nor KD determined 4 hours or 2 weeks after CFA injection differed from values in the corresponding saline-treated rats.  However, the KD was modestly increased to ~20 pM 4 days after CFA treatment.  Although the behavioral data suggest that patients may smoke more because chronic pain decreases the analgesic efficacy of nicotine, it is unlikely that this effect can be ascribed to decreases in α4β2 nAChR number or affinity.  Future studies will use complementary behavioral and electrophysiological experiments to identify alternate mechanistic underpinnings for the adverse interaction between smoking and chronic pain.  These insights will guide the development of new behavioral and pharmacological therapeutic interventions.

Thilina Jayarathne
Fluoride Emissions from Biomass Burning Aerosol

Fluoride is the 13th most abundant element on earth and widely dispersed throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Fluorides enter the atmosphere through soil dust, sea spray, and volcanoes, as well as anthropogenic sources: brick manufacturing, aluminum smelting, fertilizer production and coal burning. It is well established that vegetation accumulates fluorides from the surrounding environment, which can be toxic to plants and animals that graze on them. In the study, we test the hypothesis that the burning of biomasses re-emits fluoride into the atmosphere. We analyzed water-soluble fluoride in 55 fine particulate (PM2.5) samples from biomass burning collected at the Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. Fluoride was detected in samples from all conifers (n=11) and agricultural residues (n=15), but only 25% of the grasses (n=11). The rest (n=18) which was collected from peat, shredded tires and hardwood burns did not contain measureable amounts of fluoride. A tight correlation (R2 > 0.95) between mass of PM2.5 and fluoride emitted from coniferous and agricultural residue burns, reflects a consistent fluoride mass fraction among similar fuels. Fluoride accounted for 0.6 – 1.5 g kg-1 of PM2.5 emissions from conifers and 0.5 – 1.3 g kg-1 of fluorideemitted by burning grasses.  Agricultural residues varied considerably, from 0.1 g kg-1 to 4.4 g kg-1, with maxima likely influenced by application of fluoride-containing fertilizers.  These measurements help to explain prior ambient observations in which particulate fluoride in the atmosphere coincided with major biomass burning events and provide new insight to the global cycling of fluoride.

Thilina Jayarathne
Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Iowa City

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) plays important role in the environment due to its influence on public health, visibility, biogeochemical cycles and earth’s radiative balance. They are a complex chemical mixture, consisting of elemental carbon, organic carbon, salts, and mineral dust.   Elemental carbon enters the atmosphere as primary combustion emissions.  Organic carbon is produced from both direct emission and by atmospheric oxidation of gaseous precursors. Sulfate and nitrate are formed in the atmosphere as secondary products from sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Fertilizer and microbes are the major sources of ammonia, while calcium is associated with wind-blown soil. The composition and abundance of PM varies by its source region and exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variation.
The objective of this study is to examine aerosol composition at two sites in Iowa City. Filter samples were collected daily from 25 August to 10 November 2011. PM2.5 mass ranged from 3 - 26 µg m-3, not exceeding the EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35 µg m-3. Carbonaceous aerosol was the dominant component of PM2.5, contributing 40% of the PM2.5 mass. Sulfate and nitrate contributed to another 13% and 6% respectively. Elevated concentrations of sulfate were observed during late summer and elevated concentrations of nitrate were observed in fall. Another 3% of total PM2.5 mass is contributed by calcium, indicating that re-suspended soil dust is a source of fine particles, especially in October.  A week-long episode with elevated sodium concentrations was observed at both sites in early October; its origin is currently under investigation. Higher elemental carbon and calcium concentrations were observed at Site 1, signifying a minor influence of local PM sources. Overall, the levels of other chemical components are not significantly different across the two sites suggesting their concentrations are primarily influenced by regional atmospheric processes.         

Asitha Jayawardena
Public Health (MPH)
Early results from a 'train the trainer' approach to Ponseti method dissemination in a developing country: A case study of Sri Lanka

            The Ponseti method has been established as the standard of care for the treatment of clubfoot in many developed countries for its utility, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency. However, despite its being described as the gold-standard clubfoot treatment method, there are still areas of the world bereft in formal training in the Ponseti method. This study analyzes a ‘train the trainer’ approach, specifically in the island nation of Sri Lanka, as a model for the future dissemination of the Ponseti method throughout the developing world.
            A rapid ethnographic study design that included interviews, focus groups, and direct observation of 162 patients and healthcare practitioners directly involved with clubfoot care was conducted.
            The average patients interviewed were 75.4 weeks old (SD = 149.2), traveled 45.2 kilometers (SD = 49.8) to receive their care, and received 4 casts (SD = 2.2) at the time of interview.  Since the initiation of the ‘train the trainer’ system, clubfoot clinics reportedly grew from 6-7 patients per week to over 60 patients per week. The majority of this growth was attributed to word of mouth. Major barriers to the method included casting materials, bracing materials, and a lack of a dedicated area to conduct tenotomies under local anesthesia. Of note, cost was not cited as a major barrier.
            Early evaluation suggests great utility of the ‘train the trainer’ method – especially regarding an increased patient demand for treatment. However, further studies are necessary to understand the long-term utility of this training methodology.

Jinfeng Jiao
Negative Feedback Is Better Than No Feedback? How Feedback, Goal Publicity, Self-Monitoring Influence Escalation of Goal Commitment

Goals play an essential role in the purposive behavior of consumers (R.P. Bagozzi & U. Dholakia, 1999). However, consumers frequently fail to achieve their stated goals, even after investing time and money on the goal. For example, they drop out of the exercise class, they spend over $100 at the grocery store. Little is known is about how consumers react to goal failure. When will people choose to continue pursuing the goal and when will they give up on the goal after they receive negative feedback? This study examines the effect of goal publicity, self-monitoring, attribution on the escalation of goal commitment.

Noah Johnson
Karate as an Intervention in Public Schools: Reducing Discipline Issues and Student Violence with Traditional Martial Arts

Though schools have become a topic of increasing discussion due to several high-profile tragedies, this shift in media attention reflects the growing recognition within schools communities of problems that are not recent. Traditionally schools have employed the strategies of suspension or expulsion to address discipline issues and student violence, but these standard methods have met with limited and inconsistent success. In this paper I outline the benefits that could be offered through a program that integrates the practice of a traditional martial art, karate, into the response systems employed by schools facing these troubling issues. Such a program focuses on engaging these problems and providing opportunities for students to change, rather than simply punishing unwanted behavior or "passing the problem down the line". Examples to the efficacy of such a program from the literature are discussed and supporting explanation from ethnographic informants is offered to elucidate how karate can be employed to reduce violent behavior and discipline issues. This paper is the synthesis of my fieldwork with karate practitioners in both Okinawa, Japan and the United States and my participation in the 2013 Obermann Institute on Engagement in the Academy.  

Vijaya Joshi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Intra-tumoral co-delivery of doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides in PLGA particles

This study focuses on development of PLGA particles encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) and CpG oligonucleotides (CpG) followed by in-vivo evaluation of their anticancer activity in tumor bearing mice.
Three different preparation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 (PLGA50) particles: 1) admixture of PLGA50 encapsulating Dox (Dox-PLGA50) and PLGA50 encapsulating CpG (CpG-PLGA50); 2) admixture of Dox-PLGA50 and CpG-PLGA75; 3) PLGA50 co-loaded with Dox and CpG, were fabricated using a double emulsion solvent evaporation method.
A therapeutic C57BL/6 mouse model was used to evaluate antitumor activity of the microparticle formulations. Mice (n = 4) were challenged subcutaneously with 106 EL4 tumor cells. An intratumoral (i.t.) injection of different treatment groups were given on day 3 post tumor challenge. Each mouse was treated with 100 µg of Dox and 50 µg of CpG. Tumor volumes were monitored over time.
PLGA particles loaded with Dox and CpG were successfully prepared. Use of 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 8.2) during fabrication significantly increases the loading of Dox. Aggregation of Dox and CpG during particle preparation was prevented by emulsification of Dox and CpG independently in different polymer solutions. In-vivo  studies showed that treatment with PLGA50 particles co-loaded with Dox and CpG showed enhanced protection and improved survival in mice.

Sean Jules
Confidence vs. Doubt: Differential Processing of Proattitudinal and Counterattitudinal Information

Past research and theory suggests that people may actively process information as a means to enhance feelings of confidence when they feel doubtful.  If processing is intended to serve this goal, then it is plausible that people experiencing low confidence may also be motivated to avoid thinking about information that could increase feelings of doubt.  We examined how the pro- versus counterattitudinal nature of a persuasive message may elicit these potential processing differences.  Participants completed a priming task designed to manipulate feelings of confidence (low or high).  Participants were then given a message consisting of either strong or weak arguments about a university tuition program.  In low confidence conditions, participants processed the message more when it was relatively pro-attitudinal compared to counterattitudinal. When confidence was manipulated be high, an opposite pattern emerged—participants tended to process the message more when it was relatively counter- rather than proattitudinal.

Sang Kyun Kang
Articulatory Gestures of Korean and English Glides

The goal of this study is to investigate the duration of constriction and movement of the two speech sounds labio-velar [w] and palatal [j] in English and Korean and attempt to provide an explanation for Koreans’ difficulties in learning English glides as well as some phonological phenomena reported in the literature. Production data from the two languages containing glide-initial words were collected for analysis. The results show that glides in English consistently exhibit a persistent constriction that is markedly prolonged compared to the Korean glides which display only a brief constriction. It is suggested that differences in duration of constriction may also explain other linguistic phenomena such as glide deletion and degemination in Korean which are not found in English.

Kate Kedley
Language, Literacy and Culture
Transnational Solidarity - LGBTTI and Honduras

My proposed civic engagement project stems from my participation in the Obermann Graduate Institute on Public Engagement and the Academy in January of 2013.
For the Obermann Institute, I proposed fostering transnational solidarity between an LGBTQ group in Eastern Iowa and an LGBTTI (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Transvestite, Intersex) group in Honduras.  Since a military coup d’état in Honduras in 2009, over 80 LGBTTI identified people in Honduras have been violently murdered and their deaths remain uninvestigated.  LGBTTI groups there are part of a larger social movement that includes teachers, students, campesinos, women, and other groups aligned against the current post-coup government.  Awareness of the situation in Honduras, through education here in Iowa, can create a network of transnational support and solidarity. 

Kate Kedley
Language, Literacy and Culture
“Helping Promote a Better Understanding of Other Peoples on the Part of Americans”: Representation in Five Peace Corps Volunteers’ Blogs

This project examines how five Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) to the Central American country of Honduras use language in blogs to represent themselves, their experiences, and their host communities. The authors joined the Peace Corps because they desired to “make a change” (I Hope in Honduras, n.d.) and wanted to help others achieve “a better quality of life” (Bryan and Life in Honduras, n.d.). These personal goals, coupled with the institutional goals of the Peace Corps, are politically situated; a transnational feminist critique highlights complex power dynamics between PCVs and host communities. This paper posits that representations are constructed through language use and this creates relational differences that work to maintain hierarchies; critical discourse analysis as a research method can highlight nuances of how PCVs describe their cross-cultural social life, their lived experiences during the 2009 Honduran coup d’état, and the difficulties of living outside of their home country. Both frameworks of analysis, the transnational feminist theoretical lens and a method of critical discourse analysis, unveil a complex set of power dynamics, including race and gender. The analysis I propose contests these representations and language use and challenges their views of volunteering abroad in order to work towards a more just and democratic transnational project.

Megan Kelchen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Beta-Caryophyllene as a Novel Topical Treatment for Osteoarthritis Pain

Beta-Caryophyllene as a Novel Topical Treatment for Osteoarthritis Pain
M.N. Kelchen, N. Leelakanok, A. Wongrakpanich, K. Sluka, A.K. Salem, N.K. Brogden
Introduction: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is an FDA-approved food additive and major component of essential oils. BCP interacts with CB2-cannabinoid receptors, producing analgesic effects. Topical BCP administration would be ideal for localized osteoarthritis joint pain. The objective of this project is to develop a topical BCP formulation for sustained local analgesia.
Methods: Hydroalcoholic gels were formulated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), added to an ethanol-water-BCP solution. BCP-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles for extended delivery were constructed by dissolving BCP in the oil phase of an oil-water emulsion. A GC-MS detection method was developed for BCP.
Results: Gel formulations containing 5.95 mg/ml of BCP were constructed (1.2% and 1.3% w/v PAA; 1.5% and 2% w/v HEC). 1%, 5%, and 10% v/v BCP-loaded PLGA particles were formulated. Particle diameters were 1733.6 nm, 3386.4 nm, and 7085.6 nm, respectively. Resulting zeta potentials for the particles were -37.32 mV (1%), -36.14 mV (5%), and -37.02 mV (10%).  GC-MS detected BCP fragments at 13.4 minutes (m/z: 91.1).
Conclusions: GC-MS will be used to evaluate BCP loading efficiency into the particles and measure drug concentration after gel application to excised porcine skin. After gel optimization, local analgesic effects of topical BCP will be determined in animal pain models.

sumaira khan
Educational Policy and Leadership
A Comparative Book Review

This paper presents a comparative review of the books, Value-added leadership by Sergiovanni (1990) and ‘The school leaders our children deserve’ by Theoharis (2009). It brings forth common threads that run along the two and renames them as emerging themes. Common themes found are: optimism, determination, shared decision-making, professional attitude, sense of responsibility, untiring endeavors, motivation, capacity building, holistic development view, academic excellence, and leadership domains. The leadership styles found in both books mirror each other in terms of their emphasis on the human component of leadership. This paper further discusses the significance of themes in leadership and puts forward recommendations for future research and for the implementation of the suggested leadership styles in the schools.

sumaira khan
Educational Policy and Leadership
Islam and Girls' Education

“Acquisition of knowledge is binding on all Muslims”, (al-Sunan, 1:81 §224). This Hadith, sayings  or actions of the prophet Muhammad (MPBUH)[1],  indicates that there is no preference based on sex in getting access to education in Islam however; there is a growing misconception among the people of other religions that Islam constraints Muslim girls from getting education. This paper reviews literature and two authentic sources of Islamic scriptures, which are the Holy Qura’an and the Ahadiths to position the girls’ education in purview of Islam. It further examines the possible reasons for conflicting interpretations of Islamic teachings. It concludes that Islam does not restrict girls from getting education. It recommends further systematic studies for exploring the reasons for the projection of distorted image of Islam.

[1] May peace be upon him

sumaira khan
Educational Policy and Leadership
Islam and Girls' Education

“Acquisition of knowledge is binding on all Muslims”, (al-Sunan, 1:81 §224). This Hadith, sayings  or actions of the prophet Muhammad (MPBUH)[1],  indicates that there is no preference based on sex in getting access to education in Islam however; there is a growing misconception among the people of other religions that Islam constraints Muslim girls from getting education. This paper reviews literature and two authentic sources of Islamic scriptures, which are the Holy Qura’an and the Ahadiths to position the girls’ education in purview of Islam. It further examines the possible reasons for conflicting interpretations of Islamic teachings. It concludes that Islam does not restrict girls from getting education. It recommends further systematic studies for exploring the reasons for the projection of distorted image of Islam.

[1] May peace be upon him

sumaira khan
Educational Policy and Leadership
exploring the co-relation of a headteacher’s decision-making and her prior professional experiences in dealing with challenges in intial years of headship

This study explores the co-relationship of decision-making and prior professional experiences of a headteacher in dealing with challenges in the initial years of headship in a Government Secondary School in Karachi. The purpose of the study was to understand the process of how headteacher’s decisions were informed by her prior professional experiences in coping with the challenges in the initial years of headship; and to identify the other factors that tend to influence a headteacher’s decisions. It is a case-study of a newly promoted female headteacher with twenty-nine years of teaching experience. Multiple data collection tools (interviews, observations, document analysis and reflective memos) were utilized to collect information about the inquiry.
The findings of the study explored the assumption of the study that headteacher’s prior professional experiences do influence her decision-making in the initial years of headship. Moreover, co-relation was found in: teaching and learning, leading and managing the staff, efficient and effective deployment of the staff, strategic direction and development of the school, and resources and accountability. Other factors, which tend to influence the headteacher’s decisions were found to be: pressure from high management and lack of confidence. The study has proposed recommendations and questions for further exploration. 

Varun Kharbanda
Returns to Education in India

An individual choose a level of schooling where his marginal return equals his marginal cost of education. This suggests the estimate of marginal rate of return at each school level is a good proxy for the marginal costs faced by the individuals at that schooling level. To estimate the marginal rate of return at each schooling level, I use a Mincer type regression that is more general than in the standard literature, as well as a semiparametric approach. My results show that the rate of return to education varies non-monotonically across years of schooling in India. Using the Becker (1967) theory of human capital accumulation, I show that the estimates of marginal rate of return to education suggest the presence of heterogeneity in marginal costs among individuals seeking primary education. This heterogeneity reflects the fact that a large fraction of Indian society had no access to primary education. The estimation methodology is tested on the USA data for the same time period. Results show the similar heterogeneity in marginal costs among indi- viduals seeking a college degree or above, reflecting the fact that the USA has free and compulsory education till high school and relatively high cost for education thereafter. 

Joshua Kierstead
Film Studies
Strained Interest: Ideological Perspectives on the Spectator Experience

Through the lens of spectatorship, I will explore in turn the ways that Althusserian and Gramscian approaches to ideology inform the question of if, and potentially how, cinema constructs subjects, and more urgently, how a Gramscian approach to ideology can help to rearticulate the spectatorship discourse within film studies. The stakes of this critique, put more directly, are whether cinema has a simple, direct ideological effect on spectators—i.e. Screen theory, Jean-Louis Baudry’s Cinematographic Apparatus, and Christian Metz’s The Imaginary Spectator—or a more complex relationship where spectators have a degree of agency. By mapping a Gramscian approach onto these spectator debates, it is my hope that I can lend them an added degree of nuance and, subsequently, can rescue the subject from its rigid positioning within Screen theory, Baudry, and Metz.

Joshua Kierstead
Film Studies
A Tale of Death and Life: Comfort, Guilt, and Cinephilia in Edgar G. Ulmer’s "The Strange Woman"

In its hostility towards Susan Sontag's claim that cinema--and by extension, cinephilia--is dead, the field of film studies finds itself plagued by a need to discredit her hypothesis rather than examine the epistemological parameters of cinephilia itself. Moreover, these debates have an unfortunate side effect: they elide the far more salient tension between death and life that undergirds the cinephilic debate, and, as I will argue, the filmgoing experience itself.
This dynamic between death/life is inherent to cinephilia and, unlike a large contigent of cinephilia scholars, I see no need to tether the discourse specifically to the realms of love and sexual deviancy. In order to work through this new approach to cinephilia, I will examine my deep connection to Edgar G. Ulmer's "The Strange Woman" (1946) and how my unique cinephilic experience directly relates to the feelings of comfort and/or guilt the film conjured through its regular meditation on the fragility of life and the finality of death.

Cindy Ann, & Jessica K. Ezell Sheets Kilgo
Educational Policy and Leadership
Do High-Impact Practices Actually Have High Impact on Learning for All Students?

This study sought to determine the ways in which high-impact educational practices affect varying subpopulations of undergraduate students. Data was drawn from the Wabash National Study for Liberal Arts Education – a longitudinal, pretest/posttest design – to examine the interaction/conditional effects of participation in high-impact practices – first-year seminars and experiences, common intellectual experiences, learning communities, writing-intensive courses, collaborative assignments and projects, undergraduate research, diversity/global learning, service learning and community based learning, internships, and capstone courses and projects – on liberal arts learning outcomes by gender, race, and outcome pretest score. Findings suggested that high-impact practices do have varying effects for different subpopulations of students.  In particular, findings suggested compensatory effects for students entering college with lower outcome pretest scores, negative effects for students of color and for women, and positive effects for white students and for men.

Cindy Kilgo, Jessica Sheets, Kira Pasquesi
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Estimated Effects of Participation in Service Learning on Liberal Arts Outcomes

Liberal arts educational outcomes have been at the forefront of discussion stemming around the importance of college.  King, Brown, Lindsay, and VanHecke (2007) claim that “the overarching goal of a liberal arts education is to provide students with the necessary skills to construct lives of substance and achievement, helping them to become wise citizens” (p. 2).  Service learning has been named a “high-impact” practice by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) (see Brownell & Swaner, 2010; Kuh, 2008) due to suggested positive benefits to students.  However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the effects of service learning participation on students.  This study uses data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) – a pretest, posttest, longitudinal data set – to examine the estimated effects of participation in service learning on an array of liberal arts outcomes, including critical thinking, moral reasoning, inclination to inquire and lifelong learning, intercultural effectiveness, psychological well-being, socially responsible leadership, political and social involvement.  While controlling for numerous precollege and college-level variables, results suggest that service learning is a significant, positive predictor for students’ political and social involvement.
Brownell, J. E., & Swaner, L. E. (2010). Five high-impact practices: Research on learning outcomes, completion, and quality. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
King, P. M., Brown, M. K., Lindsay, N. K., & VanHecke, J. R. (2007). Liberal arts student learning outcomes: An integrated approach. About Campus, 2-9.
Kuh, G. D. (2008). High-impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to them, and why they matter. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

YuJaung Kim
Biomedical Engineering
Is There a Shared Mechanism of Death in Multiple Models of SUDEP?

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of death in chronic refractory epilepsy patients.  The principal risk factor for SUDEP is a high frequency of seizures.  The causes of SUDEP remain unclear, because most cases are unwitnessed and there is often limited information surrounding death.  Since SUDEP is not possible to diagnose, results in death, and has no clinical strategy for prevention, a clinical trial cannot be designed patients.  Therefore, animal models used to study seizure-induced death are likely to be relevant to SUDEP in humans.
            We designed and developed an experimental unit for real-time, long-term monitoring of multiple mouse models of SUDEP.  This unit allows us to record EEG, EKG, EMG, plethysmography, and body temperature and activity from mice until the occurrence of spontaneous death.  We can measure breathing, cardiac activity, sleep state, seizure activity, and temperature before and during death.  These recordings allow us to determine the cause of death such a primary cardiac or primary respiratory.
            This mouse SUDEP monitoring system can be used to determine whether many mouse models of SUDEP share the same pathophysiology of death or there are multiple reasons for death.  This approach may help to better understand the causes of SUDEP in humans.

Sung Kim
Medicine (MD)

Introduction: The study compared the efficiency in double lumen (DLT) endotracheal tube placement using two different video laryngoscopes, C-MAC® and Glidescope®, and a traditional Macintosh laryngoscope in a manikin.
Methods: A total of 95 anesthesiologists at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics participated in this study. Every participant intubated the manikin once with each device leading to a total of three intubations. Mallinckrodt left-sided 37-Fr double lumen endobrochial tube was used with GlideScope® specific stylet. The intubation order was randomized. Statistical analyses were performed to find significance. Results/Discussion: The median values for the three laryngoscopes were as follows: Macintosh 3 blade time was 18 seconds, C-MAC® time was 18 seconds, and GlideScope® time was 28 seconds. There were two failed attempts with Macintosh 3 blade. The median times were significantly different: C-MAC® vs. GlideScope® (p = 0.0001) and Macintosh 3 blade vs. GlideScope® (p = 0.0001) in that intubations with Macintosh 3 blade and C-MAC® were faster than the GlideScope. Conclusion: C-MAC® laryngoscope performs superiorly for placing a DLT in a manikin compared to GlideScope®. 

Jessica Kizzire
Odd Obsession: The Sound of Adaptation

When studying a literature-based film, issues of adaptation become central to our understanding of the text. Although much is often made of narrative, textual, and visual aspects of adaptation, this focus completely disregards the potentially powerful role that the addition of a soundtrack can play in our understanding of film. In the case of Odd Obsession, a 1959 adaptation of Jun’Ichirō Tanizaki’s novel Kagi, the soundtrack works in concert with the visual and narrative elements of the film to make the adaptation successful. Composer Yasushi Akutagawa reinforces director Kon Ichikawa’s vision of a plot driven by hidden motivations and innuendo. Using an overarching motivic idea and carefully selected instrumentation, Akutagawa’s musical score provides valuable insight into the inner minds of the characters, making clear the unspoken reasons behind their actions. In this instance, the sound of adaptation is as necessary to the success of the film as the textual (and visual) adaptation it accompanies, becoming a fundamental part of our experience of adapting Tanizaki.

Andrew Knight
Inferred Pa(V) complex formation via selective extraction by aliphatic alcohols

Protactinium (Pa) is a member of the lighter actinide series (Z = 91; [Rn]5f26d17s2) with chemical properties that  diverge from adjacent elements, thorium (Th) and uranium (U). While solid-phase and solution speciation of U and Th have been studied extensively, Pa chemistry is relatively unexplored. One reason for the lack of information is the low natural abundance of Pa (<300 fg/g) in the earths crust – dramatically increasing investigation costs for current spectroscopic technologies.1 Thus, speciation of Pa has been described as the only “natural chemical species whose aquo-ions have not really been experimentally identified”.2
Understanding the speciation of Pa is vital to developing advanced separations techniques that are utilized by nuclear forensics, reprocessing, and radiometric dating applications. In the 1950s, the selective extraction of Pa from other actinides was achieved by aliphatic alcohols and ketones in high acid concentration, but the identification of the extracted species remains unknown to this day.3 While numerous radiochemical separation approaches have been developed that assert formation of Pa fluoride complexes (e.g., PaF72-) as a mechanism for isolation of Pa from other actinides, empirical evidence of precise species formation of Pa solution phase complexes is scarce. 

Travis Kraus; Kayleigh Karlovits; Kwame Owusu-Daaku; et al
Urban and Regional Planning
Schools, Neighborhoods, and Student Outcomes: The Intersection of Education and Community Development in Dubuque, Iowa

Dubuque has an existing neighborhood schools platform that needs to respond to changing needs in education and in the community to prepare Dubuque’s young people for the 21st century. This project analyzes the relationship between neighborhood schools, community development, and elementary student achievement in the Dubuque Community School District. The school district and community currently face challenges related to imbalanced enrollment demographics and achievement gaps in the public elementary schools. In addition to exploring the existing school-neighborhood framework, this project examines how various changes to school policy, transportation services, and facility use might affect neighborhood traits and, ultimately, student outcomes. Special attention is given to the changing demographics in Dubuque and the resulting implications to socioeconomic diversity within the elementary school system.

Chamathca Kuda-Malwathumullage
Temperature Correction Strategies to Improve Analyte Prediction of Aqueous-based Samples in Near-infrared Spectroscopy

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a widely used quantitative analysis technique for aqueous-based samples. Overtones and combination bands of C-H and N-H bonds situated in the 4000 - 5000 cm-1 region can be used to develop calibration models to predict analyte concentrations. However, the temperature sensitivity of the underlying water absorption bands located at approximately 3800 cm-1 and 5200 cm-1 can create large baseline variations in NIR spectra. These baseline artifacts can negatively impact calibration models used in quantitative analyses to give poor analyte prediction results. As a common approach, various signal processing methods (e.g., derivative calculations) are used to suppress baseline variation before submitting spectra to the calibration model. In the work presented here, an alternative strategy is explored in which an attempt is first made to estimate the temperature of the aqueous sample directly from the spectrum, followed by incorporation of that temperature information into the quantitative calibration model. This approach also addresses applications in which it is difficult to obtain an accurate sample temperature with a conventional measurement probe (e.g., non-invasive glucose sensing). To estimate the temperatures of aqueous based solutions, temperature models based on partial least-squares (PLS) regression combined with the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are developed. In initial work, models are developed for pH 7.4 buffer solutions over the 4000 - 5000 cm-1 spectral region and the temperature range of 20.0 to 40.5 oC. The long-term predictive ability of the models is assessed by 13 sets of prediction spectra collected over the course of one year. Laboratory-prepared solutions of glucose, mixture solutions of glucose/lactate/urea in buffer, and bovine plasma are also used to assess the predictive ability of the temperature models in increasingly complex matrixes. Given the excellent performance of the temperature models, a second-order polynomial correction is used to correct systematic errors in concentration predictions induced by temperature fluctuation. Performance of the correction strategy is assessed with prediction spectra collected with laboratory-prepared solutions of glucose and mixture solutions of glucose and lactate in buffer over a period of four weeks. 

Laura Kuhlman
English-Literary Studies
Same Beat, Different Song: Reading Hettie Jones and a Feminist Beat Aesthetic

This paper is a feminist recovery of Hettie Jones’ work and an attempt to position her poetry within the canon of Beat literature. Like most women beat writers, Hettie Jones’ writing has been comparatively underrepresented in literary criticism, and her memoir, How I Became Hettie Jones and her three volumes of poetry, Drive, All Told, and Doing 70, bear scholarly examination. In my paper, I first trace Jones’ evolution as autonomous woman artist within the beat scene. I also examine her literary work, particularly engaging with Jones’ poetry and the poetics of empowerment through taking to the road. In Jones’ poetry, there is a strong sense of self-reliance, duty toward civil engagement, and celebration of women’s communities. My paper is, ultimately, a celebration of this beat woman writer who finds her voice during the culturally-oppressive 1950s and 1960s, and how her avant-garde lifestyle sets her apart in this historical context to form her own unique and necessary voice.

Colleen Kummet
Patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among dental patients

Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a diverse collection of approaches used to prevent or treat diseases. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between dental patient characteristics and current usage of CAM therapies.
Methods: The definition of CAM encompassed 24 therapies excluding prayer. Chi-Square and Cochran-Armitage tests were used to assess associations and trends in usage across levels of gender, income, education, and age. Multivariable logistic regression and negative binomial models were used to identify factors impacting the use of CAM therapies, and the number of CAM therapies used.
Results: In a dental patient population (n=402), gender was a significant factor affecting recent utilization of any CAM (p<0.0001), biological (p=0.0062), manipulative (p=0.0107), and mind-body (p=0.0364), as well as the number (p<0.0001) of CAM therapies used. A higher percentage of usage and number of therapies used was observed in women compared to men. Increased levels of education were also significant factors in usage of any CAM, biological and mind-body therapies (p<0.0010).
Conclusion: Increased understanding the demographic characteristics of dental patients likely to be using CAM therapies will help clinicians assess the impact of CAM therapies on conventional treatments and prescribed drugs to optimize dental treatment outcomes.

Jake Kurczek
Narratives and Lessons from Traumatic Brain Injury

The blow that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) delivers to a family is unimaginable and is often more traumatic than the blow delivered to the brain. These profound changes in person however, are often masked by a lack of physical injury, which leads to TBI being labeled the “silent” injury. TBI affects over 1.7 million Americans per year, costing an estimated $100 billion, but it is largely ignored and not well understood by the public. Despite the enormous impact of TBI, outside of the coverage of concussions in sports, little relative attention is paid to TBI. The lack of attention in policy, misunderstanding by the public and lack of funding may be a result of the combination of the “silent” nature of the injury and the poor perception of TBI. The misunderstanding and poor handling of issues regarding TBI is felt in the economy (high unemployment, but simple job training/accommodation could help) and healthcare (where TBI is mistreated as an acute rather than chronic disease) which eventually negatively affects everyone.
The goal of this project is to affect and engage the public/policy makers by increasing awareness and understanding TBI and its afflictions through the experiences/narratives of individuals affected by TBI. We hope to personalize the experience and educate the public/policy makers. 

Denison Kuruvilla
Pharmacy (PhD)
Long- Term Red Blood cell survival in Critically Ill Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Premature births (less than 37 weeks of gestation) account for about 8-10 percent of all pregnancies in the United States. One of the primary causes for anemia of prematurity is the shortened RBC lifespan. The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the mean potential lifespan (MPL) of both transfused and fetal RBCs in preterm infants.
Preterm infants (<29 weeks gestational age) were transfused with biotinylated RBCs and blood samples were analyzed for around 45 days post bio-RBC transfusion using the Sysmex XE-2100 flow cytometer. Transfused RBCs were assumed to be produced under steady state and have uniform distribution of ages. Hemoglobin (Hb) mass balance model was used to correct for the increase in blood volume due to infant growth, clinical transfusions and blood loss due to clinical tests. The mean potential lifespan was calculated for both the donor and the fetal RBCs. The model was assumed to have a single point distribution of cellular lifespans that does not vary over time (i.e. time invariant).
The MPL of the adult transfused RBC was estimated to be around 82 days. This is much shorter than the lifespan of the same cells in healthy adult humans. This indicates that the transfused RBCs have shorter survival in preterm low birth weight infants. If the fetal RBC lifespan is comparable to adult RBC estimates, then a better approach to overcome anemia of prematurity would be to try to stimulate the production of fetal RBCs by administering erythropoietin (EPO).
Transfused RBCs have shorter lifespan in preterm low birth weight infants as compared to healthy adults. This indicates that RBC transfusions would be required to effectively control the infant Hb levels. If the fetal RBC lifespan is comparable to this shorter lifespan of transfused RBCs, then a better and safer approach would be to stimulate the production of fetal RBCs by optimal EPO dosing.

Pharmacy (PhD)
Evaluation of in-utero Erythropoiesis in preterm infants

Purpose: Determination of red blood cell (RBC) lifespan is important in order to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of erythropoietin in the stimulation of RBC production aimed at reducing or eliminating the need for RBC transfusions to treat neonatal anemia. We have developed a method for multi-density biotin labeling of RBCs that can be used to determine the RBC lifespan of both the adult donor RBCs and neonatal RBCs concurrently. The current investigation is aimed developing a mathematical model to describe the in-utero RBC production under non steady state conditions in critically ill, very low birth weight infants.Methods: Separate populations of neonatal autologous and adult allogeneic donor RBCs were labeled at two discrete biotin densities. The two biotin labeled RBC (BioRBC) populations were transfused into seven premature infants (mean±SD: birth weight: 784±164 g, gestational age: 25.9±0.7 weeks, and study age: 4.1±4.5 days). A pharmacodynamic hemoglobin mass balance model was used to account for the dynamic changes due to laboratory phlebotomies, RBC transfusions and growth. Post birth elimination of the transfused BioRBCs was assumed to be due to senescence. All modeling and simulation were conducted using WINFUNFIT/FORTRAN, using ordinary least squares fit to each individual subject’s Hb amount-time data.Results: General agreement between the model fit and enrichment data was observed. The in vivo lifespan of neonatal and adult RBCs were similar 63±12 and 75±19 days, respectively, P=0.10. The model was able to simulate the survival curve of the in-utero produced cells under non-steady state in-utero RBC production.Conclusions: This study demonstrates the utility of concurrent multi-density BioRBC method in determining in vivo RBC lifespan. Contrary to previous published infant studies, in vivo RBC lifespan of neonatal and adult RBC were not statistically different. In addition, the model developed can be used to estimate the rate of in-utero production under non-steady state conditions.

Jaehwan Kwon
A big fish in a little pond: the influence of Implicit Self-Theory on Statistical Inference

This research finds that when individuals believe in fixed traits of personality (entity theorists), they are likely to expect a world of “uniformity.” As such, they easily infer a population statistic from a small sample of data with confidence. In contrast, individuals who believe in malleable traits of personality (incremental theorists) are likely to presume a world of “diversity,” such that they “hesitate” to infer a population statistic from a small sample. In this article, we found that compared to incremental theorists, entity theorists estimated a population mean from a sample with a greater level of confidence (Study 1), expected more homogeneity among the entities within a population (Study 2), and perceived an extreme value to be more indicative of an outlier (Study 3). Study 4 confirmed that these effects were not only found in the domain of statistical judgments, but were also applicable in more common judgment situations in daily life.

Ashabha Lansakara
Benzylic Cyclizations of Alkylpyridines via Brønsted Acid Catalysis

Substituted pyridines are well established for the construction of more complex synthetic targets in heterocyclic and natural product chemistry. Nonetheless, many reaction manifolds available to pyridine derivatives remain significantly underexplored. We have recently discovered that aldehyde and ketone electrophiles incorporated into the side chains of 2- and 4-alkylpyridines participate in intramolecular aldol-like condensations with pyridine benzylic carbons in the presence of Brønsted acid catalysts. Pyridines featuring β-ketoamide side chains undergo cyclization with 10 mol% TfOH to deliver pyridyl-substituted hydroxy lactams in good yield. Transformation of this type appear particularly well suited for construction of bis(piperidine) ring systems encountered in several bioactive marine alkaloids.

Evan Larson
Medicine (MD)
Functional Outcomes of MPFL Reconstruction vs. Graft Tissue Placement

Purpose: To determine whether anatomic medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) placement prevents continued post-operative patellar apprehension, subluxation and dislocation, or pain, limited motion and arthritis relative to non-anatomic MPFL placement.
Methods: 27 patients who underwent MPFL reconstruction were retrospectively analyzed for MPFL graft placement relative to anatomic ideal point as determined by the Schottle method. An anatomic vs. non-anatomic designation was made, and then compared to various clinical outcomes measures. These measures included patellar instability, 2-week, 6-week, and final range of motion, pre- and post-operative WOMAC and KOOS scores, and post-op chondromalacia and pain at the patellofemoral articulation.
Results: Nonanatomic placement of the femoral MPFL tunnel caused increased pain and decreased function as per WOMAC (pain and function) and KOOS (symptom, pain, ADL, and overall). No significant difference between the groups was noted for the other parameters.
Conclusions: It is recommended that particular attention be paid during surgery to the tightness of the graft during active extension and passive flexion to 90 degrees, since no limits to range of motion or apprehension should occur if patellofemoral isometry is achieved.

Olga Laskina
Infrared Extinction Spectroscopy and Raman Microspectroscopy of Selected Components of Mineral Dust with Organic Compounds

Satellite data in the infrared (IR) region is widely used in determination of important properties of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. To process data from satellites Mie theory is often used. However, the use of Mie theory can be associated with inaccuracies in modeling the optical properties of mineral dust. Errors can occur because the approximations used in Mie theory, namely that particles are spherical and homogeneous, are not generally appropriate for mineral dust. Analytic models that are based on Rayleigh theory and account for various particle shapes can be preferable to use when modeling the IR extinction properties of mineral dust in the accumulation size mode. Here we investigate optical properties of mineral dust that have been coated or reacted with organic acids. In particular, we aerosolize several individual components of mineral dust with organic acids that are common in the atmosphere. Through the analysis of the resulting aerosol particles we have identified three distinct outcomes of the interactions, which depend on the nature of the mineral and the organic acid: reactions may occur with segregation of the products within the resulting particle; the organic compounds may form a uniform coating on the particle; or, in some cases, an external mixture may be formed. Analysis of IR extinction spectra of the different dust components that have undergone heterogeneous reactions or coatings show distinct red shifts of the prominent IR resonance peaks as a result of the chemical processing. The extent of the red shift, which varies from 3 to 10 cm-1, depends on the mineral and the nature of the interaction. Spectral simulations showed that the deviation from Mie theory becomes even more pronounced for these processed mineral dust aerosol components.

Benjamin Lawson
Did Solid-Waste Legislation Work? The Noncompliance of NYC's Fresh Kills

In theory, comprehensive solid-waste legislation, like Section D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), passed in 1976 and enforced since 1979, should have ended U.S. municipalities’ reliance on open garbage dumps. States passed their own interpretations of RCRA, in order to retain regulatory control.
Establishing a new, compliant site was significantly more expensive than using existing dumps. Therefore, regulatory legislation gave cities like New York City a clear economic incentive to use their old, noncompliant dumps for as long as possible. Since NY State was half-hearted in enforcement, the City mostly ignored its laws. During this period New York City’s Fresh Kills landfill (est. 1948) became the world’s largest dump—although it had no post-RCRA State permit to operate. Fresh Kills was still New York City’s primary waste-disposal site when the decision to close it (in 2001) was announced in 1996.
Based on my research, I argue that Federal/State legislation such as RCRA actually increased New York City’s use of Fresh Kills. The prohibitive cost of establishing a new landfill was a major reason the City kept it open for so long. NY State could have forced Fresh Kills' closure but those policymakers were loath to do so for political and economic reasons.  Legislation like RCRA led to vastly increased costs of waste disposal--and sparked a 'waste crisis' for New York City in the late 1980s (symbolized by the Mobro barge).   
Environmental standards were a motivating factor of legislation like RCRA, but cost considerations were the true bottom line of municipal waste-disposal policy.  
(Fresh Kills is one of the 3 case studies of my dissertation)

Gun Sung Lee
School Psychology
Investigating the Relationship between Ego-Resiliency, Interpersonal Competence, Subjective Well-Being, and Depression

The current study was designed to identify predictors of depression, specifically: ego-resiliency, interpersonal competence, and subjective well-being. These factors were specifically chosen based on previous research indicating their correlation with depression and their demonstrated potential for predicting depression. Three hundred sixty eight college students completed the study successfully. These data were analyzed using the quantitative methods of correlation, multiple regression, and discriminant function analysis through the SPSS 18 software. Pearson (r) correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between ego-resiliency, interpersonal competence, and subjective well-being, and depression. A multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effects of the above factors on depression. Finally, discriminant function analysis was performed with independent variables to distinguish between a positive risk group of depression and the non-depressive group. Statistical analysis indicated that thirty one percent of the variance in depression was accounted by ego-resiliency and subjective well-being. In addition, results suggested that positive risk group of depression was likely to have ego-brittleness, low social skills, and experience loss of subjective well-being. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. 

John Lee
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Investigating the therapeutic effect of Rhes in a mouse model of Huntington’s Disease

Background: Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin (HTT) protein. Despite the ubiquitous expression of mutant HTT (mHTT), the brain undergoes preferential degeneration in the striatum. Recent cell culture studies reveal that a striatum enriched protein, Rhes, interacts with mHTT, suggesting that this interaction may account for the striatal vulnerability in HD. Methods: Using microRNA (miRNA) expression system, we designed inhibitory RNA (miRhes4) that silenced murine Rhes. In addition, adeno-associated virus (AAV) was used to drive exogenous Rhes expression (AAV-Rhes). Next, AAV-Rhes and miRhes4 were injected into the striata of HD and WT mice. The behavioral phenotypes were measured using rotarod and activity chamber tests. Brain morphology was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Eight months post-injection, striatal atrophy was enhanced in HD mice treated with miRhes4, the most potent of the Rhes-targeting constructs. Surprisingly, overexpression of Rhes significantly improved motor deficits in HD mice. Conclusion: In contrast to the proposed cytotoxic effect in vitro, restoring Rhes level in vivo improved motor symptoms in HD mice. Our findings raise caution regarding the implementation of Rhes inhibiting drugs for HD therapy.

Gunsung Lee
School Psychology
Functional Communication Training with Demand Fading to Reduce Self-Injurious Behavior

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) with demand fading for treating self-injurious behavior in a 22-month old child with developmental delays and disruptive behavior disorder. A functional analysis was conducted initially, with results indicating that access to tangible items and escape from demands were motivating and maintaining self-injurious behavior. An FCT treatment program was implemented using picture cards to request access to preferred items and activities and resulted in near-zero levels of self-injury and relatively high levels of communication. Then, a work and play routine with an FCT component was also implemented to increase compliance with task demands and reduce self-injury in demand contexts. Results from the treatment evaluation revealed strong compliance to demands, high rates of communication, and near zero levels of self-injury in demand contexts. Overall, these results indicated that FCT with demand fading was an effective treatment procedure for increasing communication and compliance to demands, while decreasing self-injury motivated by access to tangibles and escape from demands. 

Nattawut Leelakanok
Pharmacy (PhD)
Diclofenac-loaded PLGA particles for improved topical treatment of actinic keratosis

Introduction: Actinic keratosis is a common premalignant skin lesion occurring in skin areas exposed to sunlight. Topical diclofenac prevents progression to malignant lesions but must be applied twice daily for 60-90 days. Skin pretreatment with microneedles before diclofenac application would provide higher local drug concentrations and prolonged delivery. Diclofenac-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) particles could provide a more preferable dosing schedule (e.g. once a week) and higher treatment efficacy.
Methods: An emulsion-solvent evaporation method was used to formulate diclofenac-loaded PLGA particles, using a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. One batch of each type of particles was measured for size (nm), Zeta-potential (millivolts), and loading efficiency (n=3 measurements per batch). Loading efficiency of diclofenac was determined by HPLC.
Results: Blank, diclofenac-loaded O/W, and diclofenac-loaded W/O/W PLGA particles had mean (±SD) diameters of 969.3±145.7, 1070.4±169.0 and 845.4±312.5 nm, respectively. Zeta-potentials were -32.7±6.6, -30.1±0.3 and -31.9±0.7 millivolts, respectively. Diclofenac loaded into O/W and W/O/W particles was 38.55 ng and 546.8 ng per 1 mg of particles, respectively.
Conclusion: Diclofenac loading into O/W PLGA particles was superior to W/O/W PLGA particles. In vitro diffusion studies will determine diclofenac release and local skin concentrations following application of the drug-loaded PLGA particles to microneedle-treated skin.

Samuel Lifton
Pairwise Comparison of Microarray Data Using Rank-Rank Hypergeometric Probabilities

We wish to develop the methods to create R language package that would allow pairwise comparison of single microarrays.  In the study of disease, we are often interested in what may be commonalities in the RNA expression profile of just a few patients.  These more rare commonalities are overlooked by the current methods of averaging expression values across dozens or hundreds of patient microarrays. To develop a rigorous software method, we wished to understand both the theoretical and practical underpinnings of testing and developing these tools.  The framework for our inquiry is the published Rank-Rank Hypergeometric method proposed by Plaisier et al.  In particular, the hyper-geometric distribution is used in our study for investigating the overlapping probabilities of particular gene sets of pairwise patients. Overlapping p-values are calculated using the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF), by summing the probability distribution based on the expected value for the hyper-geometric distribution. When number of overlapping genes (k) is more (or less) than expected, we calculate the probability of observing k or greater (or fewer) events. We also implement an analytical approach to apply a correction factor for the multiple hypothesis testing. This method is BY-based FDR correction, which is generally less stringent and more appropriate considering the dependencies in the study. The Rank-Rank Hypergeometric Overlap (RRHO) heat map with the multiple hypothesis corrections is also given with the assistance of R.

Qi Ling
Mass Communication
Consuming castrated masculinity Studying fandom of Korean pretty boy pop groups among young Chinese female fans

The pretty boy pop group is a typical as well as successful way of star creation in entertaining industry in Korea. This type of boy idols demonstrates a series of characteristics that vary from the conventional patriarchal masculinity. Recent years, this type of boy pop group has gained tremendous popularity among young female fans across nations, particularly in Asian areas such as China. This study investigates into what kind of pleasure that the fans obtain from consuming this type of masculinity and what is the gender politics behind such fandom.
By analyzing online fan club postings and doing interviews with fans, this study argues that the pleasure of the female fans is associated with the consumption of “castrated” masculinity that complicates, if not challenges, existing gender power dynamic. More fluid perception of gender and sexuality boundaries, a component of so-called postmodern mentality, is found in the fandom of pretty boy stars. Six recurrent and inter-related themes including image centrality, storyline imagination, pretty masculinity, imperfect performance, homosexual intimacy and nurturing expressions yielded from online fan club observation. Interviews with fans resonated with these online expressions, while at the same time demonstrated variance in their interpretation of different gender issues and in the way they incorporated the pretty boy idols into their everyday life.  

Kathrina Litchfield
Library and Information Science
Encounters with Empathy: Restorative Justice and the Transformed Reader

  Some Iowa correctional facilities welcome engagement with community volunteers that provide intellectual and artistic stimulation through such programs as writing workshops, choirs, and book groups. They recognize that these programs provide safe and secure diversion, but the benefits of outreach experience are not valued as contributing to the overall goal of lowering recidivism.   In over two years of book group facilitation at the Iowa Medical & Classification Center, I have observed that not only do participants enjoy the opportunity to engage in pro-social discussion, but their developing skills in perspective-taking have encouraged self-esteem, personal agency, and greater cultural understanding.   A program of Restorative Justice influences much of the treatment aims of the Iowa Department of Corrections. Among many goals, Restorative Justice provides the offender with the opportunity to gain the victim’s perspective of the incident, building skills in empathy and perspective-taking. It is exactly those skills -- in identifying with fictional characters, the author’s voice, and with fellow book group participants -- that are practiced repeatedly in the process of reading and discussing literature. A literacy program that embraces perspective-taking supports the Restorative Justice aims across the institution, while developing skills that contribute to success upon release.

Xiangdong Liu
Educational Policy and Leadership
The survival of the academic discipline of education: In an interdisciplinary era and consumerist society

The discipline of education loses its discipline boundary line in an interdisciplinary era in three ways:  First, it has become a research field or even a series of research issues. Second, it has nothing to contribute to an interdisciplinary study. Third, philosophy of education is not central to people who study Education. People argue that discipline of education is not independent because it does not fit into Kuhn's theory; it is impossible to have a boundary in an interdisciplinary era; and education in the US is public in character. However, people support the discipline of education as an independent discipline because they argue that Kuhn's theory does not apply to all disciplines. The discipline of education has a social dimension that fits into the standard of an independent discipline. Thus, the discipline of education should have its own strategy in an interdisciplinary era. The author also believes that the boundary of discipline of education should address and resolve the current consumerism problem. To solve this problem, the discipline of education should return to the essence of human living; retain its public nature; and teach truth,goodness and beauty. The discipline of education should actively reach out to other disciplines so as to make other disciplines more teachable.

Educational Policy and Leadership
Dewey, Educative Experience and Mathematics Education

In this article, I contend that experience education is rarely interpreted in a meaningful way, especially in mathematics class. I argue Dewey’s concept of educative experience and educational process do provide foundation for Dewey’s philosophy of mathematics education. This purpose of this article seeks to provide a theoretical framework for mathematics education in order to face contemporary challenge in mathematics education.

Xikun Liu
Civil and Environmental Engineering
The abundance and diversity of VC assimilators-a study using quantitative analysis of isopycnic centrifugation gradients

Vinyl chloride (VC), usually generated in anaerobic groundwater environment through reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organic solvents at contamination sites, is a known human carcinogen and can pose threat to public health once it migrates into drinking water source. However, it can be fully or partially degraded by specific microorganisms under aerobic condition, which is referred to as natural attenuation. There are two pathways of aerobic VC degradation, one is cometabolism, transforming VC into an epoxide and the other is assimilation, incorporating VC into the central metabolic pathway and produce carbon dioxide as the final product, which is more desirable in bioremediation. One of the genes crucial to the assimilation process has been identified to be etnE. However, the presence of etnE gene alone still cannot serve as an evidence of active assimilation on site. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) and qPCR were combined collaboratively to determine the presence and activities of VC assimilators and cometabolizers. In addition, an etnE clone library was constructed to investigate the phylogenetic information of the microcosm. The result can assist better understanding of the microbial abundance and diversity at bioremediation sites and provide references for engineering practice.

Zhengjia Liu; Xianwei Wu
People’s hero vs. Ms. Lane Crawford Populist and petit-bourgeois manifestations in Chinese popular culture

Super Girl, China’s first reality televisions show produced the first two audience-voted stars in 2005 and 2006, at the time the show drew intensive attentions for its voting mechanism and democratic potentials. More than five years have passed, but neither of the two champions’ marketing strategies had met the political expectation for their democratic potentials in the previous discussions. By a closer examining of their marketing packages, we find that the two champions present two manifestations of the contemporary popular culture in China. To understand the complexity of popular culture in daily life setting, we argue to avoid a false dichotomy paradigm of making harsh normative judgment. 

Nicole Loew
Define Yourself

The Define Yourself project is based on research that asked 35 college women how they defined responsible sexual behavior (RSB).  Although women discussed reducing risks such as pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections by using birth control or condoms, women situated RSB within their own goals, beliefs, and experiences. Consideration of this personal context is often not included within discussions found in the health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to identify what sexual responsibility means to UI college students. In partnership with UI Student Health, definitions will be collected at various events and then published in a zine format that will be distributed across campus in an effort to promote RSB. Zines are short, informal, and anonymous publications that provide a format for collecting individual expressions about a particular topic. Student perceptions will also inform future health promotion efforts that include developing an interactive presentation that promotes RSB, includes student voices, considers meaningful personal contexts, and results in a safe and sex-positive environment at UI.

Jershon Lopez
Diagnostics of Magnetization in the Solar Wind

The violation of CGL's equation of state is often used as a proxy test for non-conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (mu) in the solar wind. This is widely accepted as evidence for wave heating in the solar wind. Using a kinetic model that includes coherent forces, and enforcing conservation of mu, we show a counter-example where the particles remain magnetized, but still violate CGL's condition. 

Jershon Lopez
Diagnostics of the Electron Diffusion Region in the Earth's Magnetopause

In space plasma, collisionless magnetic reconnection (CMR) is a basic process by which energy stored in magnetic fields is converted into kinetic and internal energy. At the earth’s magnetopause, CMR provides a way for the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the solar wind and the earth’s magnetosphere. At this boundary, CMR is typically observed by large scale effects such as high speed plasma jets and magnetic field reversals. These large scale effects are driven by the small scale effects of the electron diffusion region in the separator between the two different magnetized plasmas. Recently, a new set of observable diagnostics of the electron diffusion region have been introduced that are based on the theoretical conditions for magnetic field topology change and benchmarked in fully kinetic computer simulations. They are (1) non-perturbative expansion parameters of Guiding Center Theory, (2) electron pressure anisotropy, (3) electron pressure agyrotropy, and (4) electron thermal mach number. These diagnostics are unique to the electron diffusion region and provide a finer sieve for identifying CMR events. Results of these observables across candidate CMR events in the magnetopause will be presented. 

Fang-Chi Lu
Considering the Forest or the Trees? The Effects of Mindset Abstraction on Memory-Based Consideration Set Formation

Previous research has shown the significant role of consideration sets in determining consumers’ final choice and the important implications of consideration set size on decision difficulty and indecision. The current research explores the effect of mindset abstraction on the size of consideration sets and its underlying mechanism. I propose that individuals in a concrete (vs. an abstract) mindset think the specific details (vs. gist) about a certain decision situation, and the fine-grained mental representation in a concrete mindset activates more associated cues that facilitate memory retrieval, leading to a larger memory-based consideration set. In contexts of consumer products, studies 1 and 2 provided direct evidence supporting that concrete mindsets lead to a larger consideration set. Studies 3 examined the Top-down versus Bottom-up Approach of Memory Retrieval Hypothesis, which was proposed to explain the underlying mechanism. The findings suggested that individuals in a concrete (vs. an abstract) mindset used subordinate product attributes (vs. superordinate product categories) as retrieval cues when forming a memory-based consideration set.

Sarah Lucas
The Reception of Bartók’s Piano Sonata (1926) During His First American Tour (1927-1928)

An important component of Béla Bartók’s 22 December 1927 to 27 February 1928 transcontinental tour of the United States was the composer’s performances of his new Piano Sonata.  It was to be presented in a series of eleven lecture-recitals sponsored by the Pro-Musica Society.  Bartók—then already established as a pianist, composer, and scholar in Europe—embarked on this endeavor, which also included fourteen other engagements, to enhance his reputation with the American concert public.  Reception of the Piano Sonata varied, and near the end of the tour Bartók replaced the piece with older, less radical pieces.  Printed criticism, concert programs, society records, correspondence, and other heretofore unexplored accounts of performances before chapters of the Pro-Musica Society demonstrate that published responses to the Sonata may be placed in four categories: those by writers with little knowledge of modernist techniques, negative reviews by critics with exposure to and an understanding of modern music, positive reviews by writers who knew modern music, and articles in which the critics praised Bartók’s pianism but disparaged his Sonata.  This evidence shows that the generally negative response to the composition stemmed from either writers’ lack of experience with new music of their time or an ingrained allegiance to repertoire from the nineteenth century.  Bartók’s Sonata was less warmly received than the older pieces performed on his Pro-Musica tour, and contributed to the composer’s inability to dispel the lukewarm reception of his music by U. S. audiences of the 1920s.

Suyun Ma
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Spatial Interaction between Older Population Clusters and Crashes involved with Older Drivers

In this study, we investigate older drivers’ crash involvement from a new angle than what is contained in the literature by explicitly modeling the spatial relationship between residential and crash location of elderly drivers. Our primary hypothesis is that due to their low mobility and driving exposure, older drivers tend to be involved in crashes close to their residences and other places they visit most frequently. We chose Des Moines, IA as a test area for the application in this analysis. The spatial relationship between clusters of older populations at block level and the locations of crashes related with older drivers is analyzed for 2000 and 2010 respectively. Our results show that the destructions of crash are clustering around high older population concentrations for both years. This study serves as a good and pioneering example of using spatial analyses to better understand safety and mobility issues regarding older drivers in our aging society.

Ana Magallanes
School Psychology
Marianismo and its Relationship With Condom Use in Latinas

This quantitative study is intended to examine the ideas and beliefs of Marianismo and its relationship with a Latina’s self-efficacy use of condoms. Specifically, this study will address the following research questions: 1) What impact does Marianismo have on condom use among Latinas; 2)What variance do each subfactors (Family Pillar, Virtuous and Chaste, Subordinate to Others, Silencing Self to Maintain Harmony and Spiritual Pillar) of the Marianismo Scale contribute to the overall condom use self-efficacy scale score?; 3) Does age moderate the results?; 4) Does generational status moderate the results?; 5) Does language moderate the results?; 6)Does region moderate the results?

Peterson Maina
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Hypoxia Regulation of Histone Demethylase PHF8

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in American men. While early detection has lowered fatalities, the relapse of aggressive, metastatic, and androgen-deprivation-therapy resistant PCa (CRPC- Castration Resistant PCa) continues to account for most deaths. How certain PCa cell populations develop resistance to therapy and adopt metastatic and aggressive phenotypes remains unknown. However, it has been postulated that hypoxia within tumor microenvironments may influence the development of these CRPC populations in a yet to be discovered mechanism. This knowledge gap has hindered full understanding of PCa progression. Here, we investigate how hypoxia regulates the transcriptional co-activator H4K20me1 (mono-methylated histone 4 lysine 20) and H3K9me1/2 (mono- and di-methylated histone 3 lysine 9) histone demethylase PHF8 (PhD finger protein 8). PHF8 has been found dysregulated in PCa. We hypothesize that hypoxia regulates PHF8 in PCa to alter expression of genes needed for CRPC development. Our preliminary results so far show hypoxia regulating PHF8 in PCa in a post-transcriptionally, cell type and cell density dependent manner. We also show the necessity of unique post translational modifications (PTMs) that mediate the proteasome degradation of PHF8. These discoveries lay a foundation in understanding histone methylation mediated epigenetics in the development of CRPC under hypoxia and opens up avenues of using small molecule inhibitors towards PHF8 and other histone demethylases as potential therapeutics.

Amani Makkouk
Biodegradable Nanoparticles for In Situ Immunization against Lymphoma

 In 2013, it was estimated that there would be over 69,000 new cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and that over 19,000 people would die of this cancer. Innovative immunotherapeutic approaches aimed at harnessing the patient’s immune system against their cancer are thus being tested at a fierce pace.

In situ immunization aims at generating anti-lymphoma immune responses through manipulating the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles (NPs) made of PLGA (a biodegradable polymer) and injected intratumorally can allow controlled release of loaded agents. We designed a 3-step approach to in situ immunization: (1) Enhancing immunogenic tumor cell death by loading NPs with the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Dox). Dox enhances the expression of "eat-me" signals by dying tumor cells, facilitating their phagocytosis by dendritic cells (DCs); (2) Enhancing antigen presentation and T cell activation by administering systemic anti-OX40 (α-OX40). α-OX40 is an immunostimulatory antibody that enhances the function and survival of T cells; (3) Sustaining T cell responses by blocking immune checkpoints using systemic anti-CTLA-4 (α-CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells and regulatory T cells that regulates T cell activation. α-CTLA-4 blocks its action and can lead to long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Both systemic antibodies are used at half their conventional doses to limit toxicity.
Using the A20 B-lymphoma cell line and bone marrow derived DCs, we show that Dox NPs are less cytotoxic to DCs than to A20 tumor cells and do not require internalization for their activity. Furthermore, Dox NPs significantly enhanced phagocytosis of A20 tumor cells by DCs. Using mice inoculated with two A20 tumors, our 3-step therapy (Dox NPs injected into one tumor combined with systemic α-OX40 and α-CTLA-4) induced potent systemic immune responses that eradicated distant tumors and significantly improved survival. Finally, all three members of the designed approach were found to be crucial for maximum immunological efficacy. Our findings demonstrate that antitumor immune responses elicited by the 3-step therapy can eradicate distant tumors and merit further investigation into its use as an immunotherpy for lymphoma patients. 

Farai Marazi
California Surfing Souls

This neo-realistic video of board and kite surfing on Malibu and Santa Monica beaches and boardwalks showcases natural and human powered motion, and the struggles and joys of life experienced by surfers in southern California.  Scenes of the pleasures and frustrations of surfers chasing and cutting through high waves on the shores of the Pacific ocean show an expensive labor of love that is a sharp contrast to the often futile labor for life of homeless folks that surf the beach and boardwalk for coins and sustenance. Yet the two life forms coexist, sometimes beautifully, sometimes tearfully. This is previously unseen visual art that was filmed and edited during the winter of 2006/2007 and left to sit in a vault … until now. 

Pilar Marce
Foreign Language and ESL Education
Cooperative Learning in a Business Spanish Class: Creating a Community of Entrepreneurs with the Help of Technology

Creating an engaging learner-centered language for specific purposes class is possible. The use of technology, in and out of the classroom, has enabled the creation of an innovative and interactive learning environment for a language-for-specific-purposes course. In an undergraduate Business Spanish course, cooperative learning and the purposeful use of wiki-based technology allow for seamless integration of language and content. The creation of a new business and its web page provides students opportunities to learn the effective use of online tools and resources that can help them to perform job tasks in their L2. In this way a group of students gradually becomes a community of entrepreneurs who are learning a foreign language and culture in a business setting as they develop important workplace skills, like team-building. The syllabus and all the instructional materials aim at guiding and helping students in their entrepreneurial adventure.

Ashley Mason
Art History
Sarah Lucas' Beyond The Pleasure Principle: Unveiling Women's "Impenetrable Darkness"

In 2000, artist Sarah Lucas constructed a number of works for an installation called Beyond the Pleasure Principle at the Freud Museum in London, which was on view March 9 to April 12. This museum was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family after the Nazi annexation of Austria in 1938. Freud's study and couch remain preserved from his lifetime, in addition to other furniture and art objects. Lucas' installation in such a loaded setting is the extreme opposite to the neutral museum interior put forth as the ideal of modernism. Instead of viewing her installation as autonomous entities separate from their environment, the location of the Freud Museum is integral to Lucas' layering of meanings. Although frequently labeled a feminist artist, Lucas has a problematic relationship with both feminism and critical theory. Many contemporary artists deal with this tension between feminism and critical theory. Some gravitate towards one extreme or the other, but others attempt to engage with both in their work. Sarah Lucas is an example of the latter and examining her work illustrates that although reconciling feminism and critical theory is impossible, alluding to both can allow the viewer to construct their own interpretation. By exploring the complicated relationship between Lucas, Freud, and feminism, this paper will reveal that Lucas seeks a level of ambiguity that allows the viewer to use their experience to generate their desired meaning. 

Ashley Mason
Art History
Following the Path to Success: The Marquise de Pompadour's Interest in and Emulation of the Marquise de Maintenon

It is widely accepted that Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, the Marquise de Pompadour and maîtresse en titre to Louis XIV from 1745 until her death in 1764, had a great influence upon the arts. Numerous studies have established that Pompadour, arguably the most famous royal mistress in history, had direct agency in the construction of her public identity through prolific and extensive patronage of the arts. Within these studies, Pompadour is revealed to have had an interest in a predecessor to her position of maîtresse en titre, Françoise d'Aubigné, the Marquise de Maintenon, who was the last royal mistress and morganatic wife to Louis XIV. What proof exists for an association between these two mistresses? Why would Pompadour have looked to Maintenon for inspiration? How can this correlation be seen in Pompadour's construction of her public identity? This study will analyze the basis for such a comparison and investigate the implications of this unexpected relationship between two royal mistresses from different eras, revealing that Pompadour had numerous reasons for looking to Maintenon for inspiration. 

Jennifer McCabe
Personality, Psychopathology, and Parenting: Modeling the Determinants of Maternal Control

A substantial literature examines the association between parenting behavior and maternal characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology).  Although research provides evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately.  The present study quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis.  Meta-analyses were conducted using studies that examined the association between maternal personality or psychopathology and parental control in mothers.  Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between personality/psychopathology and maternal control as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these maternal characteristics.  Furthermore, analyses demonstrated that after accounting for correlations among personality and psychopathology, some maternal characteristics explain a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others.  Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in their effects on parenting behaviors and that these areas of research should be integrated.  Results have implications for future parenting research and the development of parenting interventions.

Gabrielle McNally
Film and Video Production
Working Title: Ona

"It has been said that we only remember the things that please after time through lengthening years has changed our perspective." – Ona M. Rounds in her book Buck Privates on Parnassus
Ona Mahitta Rounds is not my great-grandmother. She is the first cousin of my great-grandfather, making her my first cousin, three times removed. Ona grew up less than 20 miles from where I grew up, received a master’s degree before 1900 and travelled to France to work in the Auxiliary Forces in the great war. She has written both fictional and autobiographical books about her experiences overseas. I have never seen an image of her face. In the words of Virgina Woolf, one does not know a person based on the facts of their life – facts do not lead to the understanding of a person’s essence. As a woman artist who has fears of my work not existing beyond me and who has shared my life with others through subjective storytelling, I feel the importance of bringing Ona's story to the world for fear that she could become, and is becoming, lost in history. Through this personal documentary, I will tell Ona’s story alongside my exploration of her life and its connection to mine.

Gabrielle McNally
At the Shores of the Great Silence

Biomythography, a term coined by Audre Lourde, describes a creative work that is made up of myth, history, and biography. Ted Warburton gives the term a simple definition: a means to create identity within the structure of personal, social, cultural and historical life. The piece At the Shores of the Great Silence is the documentation of a process of biomythography examining the lives of my female ancestors. Of the hundreds of women’s names I have discovered in my family tree, the work focuses on seven women, privileged because they birthed famous men. The scope of their possible experiences is astounding. However, these women all have one common attribute as my direct ancestors; they are also mothers to my son.
Myth, more so than history, tells us what we are and from where we come. This work explores both the similarities and differences of these women and myself by examining their lives through lenses both realistic and mythological. I recover their stories as my own in order to share them with my viewer. This allows for an interesting play between dreams and reality and fiction and nonfiction. Utilizing less of a factual approach and more of a poetic approach allows me to explore the fluidity of history as both fact and fabrication.

Willi Mendelsohn
Art History
Rocking the Boat: The Tilted Arc Controversy

     Public art, artworks that exists in the open and engages the everyday public, often walks a fine line between individualistic expression and public property.  Because public art is an individual or group’s personal work that can be bought and sold, the rights to this art object maintained by certain parties becomes blurry. For purposes of clarification in this matter we look to Richard Serra’s Tilted ArcThe circumstances surrounding the Tilted Arc demonstrate that for public art to maintain its integrity and to keep it from becoming pure commodity, the old system of operations needed to be modified.  


Ruth Mercado-Cruz
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Challenges Related to Retirement Transition in Female with Disability: Implications for Career Counseling Practice

This study explored the transition issues, experiences and decision-making process of older women employees with mobility disabilities who will retire within the next three years. The requirements to participate in the study were be female that must work at the University of Iowa and be within three years of retirement and have a mobility disability. The researcher collected of data through four interviews, literature review, web documents from Benefits Office at University of Iowa, videos review from Benefits Office at University of Iowa. In order to guarantee adequate triangulation a co-researcher re-evaluated the data collected. The researcher used coding for categorizing the data.  This study found four challenges into retirement process that include severity of the disability, financial concerns, activity level and healthcare concerns. Particularly, the factor of severity of condition may influence the subsequent factors. Another obstacles expressed by the participants were feelings of incompetence in their personal and work life and employer assistance. In conclusion, it is necessary to understand the needs of this population and of physiological, psychological, social, and financial problems in later life. As the aging population continues to grow, counselors should be at the forefront of service delivery in their retirement process.

Spenser Mestel
Creative Writing
Unlocking the Secrets of Tarot

Artist Statement: Jakobsen Conference
Spenser Mestel
            When the Persian king Cambyses invaded ancient Egypt millennia ago, Egyptian priests encoded their secrets on gold and ivory wall panels.  Gypsies later discovered the symbols and inscribed them on playing cards, which they disseminated in Europe around the time of the Inquisition.  From there, the cards, now called tarot, stagnated in the hands of philistines until the 19th century, when English occultists finally divined their true origins and decoded the prophetic symbols.  
While untrue, this narrative is what countless people believe about the origin and nature of tarot.  Using my fieldwork at a tarot card reader conference (Tarosophy 2013: Dallas, TX), I will explain the true beginnings and personality of not just the deck itself, but of those who read cards professionally.  

Mahmoud Metwali
Occupational and Environmental Health
Evaluation of Surgical Treatment for Patella Stress Fractures

When deciding on a treatment option for patellar stress fractures, orthopedic surgeons prefer surgical intervention over conservative treatments because of known advantages of the former in promoting healing and restoring patellar stability. Due to the complexity of the bone and joint anatomy, as well as the risks of surgery, a decision in the treatment method should be executed carefully. According to published literature, surgical procedures on the knee joint have been associated with compromised perfusion and subsequent avascular necrosis. In this case report, the decision to follow a non-operative treatment plan did lead to healing, but the development of avascular necrosis appeared as a complicating factor without compromise of the blood supply from any incision. This manuscript presents both the outcome of our patient and that of the relevant published literature, demonstrating that the treatment intervention should be critically analyzed on a cost-benefit basis when choosing a treatment option for patellar stress fractures.

Kati Meyer
Hands-on Music Theory: Implementing Universal Design into Instructional Delivery

This paper explores a new educational reform called universal design and the pedagogical implications of incorporating kinesthetic realizations, in addition to visual aids, when teaching music theory fundamentals to undergraduate music majors.  Psychological and pedagogical foundations, especially those involving universal design ideals, are applied to a study of 67 freshman-senior music majors undertaking Musicianship and Theory I at the University of Iowa. 
The study consists of a survey that asked students about their preferred method of information presentation for scales, intervals and key signatures.  The targeted modalities were visual and kinesthetic, with not as much preference given to the aural modality due to the written nature of the topic.  The results show the potential overuse of the keyboard as a teaching tool, and the potential resource of students’ prior knowledge and experience of their primary instrument for use as a starting point.
Some preferential outcomes possibly stem from certain instrumental layouts (i.e. the piano has pitch layout, periodicity, and polyphonic capabilities), prior musical training (i.e. students prefer solfège because that is what they learned in elementary school), and learning modality preference.  The research presented here posits a positive correlation between students' use of their primary instrument, both as a kinesthetic tool and the basis of prior knowledge and experience, and their comprehension of music theory fundamentals when both are mutually reinforced.

Kirstin Miller
School Psychology
Factors that Motivate Parents to Homeschool and their Relation to Curriculum Choice and Pedagogical Style

Given the growing homeschooling population in the United States, this study examined parents’ primary reason for homeschooling in relation to curriculum choice and pedagogy. Homeschooling parents completed a 30-item online survey, which examined each of these factors at the time of the survey. Results suggested a statistically significant relation between parents’ primary reason for homeschooling and curriculum choice and pedagogy as parents continued homeschooling. Follow-up analyses suggested that parents’ reasons for homeschooling, pedagogy, and curriculum choice changed as they homeschooled. These data expand upon prior research, which has examined curriculum choice, pedagogy, and reason for homeschooling in isolation of each other. It also provided evidence that parents change how and why they homeschool as they gain homeschooling experience. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

Tatiana Mishanina
Mechanistic studies of a new antimicrobial enzyme target

The enzyme thymidylate synthase (TSase) is responsible for de novo production of thymidylate, one of DNA building blocks. To date, two different classes of TSase enzymes are known: the well-characterized classical TSase and a less understood flavin-dependent TSase (FDTS). Although the two enzymes catalyze the same net chemical conversion, they differ greatly in their structure, cofactor requirements and mechanism. Several mechanisms have been proposed for FDTS catalysis, but identification of any intermediate(s) that may support a specific mechanism has not been reported. In this presentation, I report the chemical trapping and identification of such intermediates in the FDTS-catalyzed reaction, using labeling of the substrates with radioactive isotopes and rapid-quenching techniques. The identity of the trapped intermediates underlines the uniqueness of FDTS chemistry and narrows down the possible chemical mechanisms, and hence the intermediates that may be mimicked to inhibit FDTS. Furthermore, experiments conducted in deuterated solvent distinguish between the proposed mechanisms and elucidate the timing of events in FDTS catalysis. The described experimental approach provides an important tool for future studies of flavin-dependent thymidylate synthesis. Because many human pathogens depend on FDTS for thymidylate, knowledge of FDTS chemistry may assist the efforts to rationally design inhibitors as leads for antibiotics.

Kyle Moody
Mass Effect 3, Fan Audiences & “Retaking the Game:” How a Fan Protest Extends Scholarship of Convergence and Production of Culture in Modern Gaming

The video game Mass Effect 3 became a lightning rod for controversy after its March release. Within two weeks of its release, gamers incensed over its conclusion strongly reacted. Some gamers promised to donate money to charity if developer BioWare would change the ending. Others filed complaints with the Federal Trade Commission, claiming that BioWare engaged in “false advertising.” Eventually, BioWare’s co-founder stepped in and promised to make changes. This research examines a dedicated gaming news blog (Kotaku) and their coverage of the gamer protests surrounding the perceived lack of input in the ending to Mass Effect 3.  My work explores how journalistic coverage of this ongoing story reflects current stances towards gamer involvement in production of games. The corresponding study discusses convergence of player and developer in video games, questions beliefs about production of culture within games, and features a textual analysis of games journalism in the face of these changes. I found that gaming blog site Kotaku’s coverage of the controversy trades upon traditional narrative theory of games, and that this coverage contributes to a larger issue of the meaning of convergence within games journalism. Future studies will need to examine the larger cultural effect that this will have on game developers and cultural products.

Ginna Moreano
School Psychology
Relations Between Parent Beliefs about Early Math and Observed Parent-Child Math Play

Early math skills have been found to be the strongest predictors of later achievement in school, stronger than literacy and attention skills (Duncan et al., 2008).  In general, parents are viewed as the most influential adults in pre-kindergarten (pre-k) children’s lives, however, parents specifically, consider math to be the least important area of learning for this age group (Musun-Miller & Blevins-Knabe, 1998).  The current study based on a sample of 66 parent-child dyads aimed to explore the relation between parent-reported beliefs about math and the actual math activities parents engage in with their pre-k children.  Parent beliefs were examined through a survey about parent math beliefs and math activities.  Parent-child play was measured using coded observations of a video recording of a 20-minute semi-structured play session.  Two research questions guided this study: 1) What types and amounts of math interactions are observed during parent and child semi-structured math play?, and 2) What are the relations between parent-reported math activities, parent-reported math beliefs, and observed parent math activities?  Results indicated low rates of parents-child engagement in math-related behaviors across all categories (less than 20% across all intervals). Statistically significant results and future directions are discussed.

Georgina Moreno
Acute stress decreases risky decision making in older adults

Several of the brain regions vulnerable to increased levels of stress, such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, are also known to undergo a disproportionate decline during normal aging.  Despite the susceptibility the prefrontal cortex has to damage due to its role in the stress system, there is a paucity of research investigating the impact of stress, both acute and chronic, on the prefrontal cortex-mediated domain of decision making.  Of the human research conducted to date examining the impact of acute stress on decision making, younger adults have been the focus.  In order to address this, we investigated how acute stress impacts decision-making performance in a healthy older adult sample. Acute stress was induced by the administration of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and decision-making performance was measured by the Cups Task, a task that assesses decision making under risk.  We found that when stressed, older adults made less risk-advantageous choices in the gain domain of the Cups Task.  That is, older adults displayed risk aversive behavior even when it was advantageous for them to take a risk, suggesting a conservative change in decision making performance.

Holly Morris
Studying Sea Spray Aerosol with Atomic Force Microscopy

Holly Morris, Olga Laskina, Josh Grandquist, Elizabeth Stone*, Alexei Tivanksi*, Vicki H. Grassian*
Sea spay aerosols (SSA) are a complex micro-structured mixture of inorganic and organic components, where organics can represent more than 50% of the aerosol mass depending on size. Understanding and predicting SSA climate effects requires quantitative knowledge of their size-dependent hygroscopic and chemical properties.  While greenhouse gases have been widely studied, aerosol effects are still associated with a large amount of uncertainty.   Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging and force sensing technique, often used to study nanoparticles. This work employs AFM to assess size, morphology, hygroscopicity, and surface tension of SSA and relevant model systems, all of which are important in understanding the effect on incoming and outgoing radiation in the atmosphere.  Model systems being studied include substrate deposited salts, organic acids, and mixtures. Complex samples collected from a marine reference tank are also being explored. In addition, a novel method of measuring the surface tension of nano-sized droplets using AFM is being developed.

Marlino Mubai
People First: Engaging Local Communities in Writing History in Southern Mozambique

I was born and raised in Mozambique during a time of a brutal civil war that killed more than one million people from 1976 to 1992. Each day was a struggle for survival and a learning experience on how to cope with warfare, severe droughts and famine. Unfortunately, literature on Mozambique’s civil war is silent about the experiences of ordinary people and their environments. In fact, scholars of Mozambique’s civil war tend to emphasize Cold War-era geo-strategic interests in Southern Africa than they do the conflict’s impact on ordinary people. This marginalization of the history of the civil war from the perspective of ordinary people and their environments is aggravated by the Mozambican government’s calls to forget the experience of warfare in the name of national reconciliation.
Breaking away from this approach, this project aims to engage Mozambican rural societies in the writing of the history of the civil war in Mozambique. It takes the approach of publicly engaged scholarship, and encourages ordinary people to share their experiences of life during war, drought and famine. This publicly engaged scholarship aims to increase awareness of the need for the preservation of private and public memory. Its objective is to stimulate debate in rural communities about the traumatic period of civil war which has never been resolved. To achieve these goals it will encourage people to speak as a first step towards reconciliation. Building from my experience as Obermann Graduate Fellow, I will establish a connection between academia and rural societies. I will get people to give oral histories/share their stories and memories from the Civil War before they are forgotten.

Imali Mudunkotuwa
Histidine Adsorption on TiO2 Nanoparticles: A Fundamental Approach towards Understanding the Nano-Bio Interactions

The field of nanoscience and nanotechnology continues to grow with superior materials being fabricated for a broad range of applications in the industry, energy and health. Thus with increased usage both intentional and unintentional exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable. Consequently, it is of vital importance that design of safer nanomaterials and safety assessment of existing materials are conducted in parallel to the development of applications. Understanding the interactions at the nano-bio interface plays a key role in this process. Nanoparticles in biological media form dynamic entities which are referred as “protein corona” as a result of competitive adsorption of proteins on their surfaces. Studying the adsorption of individual amino acids (which are the constituents of proteins) on nanoparticle surfaces can yield valuable insight into the overall evolution of the protein corona. Therefore using histidine-TiO2 NPs as a model system the thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption process at physiological pH (pH 7.4) was studied extensively using HPLC and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The study revealed that histidine physisorbed on the TiO2 NPs surface (Kd = 4.3x102 L mol-1, ∆G = -14.8 kJ mol-1) with a maximum adsorption of 6.2x1013 molecules/cm2 and an apparent rate constant dependent on the solution [histidine] at T=293K.

Amanda Murphy
The Prison Project

This long-term collaborative art project with U.S. prisoners investigates and makes public what it means to be in prison, both as a prisoner in the United States and as a nation that has the highest incarceration rate in the world.  This socially engaged project looks at the day-to-day life in prison as well as a broader view on issues of injustice, inequality, failed policies, and privilege propped up by the prison industrial complex.  Through using performative storytelling, meal-making, and cookbooks, our project seeks to engage the public in a dialogue on who and how we define a prisoner and a criminal, and as a way to invite the public to critically look at why we even have prisons and the inequitable systems of power inherent within our society.  The art and learning is in the making and doing, ever expanding what forms it takes and who it reaches. By giving voice and space to prisoners to share their experiences while within their forced communities, we ultimately hope to inspire people to action, to engage with their own communities to find ways to mutually care for and respect one another, instead of using jails and prisons.  We are using artistic activism to be a small, but important part in the slow process of social change.

Nick Murray
Medicine (MD)
Sleep Disruption caused by Serotonin Depletion is due to Hypothermia

There has been a 40 year debate whether serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) promotes sleep or wakefulness. Studies that blocked 5-HT synthesis with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) observed mice with profound insomnia, implying 5-HT promotes sleep.  We showed that insomnia results only at room temperature, in mice with 5-HT neurons genetically deleted (Lmx1bf/f/p mice).  These mice also have impaired thermoregulation. Given 5-HT’s role in both thermoregulation and sleep-wake regulation, we hypothesized that controlling for ambient temperature in PCPA treated mice would prevent the associated changes in sleep architecture and demonstrate that previous results were due to a thermoregulatory deficit induced by 5-HT depletion and not a direct effect on sleep-wake regulation.
Twenty-four hour EEG, EMG, temperature and activity data were collected and scored as wake, NREM, or REM from saline and PCPA treated mice at 20°C and 33°C (thermoneutral rodent temperature) (n = 5 per condition). HPLC was used to verify 5-HT reduction.  At 20°C, PCPA treated mice spent more time awake (p = 0.003) and less time in NREM sleep (p = 0.03) and REM sleep (p = 0.002) compared to saline controls.  At 33°C, there was no difference in body temperature between groups nor percentage of time in any vigilance state. 
Here we demonstrate that 5-HT depletion with PCPA leads to insomnia, but only at a room temperature or colder. This suggests that the insomnia is due to thermoregulatory dysfunction and a need to move around to stay warm.  Thus, 5-HT is not a sleep promoter.  Previous data suggesting 5-HT promotes sleep was confounded by 5-HT’s role in thermoregulation.  

Marlis Muschal
Sedentism and Expedient Technology at Scott County Pueblo (14SC1)

It is commonly held that sedentism correlates with a rise in the use of expedient lithic technology.  This project tests that assumption and seeks to explore how expedient tool use fits within the technological organization of the sedentary group(s) at Scott County Pueblo.
The results of this study show that, while informal tools outnumber formal tools, they are characterized by a wide range of variables. A simple distinction between formal and informal tools does not accurately reflect the range of strategies employed to manufacture and utilize informal tools.

Mohanad Nada
Optimizing adoptive cancer immunotherapy with γδ T cells

Human γδ T cells expressing Vγ2Vδ2 TCRs monitor foreign and self prenyl pyrophosphates in isoprenoid biosynthesis to mediate immunity to microbes and cancer cells. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells exhibit strong anti-tumor activity and have been used for adoptive cancer immunotherapy with some partial and complete remissions. Most clinical trials have used zoledronate to expand Vγ2Vδ2 T cells for adoptive transfer. Zoledronate inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) causing isopentenyl pyrophosphate to accumulate that then stimulates the γδ T cells. We now find that "pulse" exposure of PBMC to zoledronate, when compared with the continuous exposure presently being used, results in more uniform expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells with significantly higher numbers and proportions and better preservation of the early memory subsets that are the most effective for cancer immunotherapy. The Vγ2Vδ2 T cells also exhibited increased tumor cytotoxicity with higher levels of CD107a. IL-15 was superior to IL-2 as a growth factor because it further preserved early (central) memory subsets. Thus, “pulse” exposure to zoledronate and substituting IL-15 for IL-2 maximizes the quantity and quality of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells expanded ex vivo and represent improvements on the protocols presently being used in clinical trials.

Hodad Naderi
Medicine (MD)
Maternally Inherited Promoter Variant in the PHLDA2 Gene Does Not Lead to Increased Birth Weight in Preterm Infants

Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation, is the most common cause of infant deaths not due to congenital anomalies and accounts for significant cases of morbidities such as cognitive impairment, blindness, chronic lung disease, patent ductus arteriousus, retinopathy of prematurity, intracranial hemorrhage, deafness and may be associated with cerebral palsy. The causes behind PTB appear to be multifactorial and include a genetic component. As a result, genetic associations may be used as a screening tool in the future. One such association was reported in term infants by a previous study: a deletion in a tandem repeat of the promoter region of the PHLDA2 gene results in increased birth weight. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that no single nucleotide repeats (SNPs) was in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with this deletion. A similar finding in PTB could help explain why some preterm infants appear small for their gestational age while others appear large. Using a combination of DNA sequencing and genotyping, we found, contrary to the study, that no association between birth weight and the deletion exists in our sample of prematurely born infants. Also contrary to the study, one SNP, rs13390, was in LD with the deletion in our sample.

Charith Nanayakkara
Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Reactivity with CO2, SO2 and NO2: Roles of Surface Hydroxyl Groups and Adsorbed Water in the Formation and Stability of Adsorbed Carbonate, Sulfite and Nitrate

The heterogeneous reactivity of gas-phase carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on titanium dioxide nanoparticle surfaces were studied. FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the adsorbed species and mechanisms are discussed in detail. Reactivity of surface O-H groups on these three different gas adsorption were studied. Carbon dioxide adsorbed with carbonate and bicarbonate. Sulfur dioxide adsorption resulted sulfite, bisulfite and water. Nitrogen dioxide adsorption has shown adsorbed nitrate. The surface reactivity of O-H groups with these three triatomic pollutant gases differs considerably and cannot be described in simple acid/base chemistry. Instead we show that different reaction mechanisms exist for adsorption and surface chemistry of these three gases. In addition, the role of adsorbed water in the stability of the different surface products that form from adsorption of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide is probed as a function of relative humidity and provides insights into the stability of adsorbed species on oxide surfaces under atmospherically relevant conditions.

Eileen Narcotta-Welp
Health and Sport Studies
Going Solo: The Paradoxical and Shifting (Re) presentations of the US Women's National Soccer Team

        In July of 2007, the US women’s national soccer team was two wins away from competing in the Women’s World Cup finals. Starting goalkeeper, Hope Solo, had a successful record or two wins and one tie in the preliminary rounds of the tournament; however, Greg Ryan the US women’s national team head coach, benched Solo in favor of 1999 World Cup winning goalkeeper, Briana Scurry, who at the time had an impeccable 12-0 record against their quarterfinal opponent, Brazil. The US lost the quarterfinal match, 4 – 0, an embarrassing defeat that was and remains the US women’s worst loss ever in World Cup play. However, it was not the loss that captured the news headlines, but rather Hope Solo’s post-game comments about Ryan’s decision to bench her.
        In this paper I contend that Solo effectively broke ranks with the happy-go-lucky All-American “girls of summer” who won the hearts of the American public in 1999; rather, she was and continues to be something quite different. I employ Birrell and McDonald’s (2000) methodology of reading sport to argue that Hope Solo and the media controversy she ignited is a pivotal shifting point in the historical narrative of the US women’s national soccer team. I argue that a framework of middle-class, white, second-wave feminist discourse along with the memory of the passage of Title IX, continue to construct and maintain a fixed and static identity of the women’s national team both on and off the field. Yet, Solo’s verbal rupture spurred a shift of consciousness in the US women’s national team. Solo’s comments managed to alter the discourse of second wave feminism entrenched in the team’s culture to create a space where new conceptions of the female athlete are not rejected, but recognized and validated.

Matthew Nattinger
Health Management and Policy
Why Are Some States’ Dementia-Specific Direct-Care Staff Regulations More Stringent Than Others?

Background: In 2011, nearly 5.2 million elderly Americans suffered from dementia. By 2050, this number is expected to reach 16 million. In recent years, assisted living and residential care has emerged as a popular alternative to nursing homes for persons with dementia.  Unlike nursing homes, which are regulated by the federal government, assisted living and residential care is regulated at the state level. Consequently, there is a high degree of variation in the stringency of dementia-specific regulatory policies for assisted living and residential care facilities.  
Objective: This study will assess how socioeconomic, political system, program and policy and environmental characteristics affect the stringency of dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulations for assisted living and residential care facilities across states.
Methods: Using legal search engines (i.e., LexisNexis and WestLaw) and official state websites, we identified state statutes and regulations, up until 2013, that determined the dementia-specific staff training and staffing requirements for assisted living and residential care facilities. The statutes and regulations were coded using two scales (measured from 0 to 5), that were developed to measure the stringency of the states’ dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulations. Two researchers coded the statutes and regulations to ensure the reliability of the constructs. Correlations were performed between the two constructs to assess their relative independence. We performed multiple regressions to determine how the socioeconomic, political system, program and policy, and environmental characteristics of the states are associated with the stringencies of the two dementia-specific staff constructs.
Results: There is a high degree of variation in the stringency of dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulatory requirements across the states. Currently, there are 12 states that do not require that the staff in their assisted living and residential care facilities receive some form of dementia-specific training.  Furthermore, 14 states do not require assisted living or residential care facilities to meet dementia-specific staffing standards, including the use of criminal background checks for direct-care staff. The correlations between the dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulatory requirements (0.37 p<0.01) indicate two distinct constructs that measure different aspects of dementia-specific staff requirements across the states.  Since the study is still in progress, no multiple regression results are available at this time.
Conclusions: Since this study is still in progress, conclusions will be available by the conference date.     

Andrew Nelson
Human Toxicology
Alpha-Emitting Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water

The application of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, so-called “unconventional drilling,” is rapidly expanding to meet the global demand for natural gas. The rapid proliferation of these technologies has many scientists, citizens and other stakeholders concerned about potential and uncharacterized environmental contamination. One specific concern that has recently gained media attention is the high level of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) present in many wastes originating from the Marcellus Shale region (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York). For example, several groups have documented high levels of radium (Ra) isotopes (potent, bone-seeking carcinogens) in flowback and produced fluids from horizontally-fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale. Little is known about the concentrations of the long-lived, alpha-emitting Ra decay products, Th-228 and Po-210. Work performed at the University of Iowa and the University of Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory suggests that these potent carcinogens may be present at high levels.

Amanda Nelson
Impacts of landcover and climatic variation change on spatial and temporal distributions of species in a specialist insect food web

My research is designed to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of abundance for two specialist fly species, their native tree hosts, and their equally specialized wasp parasites. In Iowa, recent changes in temperature and precipitation regimes, coupled with agricultural and urban intensification, have altered plant diversity in the landscape. Highly specialized host associations of plant-eating insects and their parasitic wasp predators are predicted to magnify their susceptibility to environmental change. I have used spatially explicit multivariate regression techniques to model impacts of varying land-use patterns on insect diversity across trophic levels. Further, I have compared both broad- and fine-scale patterns of insect diversity across years with substantially different climatic conditions. Understanding how anthropogenic and climatic effects on plant diversity cascade across trophic levels is therefore vital for the development of tenable strategies to sustain biodiversity.

Hang Nguyen
A Critical Analysis of Danny Elfman’s Music to Spider-Man: The Final Scene

In Danny Elfman’s earlier comic superhero films, such as Batman (1989) and Batman Returns (1992), closing scenes commonly combined a number of musical themes presented throughout the film. The scene inadvertently foreshadows future obstacles the superhero will confront in following installations. Although work on Elfman’s music for Batman exists, scholarship lacks on his Spider-Man (2002) score. The lack of scholarship compelled me to observe differences in Elfman’s Batman series and the first score for Spider-Man. One can readily note the similar orchestration of horns to elicit the protagonist transfer from Batman to Spider-Man. However, it is the percussive elements from Elfman’s Planet of the Apes (2001) that were replicated to represent Spider-Man’s primitive persona from the spider that infected him. Quoting oneself is not unheard of, but it is Elfman’s orchestration and arrangement of various soloists in three themes that create a seamless transition to a grand ending with the hero. The themes discussed include: the Romantic theme, Peter’s theme, and Spider-Man’s/Hero theme. In this paper, I will draw on scene analysis, musical analysis, and secondary sources that relate to Danny Elfman’s compositional process and previous work on comic superhero films to examine how he grasps the transformative aspect of Peter Parker from boyhood to manhood in Spider-Man.

Thushani Nilaweera
Targeting the de novo Biosynthesis of Thymidylate for the Development of Positron Emission Tomography Probe to Distinguish Normal from Cancer Cells

Development of cancer-specific probes for imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is gaining impetus in cancer research and clinical oncology. One of the hallmarks of cancer cell is incessant DNA replication, requiring continuous supply of nucleotides. Thymidylate synthase (TSase) is unique in this context, since it is the only enzyme in humans that is responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of dTMP.  Mechanistically, the TSase enzyme catalyzes the reductive methylation of dUMP to dTMP by using (R)-N(5),N(10)-methylene-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as a cofactor. Not surprisingly, several human cancers over-express TSase, which makes it an interesting target for clinical intervention and imaging. We envisioned that our recently synthesized positron emitting [11C]-MTHF1 might be specific PET probe to label cancerous cells as compared to normal tissue background. We have initially found increased uptake of [14C]-MTHF, a relatively stable counterpart of [11C]-MTHF, by breast and colon cancer cell lines.2 In this study, we examined the uptake of radioactivity in human pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1, and found predominant radiolabeling of cancerous versus normal pancreatic cells.  Furthermore, the uptake of the radiotracer is dependent on the intracellular level of the folate pool, cell cycle phase and expression of folate receptors on cell membrane.  These results point toward the specificity of the proposed PET probe, [11C]-MTHF and can be exploited to image pancreatic cancer cells with low intracellular folate levels and over expressed folate receptors.
(1)        Saeed, M., Tewson, T. J., Erdahl, C. E., Kohen, A. Nucl. Med. Biol. 2012, 39, 697-701.
(2)        Saeed, M., Sheff, D., Kohen, A. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 33872–33878.

Sean O'Malley
Molecular typing of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with over 165 million people. The high population growth rate, coupled with poor living conditions, is a potential factor for widespread infection. Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, such as methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA), is a major concern in such densely populated communities. Information on drug-resistant strains of S. aureus in Nigeria is limited but indicates that this harmful bacterium, including antibiotic-susceptible strains, exists in hospital settings.
A total of 73 biological samples (40 throat, 23 nasal, and 10 wound) were collected from patients and healthcare workers in five health institutions in Lagos and Owerri, Nigeria. S. aureus was isolated from 38 samples (52%); 9 of the isolates (24%) carried the Panton Valentin leukocidin gene which may enhance the bacterium’s ability to cause severe infection, while 15 of the isolates (42%) possessed the methicillin-resistant gene (mecA). Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that samples were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, and oxacillin.
Based on the results, it could be concluded that virulent and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus is a problem in clinical settings in Nigeria. This tends to alert the need for judicious antimicrobial prescribing and proper enlightenment of the population on the dangers of antimicrobial abuse in self-medication.

Hasan Ogul
2013 HCAL Upgrade R&D Studies for CMS: Full Simulations

CMS is one of the general purpose detectors used at the experiments in CERN. One of the main parts of the CMS is Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) which is promising for a new physics by measuring the energy of the hadrons, particles made of quarks. The proposed 2013 HCAL Upgrade will improve the performance of the CMS experiment by providing us an opportunity to mitigate the negative issues we have on the current calorimeter. There are two main upgrade steps need to be accomplished; hardware and software. For the software part, we do simulation analyses to compare the results from the real data taken after the hardware is upgraded and the experiment run. Especially, in this research paper, we focus on the full simulation of the upgrade geometry in a produced high pile-up environment. For this work, we use the CMS software (CMSSW) releases support the full simulation techniques. We checked the validity of our data by comparing the results from three different releases for the full-sim.

Tyler Olson
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Reactivity of Nitroaromatic Compounds with Clay Minerals

Clay minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and often contain iron in their structure. Structural Fe(II) resulting from chemical and microbial reduction of iron-bearing clay minerals was shown to reduce a variety of contaminants. Here, we investigate whether iron-bearing clay minerals reduced with aqueous Fe(II) exhibit a similar reactivity towards the contaminant class of nitroaromatic compounds as was observed for  chemically reduced iron-bearing clay minerals. The results of our study will relate findings from the laboratory to environmentally relevant conditions.  

Timothy David Orme
Community and Behavioral Health

Afterlight is a short hand made film that explores both one's inherent darkness and one's inherent lightness. Every frame was made with charcoal on paper (sometimes each frame was drawn up to eight times) and then composited digitally.

Kwame Owusu-Daaku
Urban and Regional Planning
Engaging Landlords in Conversations Around Energy Efficiency

Iowa City Summer of Solutions (ICSoS) is a youth-led nonprofit that develops community-based projects to help residents of Iowa City develop more sustainable lifestyles. During the summer of 2012, ICSoS ran an energy efficiency campaign called OUR POWER which provided energy efficiency resources to the residents of the Miller-Orchard, Wetherby and Grantwood neighborhoods.
ICSoS discovered that renters are not as willing or able as home-owners to improve the energy efficiency of their living units. ICSoS tried encouraging interested renters to talk to their landlords about weatherizing their units but recorded no conversations between renter and landlord happening. ICSoS subsequently decided to contact landlords directly to discuss energy efficiency but had little or no response. ICSoS desires to find ways of getting landlords to permit or provide energy efficiency for their tenants because rental units make up as much as 40% of the housing units in Iowa City.
This study seeks to determine the specific types of energy efficiency improvements landlords are willing to permit their tenants to make in the rental units in a bid to increase the access of renters to energy efficiency resources such as those offered by ICSoS. The study will employ surveys, phone, email and in-person communication to engage landlords with the objective of securing their commitment to energy efficiency.

Cuma Ozkan
Religious Studies

 Twofold Mystery, arising as a Daoist philosophical movement which tends to interpret the Daoist Classics by using the Buddhist Mādhyamika philosophical concepts such as emptiness, tetra lemma, and two truths, certainly represented one particular type of interaction between Buddhism and Daoism in the early Tang Dynasty (618-720). In this paper, Twofold Mystery will be first contextualized to demonstrate the significant impact of the social and political conditions of that period on the development of Twofold Mystery. After that, Mādhyamika philosophical concepts of emptiness, two truths and tetra lemma will be explained both in Buddhist and Daoist frameworks. Finally, this paper will argue that Daoism differed from Buddhism in employing Buddhist concepts because on the one hand it had to place itself in an authentic position to maintain its imperial support, but on the other hand it also had to employ Buddhist philosophical concepts to be able to compete with Buddhism. Therefore, these polar opposites culminated in the development of Twofold Mystery which was equipped with Buddhist concepts but maintained a Daoist worldview.

Jason Palamara
Cognition Eye for the Composer Guy

Abstract: Cognition Eye for the Composer Guy

Historically, music theory has been a subservient discipline to music composition, owing to the rich tradition of composer-theorists. Having gained autonomy only in the last half-century or so, theory has grown to fulfill many new functions. Is there still a part of theory that serves composition, and a part of composition that can benefit from theory?

In this paper, a theorist and a composer collaborate to answer this question. With a focus on principles of music cognition, the theorist reviews existing literature to identify potential opportunities for maximal listener engagement with the music, then commissions a new work from the composer. The composer interprets these findings by crafting a new piece of electronic music, then both reflect on efficacy of the process. The deliverables consist of an approximately six-minute electronic piece and a paper written as a dialogue between the two parties. Our hope is to identify more areas in which we might attain mutual benefit by finding common ground between the two estranged disciplines.

Lori Palamara, Theorist


Jason Palamara, Composer


Monica Paliwal
Biomedical Engineering
Assessment of Standing Balance in Spinal Deformities

The prevalence of spinal deformities in individuals >60y is >39%. Sagittal imbalance, distance between C7 plumbline and sacral endplate (SVA) has strong negative effect on quality of life measures. Maintenance of center of gravity (COG) within the “cone of economy” depends on the alignment of the spine and pelvis. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between spinal deformity and standing balance.
COG data was recorded in 95 patients (age 64+/-4y), divided into 3 groups: I: SVA=0-4cm; II: SVA=5-9cm; III: SVA≥10cm. Subjects were asked to stand on a Wii BalanceBoard for 30s with knees locked in extension, arms resting on sides. Sway path length and velocity were calculated (MATLAB); Turkey’s HSD and Games-Howell multiple-comparison’s tests; mean (95%CI). Group III had significantly longer sway path length than groups II and I (65.6cm (47.2 to 84.1) vs. 40.4 (34.3 to 46.4) and 35.4cm (30.3 to 40.6), p=0.001). Similarly, group III had significantly faster sway velocity (65.6cm/s (47.2 to 84.1) vs. 40.4cm/s (34.3 to 46.4) and 35.4cm/s (30.3 to 40.6), p=0.001).
The results show that severely imbalanced group has significant postural instability. Compensatory mechanisms such as pelvic retroversion, help bring the gravity line into normal ranges but maintaining these postures may demand high energy expenditure.

Melissa Palma
Medicine (MD)
The Ponseti Method: Barriers for a low-cost treatment of clubfoot in Peru

Idiopathic clubfoot affects approximately 100,000 children yearly. The Ponseti Method is an inexpensive, non-surgical treatment that is more than 95% effective; however, in Peru, a developing country where a low-cost alternative is greatly needed, up to 30% of patients do not complete treatment.
This study involved semi-structured interviews physicians who practice the Ponseti Method to discuss obstacles for the method in their country. Participants were recruited from previous Ponseti Method training courses and referrals from colleagues in Peru.
Regarding use of the Ponseti Method in Peru, 97% of physicians reported a lack of trained medical professionals. 94% stated that transportation and distance to treatment centers was a problem. 84% indicated a lack of parental knowledge of the Ponseti Method. 78% indicated financial barriers exist for parents to use the Ponseti Method. 75% believed the health system in Peru causes difficulties to practice the Ponseti method.  44% thought financial barriers exist for Peruvian hospitals to use Ponseti Method. None of the physicians reported the method itself was an obstacle for its use in Peru.
These data suggest the need to train more physicians in Peru, particularly in the provinces. Increasing access to trained physicians in the provincial areas may reduce the financial and travel burden of parents to help increase compliance with treatment.

David Pantaleoni
Religious Studies
Spirit, Superstition, & Religion: Presentations of Zhuang Belief & Religion

Tensions between the dominant ethnic group and minority populations exist in many countries. These tensions manifest in many different forms, but are especially visible in popular media created by the dominant ethnic group. Examples include articles in news sources, travel logs, and may even be found in the academy of study. This is true in both the European/American and the Sino-sphere. This paper aims to examine the presentations of Zhuang religious beliefs and practices from Chinese sources written in the English language. By focusing on web-sources in English, the hope is to examine how Han Chinese are disseminating their biases against Zhuang religious practices and beliefs to the widest possible international audience. The emphasis on what is readily available through the internet will be contrasted with scholarly sources to highlight how mass marketed presentations show the continually held biases of the Han.  The use of the internet will show how widely spread Han biases against Zhuang religious practices and beliefs have been spread, even to the point where Western authors may be reproducing Han biases without their full knowledge. Sources will include news sources closely associated with the Chinese Communist Party, several travel websites that have focused on ethnic tourism within China, and my own experiences from working in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region during the academic 2011-2012 year. Of special significance will be a web source affiliated with Chinese and Taiwanese sources that shows how attitudes towards the Zhuang and thus their religion have been digested to the point where the authors who are supposedly sympathetic are instead patronizing.

Renu Pariyadath
Women's Studies
Unsettling Homes: Engaging the Dis/Comfort of “Home” for a Transnational Civil Society

A central concern for transnational feminists has been to re-imagine coalitional politics that is not predicated on identity. Writing on the question of women communing across borders, Martin and Mohanty have meditated on the constructed unities of home as a place of safety and comfort in feminist inquiry and suggest that the key to building solidarity is the continual contesting of the unity of the discourse of “home”. Within diaspora studies, many have theorized the Indian diaspora’s obsession with reproducing home as a material and metaphorical space, whether as the patriarchal home, community or the nation, often to the detriment of subordinated and feminized groups in India. While on the one hand, this scholarship understands diaspora as a space where home is idealized, articulating it to a discourse of loss and longing, many postcolonial scholars also celebrate diaspora as a carnivalesque, liminal space, where the hierarchy of the empire is upturned. My work suggests that activities of the diasporic activist group Association for India’s Development (AID) embody Martin and Mohanty’s theoretical call to remember home as space of discomfort in order to enable a politics of solidarity. I argue that AID’s practices of continually questioning middle and upper class constructions of “India” and “Development” loosen or destabilize but do not unravel the narratives of home or nation-state.  The group engages both the loss and privilege of being diasporic to enable a politics of solidarity grounded in the everyday lives and practices of marginalized groups in India “that cannot become diasporic”.

Jooyoung Park
The Influence of Perceived Goal Progress on Consumer Perception of and Preference for Unifinal versus Multifinal Means

Previous research suggests that as the number of goals associated with a given means increases, the inferred instrumentality of the means for the attainment of each individual goal decreases, whereas the overall value of the means increases. The tradeoff between instrumentality and value makes it unclear when consumers prefer means that satisfy either a single or multiple goals. The present article addresses this issue by demonstrating how goal progress influences the cognitive representations of goals and means and the perception of means. We show that greater progress increases the perceived instrumentality of and preference for means satisfying multiple goals relative to means satisfying a single goal. We further demonstrate that inclusive structures of goals and means underlie the increased instrumentality of and preference for multifinal means. In the process of goal pursuit, consumers always need to choose means to attain their important goal. Thus, the current findings help to better understand the perception and selection of means.

Shiny Parsai
Pharmacy (PharmD)
Subjective and objective methods to examine sleep in children and adults.

Background: The increasing rates of obesity and the prevalence of sleepdeprivation in the modern environment may be linked. The objective of this study was to use two novel objective tools to study sleep in children and adults. Methods: The study included 43 individuals from 18 families (10 men, 17 women, 11 boys, and 5 girls).  Subjects participated in a week-long study to monitor their sleep using an accelerometer and a pattern-recognition system (MSR145 and the SenseWear WMS® Mini armband, respectively) and sleep logs. BMI was calculated using height and weight. Results: No difference was observed between children’s daily self-reported sleep log and parental reported weekly sleep log for the child. Both of the objective tools estimated similar sleep duration data from the subjects when compared with self-report of sleep. The MSRR accelerometer had a slightly better correlation than SenseWear pattern-recognition system when compared with a subjective daily reported sleep log (0.399 vs. 0.1785, respectively). Sleep duration was inversely correlated with age for all measurement tools. Conclusions: Objective tools showed similar sleep amounts for the participants when compared with the sleep log, but the objective tools over-estimated sleep amounts compared to the sleep log for shorter sleep hours and under-estimated for longer sleep hours.

Metrah Pashaee
Film and Video Production
Human Body Battleground Organ Organism

For me, the moving image is a complex process in structure-making and concept-building. My moving image constructions are composed of fragments that are attempting to fit together through a conceptual foundation. I often think of my process as a form of collage. Instead of photographing my images, I appropriate them. Images, which belong to a previous context, are uprooted and re-illuminated on my screen. They are rewritten with a new context and repurposed to translate my ideas. My work is about questioning authority: who or what is seen, heard, and visible, and who or what is undervalued, rejected, and invisible. I am exploring the moving image as a language which communicates voice as a body of image and sound structures. Ultimately, my constructions attempt to uncover new potentialities that derive from alternative ways of perceiving.
Synopsis of work: Human Body Battleground Organ Organism is an appropriated moving image collage investigating the penis and vagina as disembodied vessels. By utilizing a digital voice to enact this estrangement, a narration of declaration generates a questioning of definitions, where sound and image structures dismantle and reveal a deconstruction of audio-visual form and subject's signification.

Erin Peters
Art History
Postcolonial Dendur: Rethinking Egypt as a Paradigm of Periphery

After Egypt’s annexation as a Roman province in 30 BCE, Greco-Roman authors made it the paradigm of periphery in contrast to the Roman center of the empire.  This literary tradition influenced modern art historical scholarship, which isolates Roman Egypt from the rest of the Roman Empire. Rather than continue this separatist tradition, I engage with incorporative modes of thought inspired by postcolonial models of hybridity and globalization. I analyze the architectural and decorative elements at the Augustan Temple of Dendur (c. 15 BCE), which emphasize publically accessible areas. I argue this emphasis reflects a shift from the traditionally secretive nature of Egyptian temples to more Roman ideas of public participation and pilgrimage, resulting in new hybrid cultural traditions at Dendur.  Hybrid traditions are noted in discussions of art in other Roman provinces, and this case study demonstrates that art in Roman Egypt should be considered within a global Roman Empire.

Michael Petrie
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
Acute Electrical Stimulation Induces Differential Expression of Gene Transcripts Related to Glucose Metabolism and Regulation

Muscle inactivity triggers adaptations to the muscular system, resulting in atrophy and transformation into fast, fatigable, glycolytic fibers.  Fast-glycolytic muscle fibers are less responsive to insulin, which is thought to contribute to the high incidence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with SCI.  The influence of electrical stimulation on regulation of gene transcripts involved with glucose metabolism has not been fully evaluated. Purpose: We investigated the molecular adaptations that occur following a single dose of stress, induced by electrical stimulation, to the paralyzed soleus muscle. Methods: 5 subjects with thoracic spinal cord injuries received a single session of electrical muscle stimulation of a randomly selected limb, while the opposite limb was used as a control and was not stimulated.  The electrical stimulation consisted of 2 bouts of 10 Hz trains (7 pulses) every 2100 ms for a total of 120 isometric contractions. 3 hours after receiving electrical stimulation, both soleus muscles were biopsied and the mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST microarrays.  The resulting gene intensity values were compared using a relative fold change and paired t-test to determine gene transcripts with differential expression in the stimulated muscle relative to the non-stimulated muscle. Results: Of the 17,634 genes transcripts identified, 253 transcripts showed an increase in expression, while 10 transcripts showed a decrease in expression of the stimulated limb compared to the control limb.  NR4A3, PPARGC1A, EGR1, IFRD1, CYR61, ABRA, and SLC16A6 showed over a 5 fold increase in expression three hours after stimulation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Acutely stressing the muscle with electrical stimulation triggered differential expression of several genes, many with unknown functions.  Of the top differentially expressed genes (NR4A3, PPARGC1A, ABRA, and IFRD1) are uniquely capable of triggering the transcription and translation of proteins critical for glucose metabolism.  Chronically inducing the genes through electrical stimulation may aid in the maintenance of paralyzed muscle’s ability to regulate blood glucose levels.

Thoa Phan
Distress Screening in Cancer Patients

Adults with cancer experience a significant level of distress.  Psychological care is recognized as one of the most important components in clinical management for cancer patients (OCS, 2012).  However, less than half of psychologically distressed patients are identified and only a few are treated.  Appropriate triage followed by screening is not a new idea in psychological oncology, but implementation rarely occurs in clinical practice (Carlson & Bultz, 2003). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has developed a distress management guideline to help improve care in cancer patients.  Multiple studies have shown high sensitivity and specificity of the Distress Thermometer assessment guideline. In correlation with the NCCN, the American College of Surgeon recommends that distress screening be standardize in all ambulatory cancer clinics by 2015. 
The purpose of this evidence based practice implementation is to improve cancer care and provide appropriate supportive service to patients in time of distress.  The goal is to implement the Distress Thermometer to determine patients’ psychological needs, address concerns by referring patients to proper interdisciplinary service, reevaluate and adjust plan as appropriate.
The initial phase of implementing the NCCN Guidelines of Distress Management is in the surgical breast clinic at UIHC.  All surgical breast cancer patients whose pathology report has been verified will be assessed at their first post-operation appointment. Patients are educated on the importance of recognizing and controlling their distress.  A manual form of the DT is delivered and the reasons for the DT are explained.  A distress score of 5 or higher will trigger an evaluation from the clinic’s social worker, and another social worker will follow up with those with a score of less than a 5. Depending on the identified problem, social worker will direct patients to the appropriate supportive service.
After a solid period of implementing the Distress Thermometer screenings, treatment and follow up of patients in the clinic with the manual form; it is intended to introduce an electronic form to Welcome, part of MyChart for all patients with cancer in the Cancer Clinic for self assessment.  With an electronic form it will be easier to monitor patient’s score, and set up a system to alarm healthcare providers and trigger an evaluation for patients who are in distress.
Statistics that will need to be looked at after the implementation process are the following:

  • Percent of patients filling out DT screenings
  • Percent of surgical breast cancer patients scoring higher than a 5
  • The number of complaints related to physical issues that need to be addressed
  • First quarter patient list for a retrospective
  • 2nd administration of DT screenings
  • Max implementation is for 2 years


Ryan Pittsinger
Counseling Psychology
Ethical Considerations for Psychologists When Working With College Student-Athletes

In all areas of professional psychology, regardless of the population or context, ethical considerations and guidelines must be adhered to in order to ensure client safety.  The field of sport psychology embodies the disciplines of counseling and clinical psychology, sports medicine, and sports science.  Sports psychologists are often faced with ethical dilemmas due to the specific demands that occur when working with a client base as unique as student-athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and athletic directors.  This article will address ethical issues sports psychologist working in university settings must consider when working with college student-athletes related to professional training and competence, confidentiality, multiple relationships and boundaries, as well as issues of  space and place.  In addition to reviewing relevant concerns specific to each ethical issue, vignettes will be presented in order to allow for further investigation into each concern allowing for valuable insight to be gathered in regards to how such issues can be resolved.

Mark Pooley
Urban and Regional Planning
What Gears Local Bicycle Commuters?

Those who commute by bicycle are easily able to tout the benefits they experience from choosing an active transportation mode. But appealing to policy makers and planners through anecdotal appeals to conscience aren't persuasive in allocating limited funding resources to infrastructure projects for users that don't necessarily pay for them through road use/fuel taxes.  The “build it and they will come” approach to bicycle planning remains inadequate. Here we aim to better understand what prompts people to actually choose to commute by bicycle.  By working with the local advocacy group, Think Bicycles, we developed a revealed preferences survey to help understand how local cyclists make tradeoffs between the built environment, employer based incentives, and information about route availability. Additionally, we aim to collect local bicycle travel patterns through an open source smart phone application, Cycletracks. Community preferences will be compared with local commuting data, as well as weather patterns to better understand bicycle commuting behavior. Cyclist route preferences will also be evaluated for potential improvements using a benefit/cost analysis comparing infrastructure costs to health benefits, mortality reduction, and increases in physical activity using the Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT). Survey and data collection progress/results will be presented during bike to work week to inform the community, city planning staff, and the University of Iowa how better plan and evaluate bicycle infrastructure.

Sharada Price
Satirizing the Sophists: Lucian's Dialogues of the Courtesans

Little work has been done concerning Ancient Greek courtesans in the so-called Second Sophistic (c. 50 CE- c. 230 CE), a time period characterized by the activity of sophists who, preoccupied with the past, often highlighted Greece’s greatest literary achievements by reusing themes, stock characters, plot lines, and language in their works. Particularly neglected is Lucian’s Dialogues of the Courtesans, a second century CE work featuring short conversations of courtesans, their lovers, and their friends.  This paper explores Lucian’s purpose in choosing courtesans as a topic and seeks to show how the Dialogues fit within his corpus. Some of the Dialogues of the Courtesans seem lighthearted but overall the themes (poverty, violence, jealousy) are serious which contrasts sharply with other Second Sophistic courtesans who are often witty and wealthy. Lucian, however, shows how ridiculous such depictions are. His courtesans are poor, seemingly uneducated, and are not famous for their wit. In creating such a picture, Lucian essentially marks as foolish anyone who would chose to use courtesans as a means to glorify ancient Athens or himself. And, of course, that anyone is likely to be a sophist.

Brian Prugh
Caravaggio's Reserve: the Self-Portrait as Witness to Sacred History

The presence of self-portraits in Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s history paintings has led many scholars to inquire into Caravaggio’s biography as a means of unlocking the significance of his self-portraits. According to these accounts, the self-portraits are said to reveal, importantly, some aspect of Caravaggio’s psychological character, artistic personality or philosophical worldview. In this paper I argue that these scholarly interpretations, while perhaps not wholly misguided, nevertheless misrepresent the substance of Caravaggio’s images. I maintain that Caravaggio’s self-portraits function as witnesses to the sacred events portrayed and, as such, require a degree of reserve that deliberately distances Caravaggio’s presence in the paintings from precisely those elements of his character which scholars claim to uncover there. Such a re-evaluation of the role of self-portraiture in Caravaggio’s oeuvre stresses the importance of the paintings as products of the artist’s vision instead of as evidence of his psychological, personal, or philosophical quirks.

Mehwish Qasim
Health Management and Policy
Income-Related Disparities in Surgical Outcomes Have Declined, But Some Inequities Persist

Health equity is an important, yet elusive goal.  This study examined post-surgical income-related disparities using the 2000-2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We found significant decreases in nine out of twelve mortality and patient safety measures for both patients residing in low and high income areas.  Patients from low income areas had worse post-surgical outcomes than those from high income areas for nine of the twelve measures in 2000.  By 2009, disparities were eliminated for six measures, but persisted for one patient safety and three mortality measures.  These findings have important implications for quality improvement efforts and health policy.

Buffy Quintero
Art Education
Esoteric Beginnings: The Iowa City Carnaval Parade Project

From an educator's standpoint, this paper explores choice in subject matter and medium for artists.  The research focuses on four diverse individuals involved with a public arts project, the Iowa City Carnaval parade schedule in conjunction with the Iowa City Arts Festival 2013.  I conducted ethnographic interviews with four individuals ranging in experience from undergraduate student to faculty member.  Participants discussed early experiences that may have compelled them to be involved with this project, about their creative processes, and about their hopes for the project.  

John Rakes
The Italian Origins of Figurenlehre as Found in Carissimi’s Oratorio Baltazar

When one hears figurenlehre, a term used to “describe a theory of composition which relates rhetorical figures of speech to musical figures,”[1] music of the German Baroque is brought to mind, but many German theorists who were writing about figurenlehre during the seventeenth-century were influenced by training they received in Italy.  This study links the theoretical writings of Christoph Bernhard (1628 – 1692) to the figures found in Carissimi’s oratorio Baltazar.  Bernhard traveled to Italy where he “visited Giacomo Carissimi (1605-1674) and other famous composers, noting carefully their manner of composition.”[2]  Around 1657, after his travels to Italy, Bernhard completed his highly influential treatise on composition, Tractatus compositionis augmentatis.  In Tractatus, Bernhard not only defines and encourages the use of figurenlehre, but lists Carissimi as a composer to imitate.  Utilizing an analysis of the figures in Carissimi’s oratorio, Baltazar, this study shows that Bernhard’s figures do bear the influence of Carissimi, suggesting that the origins of the German figurenlehre drew its roots from Italy.   

[1] Judith Nagley and Arnold Whittall, “Doctrine of Figures,” The Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford Music Online (Oxford University Press, accessed February 8, 2013).

[2] Richard David Streetman, “Christoph Berhard,” (Ph.D. diss., North Texas State Univeristy, 1967), 18.

Joel Ramirez
Occupational and Environmental Health
The Effect of Air Environmental Conditions on N95 Respirator Performance





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In many situations, workers perform tasks in a high relative humidity (RH) environment which makes wearing an filtering face-piece respirators (FFR) uncomfortable. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of different air environmental conditions on the resistance to flow and the efficiency of N95 FFRs.
Method: The penetration curve and resistance to flow (Rf) of two models of N95 filtering face-piece respirator (FFR) were evaluated in a test system developed to mimic inhalation and exhalation, and provide changes to RH and temperature (T). Penetration was tested before and after a 2-hr Rf test using a sodium chloride aerosol measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The Rf test was performed under three T and RH conditions while either exhaling room T and low RH or when mimicking human breath with 95 ⁰F and 95% RH.  Rf was measured using a pressure transducer. A second round of tests included the addition of an inorganic dust during to determine the effect of dust loading on Rf.
Results: Model A inhalation Rf increased from 11.01 mm H2O to 14.30 mm H2O for environmental condition 3. Model B inhalation Rf increased from 13.76 mm H2O to 17.07 mm H2O for environmental condition 3. Significant increase was observed for the Rf slope over 2-hr time for environmental condition 2 and 3 for the two models of N95 FFR. Most penetrating particle size (MPPS) for Model A was 41.8 nm before Rf test and 44.3 nm after Rf test. MPPS for Model B was 50.7 nm before Rf test and 49.1 nm after Rf test.
Conclusions: Results of this study shows that environmental conditions that involve high RH increase FFR Rf.

Sanjeewa Rasika Karunathilaka Ranasinghe Pathirajage
In Vivo Studies for the Development of a Nocturnal Hypoglycemic Alarm Algorithm using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Noninvasive glucose monitoring has been the subject of considerable research because of the high number of diabetes patients who must monitor their glucose levels daily by taking blood samples. Among methods being evaluated for possible use in this application, near-infrared spectroscopy has received significant attention because of available glucose absorption bands that can be observed in the presence of the large aqueous background found in tissue spectra. The objective of the research presented here is to evaluate the potential for implementing a noninvasive nocturnal hypoglycemic alarm with near-infrared spectroscopy. Such an alarm would be used by a diabetic to detect potentially dangerous occurrences of hypoglycemia during sleep. The approach used is to collect spectra continuously from the patient during the sleep period, followed by the application of pattern recognition methods to determine if a spectrum represents a blood glucose level that exceeds a hypoglycemic threshold. A reference spectrum is collected and a conventional finger-stick glucose concentration measurement is made at the start of the sleep period. The ratio is then taken of each subsequent spectrum to the collected reference, forming a differential spectrum corresponding to the signed difference in concentration relative to the reference. The identification of these differential spectra as “alarm” or “non-alarm” is performed with a classification model computed with piecewise linear discriminant analysis (PLDA). This methodology was tested with in vivo data that simulate the glucose excursions that occur during sleep. The performance of this methodology was tested with data collected from a non-survival single day experiment with an anesthetized rat. The prediction data for the rat clearly demonstrates that the alarm methodology works well with the in vivo data collected in a single day. Ongoing work is focusing on expanding testing of the methodology to multiple-day experiments with a single rat.

Chathurika Rathnayake
Identification of Atmospheric Aerosol Sources in Iowa City

Aerosols are liquid or solid particles in a gas, having particle diameters ranging from 1 nm to ~100 µm. Particulate matter (PM) having aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is important due to its adverse impacts on human health.Atmospheric aerosols are generated by a wide variety of natural (volcanic eruptions, vegetative detritus, etc.) and anthropogenic (biomass burning, vehicle emissions, etc.) sources. These particles are further classified depending on their origin as primary and secondary where, primary aerosols are the direct emissions while secondary aerosols are formed in the atmosphere via gas phase chemical reactions.The concentration, composition, and size distribution of PM are highly variable both temporally and spatially. However, the major components of PM are inorganic ions, sea salt, elemental carbon and organic matter.  Organic molecules can serve as markers to identify and quantify the presence of PM sources. 
In this study, field sampling was carried out in two different sites in Iowa City with the goal of understanding local pollution sources. Samples were collected on to quartz fiber filters from August to November 2011 and organic speciation was accomplished using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) picene was quantified in this experiment as marker for coal combustion.  Hopanes were detected, indicating the presence importance of fossil fuel combustion.  n-Alkanes demonstrated an odd-carbon number preference indicative of vegetative detritus in the atmosphere. Ongoing research activities include measurement of organic tracers for biomass burning, food cooking, biogenic emissions (i.e. pollens and fungal spores), and secondary organic aerosols. Data analysis will focus in quantifying these source contributions and characterizing the local impacts of anthropogenic activities.

Mark Reagan
Johann Hermann Schein: Practical Theory and the Rhetoric of Lamentation in Israelisbrünnlein, 1623

The ascending chromatic point of imitation that open’s Die mit Tränen säen by Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) is an effective and vivid setting of the Psalm text “they that sow in tears.”  Yet this text, which appears in numerous other settings by German Baroque composers (Schütz, Geist, Johann Ludwig Bach) and famously later in the nineteenth century famously by Johannes Brahms in Ein deutsches Requiem, oddly receives a treatment unique to Schein.  Unlike the numerous lament compositions that would follow that utilize the descending tetrachord idiom, Schein, predating that tradition, rather uses an ascending chromatic gesture.  This gesture defies categorization in the treatises of the time.  Therefore this winding chromatic ascent demonstrates Schein’s inventive and innovative ability to so affect the texts he set even if his efforts were largely individual.

Xuchun Ren
Mechanical Engineering
Novel Computational Methods for High-Dimensional Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis

This work presents three new computational methods for calculating design sensitivities of statistical moments and reliability of high-dimensional complex systems subject to random input. The first method represents a novel integration of polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) of a multivariate stochastic response function and score functions. Applied to the statistical moments, the method provides mean-square convergent analytical expressions of design sensitivities of the first two moments of a stochastic response. The second and third methods, relevant to probability distribution or reliability analysis, exploit two distinct combinations built on PDD: the PDD-SPA method, entailing the saddlepoint approximation (SPA) and score functions; and the PDD-MCS method, utilizing the embedded Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of the PDD approximation and score functions. For all three methods developed, the statistical moments or failure probabilities and their design sensitivities are both determined concurrently from a single stochastic analysis or simulation. Numerical examples, including a 100-dimensional mathematical problem, indicate that the new methods developed provide not only theoretically convergent or accurate design sensitivities, but also computationally efficient solutions. A practical example involving robust design optimization of a three-hole bracket illustrates the usefulness of the proposed methods.

Alaine E. Reschke-Hernandez, M.A., MT-BC
Music Education
A Content Analysis of Intergenerational Music Program Research

Opportunities for different generations to interact in the United States require more planning than in the past due to increased geographic separation, cultural gaps between generations and other factors.  Intergenerational music programming has been increasingly explored as a way to diminish this separation, promote meaningful interactions and positive attitudes between generations, and to meet the particular needs of participants.  This paper presents a systematic content analysis of literature on intergenerational music programming from 1992 through October 2012 to identify prominent trends in intergenerational music programs and elucidate the current status of research with such programs.  Statistically significant trends were found in the following areas: rationale, description, and purpose of the program; participant gender, interventionist credentials and training, outcomes, and outcome measures.  Future implementation & research avenues within intergenerational music programming are discussed.

Nathaniel Richmond
Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences
An Introduction to the Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem

Networks that grow over time, called incremental networks, are ubiquitous in our lives. New roadways are constantly being built, power grids augmented, and cell phone networks expanded. The growth over time of networks such as these is often accompanied by uncertain, or stochastic, parameters. For example, the completion time of constructing a new road may be unknown, the day-to-day influx of renewable energy may be unpredictable, and the user demand in a cell phone network may be uncertain. When uncertainties like these are not considered, we witness suboptimal system operation. Traffic jams, loss of power, and dropped calls are all undesirable aspects of our day-to-day lives. By modeling and solving the “Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem,” we account for uncertainties found in incremental networks, thereby reducing the expected cost of operation in any setting. In this talk, I will introduce the Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem and discuss several applications and solution methods. The talk will focus on a stochastic multistage programming approach to this problem with shortest paths and uncertain arc build times.

Russell Ricker
Dual Color Light-Emitting Diode Arrays for Infrared Scene Projectors

Infrared optoelectronic devices based on InAs/GaSb superlattices have become increasingly important for applications such as communications, biomedical spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Cascaded structures offer high efficiency utilization of InAs/GaSb superlattices by recycling carriers in multiple active regions. By stacking two distinct superlattices separated by a p-GaSb contact layer, two type II InAs/GaSb cascaded superlattice light emitting diodes were grown on 3 inch GaSb (100) substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. The two superlattice LEDs were grown to emit in two distinct wavelength regions – one below and one above the atmospheric CO2 absorption line at 4.2μm. The short-wave emitter had 12 cascaded regions, while the long-wave emitter had 16 cascaded regions. Using standard photolithography techniques, samples were processed into 8x8 48μm-pitch arrays.  Much larger 512x512 arrays based on these pixel designs are being developed for two-color infrared scene projectors. The small arrays were flip-chip bonded to a silicon fanout header, packaged and wirebonded into a leadless chip carrier, and cooled to 77K for characterization.  Electroluminescent measurements show the peak wavelengths occurred at 3.9 and 4.7μm, with negligible overlap. Light, current, and voltage data are also presented for quasi-continuous operation at 77K.

Phillip Ricks
Questions in Environmental Ethics

I argue that environmental ethics must be concerned with future possibility, and that any satisfactory environmental ethic should provide answers to the following four questions: [1] What sorts of things have obligation-generating value? [2] What is required for the future possibility of that which is identified as valuable? [3] For how long should that which is valuable be preserved, maintained, or generated? [4] What can be done now to ensure the future possibility of that which is valuable? After discussing common answers to [1], I highlight the lacuna in answers to [2]-[4], and offer my own preliminary answers to these four questions.

Michael Ritter
Political Science
The Culture of Convenience Voting: How State Election Laws and Political Context Shapes Turnout of Disadvantaged Voters

State convenience voting laws enacted over the past three decades have significantly altered the process by which Americans vote. Convenience voting refers to election laws enacted at the state-level that theoretically make the process of voting easier for individuals, thereby enhancing an individual’s likelihood of voting. This study explores early voting, mail or absentee voting, and Election Day Registration [EDR] voting. A large body of research has improved our understanding of the demographic and attitudinal characteristics that typify voters (see Campbell at al. 1960; Wolfinger and Rosenstone 1980; Verba, Schlozman, and Brady 1995; Rosenstone and Hansen 2003). Updating this traditional literature with recent studies on election reform, this research demonstrates that individuals from different demographic groups are differentially affected by their state’s electoral rules and culture of voting (measured by overall turnout rates in a state). This study examines which state convenience voting laws (early, mail/absentee or EDR) are most likely to increase turnout rates for individuals from disadvantaged groups, such as citizens of lower socio-economic status [SES]. Using the more than 50,000 respondents in the nationwide 2012 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey [CCES] and an innovative integrated empirical model that employs multinomial regression, the statistical analysis in this study simultaneously examines the probability of an individual casting a ballot using these three convenience voting methods. The unique findings of this study are that low SES voters are substantially more likely to engage in early voting in low voter turnout states, and are substantively more likely to engage in mail and absentee as well as EDR voting in high voter turnout states.

W. D. Suranga Ruhunusiri
Synchronization of a wave in a cloud of charged polymer particles

Synchronization is an adjustment of a frequency of a wave in response to an external perturbation. I perform a laboratory experiment to study waves in a cloud of charged polymer particles in a background of electrons, ions, and gas atoms. A mixture of particles of solid matter, electrons, ions and gas atoms is  traditionally called a dusty plasma and are common in space for example in rings of Saturn and in tails of comets. I introduce 4.8-micron melamine formaldehyde polymer particles in to a vacuum chamber that is filled with a plasma, which is a mixture of ions, electrons and argon gas atoms. The polymer spheres charge by absorbing electrons and ions and confine forming a cloud. This cloud is large enough that it can be seen with the naked eye and with a camera. A wave is spontaneously excited in the dust cloud with a frequency of 22 hertz. In this wave, the polymer particle concentration periodically changes. To synchronize the wave, I perturb the ions in the plasma with a frequency that is different from the wave frequency. I record movies of the wave and analyze them using computer source codes that I wrote. I observe that the wave frequency becomes equal to either 1,2,3 or ½ times the perturbational frequency, which is the signature of synchronization. I find that there is a threshold strength, below which synchronization is absent. I also make two unexpected discoveries, identification of a branching feature and a nonharmonic oscillation.

Thilini Rupasinghe
Mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging technique which uniquely offers spatially resolved (~nm scale) measurements with outstanding control of applied forces (pN). Recently, AFM has extensively been used for the mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials such as molecular crystals, cocrystals, biological systems and thin films using AFM-based nanoindentation technique. This approach offers quantitative determination of the mechanical behavior of small-volume materials with a high precision, which provides an opportunity to obtain structure-property relationships. Establishing such relationship of materials is essential for potential design of novel materials with desirable and tunable mechanical, electronic, optical and chemical properties for the molecular level device fabrication. Current study involves the mechanical characterization of a series of multi-component systems (cocrystals), involving 4,6-di-halo-resocinol, as the template (where halo=Cl, Br and I) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (4,4’-bpe), where force versus distance measurements on individual nanometer- and millimeter-sized cocrystals were used to determine the Young’s moduli. A steady decrease in the Young’s modulus was observed with increasing size of the side chain halogen group (from Cl to I), which can be attributed to the differences in polarizability and strength of intermolecular interactions between systems. Overall, trends obtained herein open a new door to investigate the structure – property relationship of multicomponent systems by establishing a reliable relationship between chemical properties such as polarizability and mechanical properties of materials

Thilini Rupasinghe
Mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging technique which uniquely offers spatially resolved (~nm scale) measurements with outstanding control of applied forces (pN). Recently, AFM has extensively been used for the mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials such as molecular crystals, cocrystals, biological systems and thin films using AFM-based nanoindentation technique. This approach offers quantitative determination of the mechanical behavior of small-volume materials with a high precision, which provides an opportunity to obtain structure-property relationships. Establishing such relationship of materials is essential for potential design of novel materials with desirable and tunable mechanical, electronic, optical and chemical properties for the molecular level device fabrication. Current study involves the mechanical characterization of a series of multi-component systems (cocrystals), involving 4,6-di-halo-resocinol, as the template (where halo=Cl, Br and I) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (4,4’-bpe), where force versus distance measurements on individual nanometer- and millimeter-sized cocrystals were used to determine the Young’s moduli. A steady decrease in the Young’s modulus was observed with increasing size of the side chain halogen group (from Cl to I), which can be attributed to the differences in polarizability and strength of intermolecular interactions between systems. Overall, trends obtained herein open a new door to investigate the structure – property relationship of multicomponent systems by establishing a reliable relationship between chemical properties such as polarizability and mechanical properties of materials.

Thilini P. Rupasinghe
Probing electrical and mechanical properties of nanoscale materials using Atomic Force Microscopy.

Atomic force microscopy (AFM), is a high resolution imaging technique which uniquely offers spatially resolved (~nm scale) measurements with outstanding control of applied forces (pN). Our research efforts utilize AFM based nanoindentation technique to study mechanical properties of nanoscale materials, such as Young’s modulus. Furthermore, we use Conductive Probe-AFM (CP-AFM) to measure current, force and bias simultaneously at a specific location, hence allowing direct quantification of electrical properties of nanoscale materials. The overall goal of our studies is to develop fundamental understanding of factors that control electric conduction at the nanoscale, potentially leading to a development of novel molecular devices. In particular, current study involves measuring electrical properties of organic cocrystals and then connecting to their structure, hence establishing new trends in crystal structure – property relationships. Such systems are important in achieving materials with tunable electrical, optical and mechanical properties, ultimately leading to flexible and efficient nano-dimensional devices. Electrical properties of these organic cocrystals were obtained by measuring current (I) vs voltage (V) on individual nanocrystals using CP-AFM. The resistance (R), was then calculated by fitting the Ohmic region of the I-V curves. Force (F) vs distance (d) measurements on individual cocrystals were used to extract Young’s modulus. Overall, in the current study, AFM based techniques have successfully been used to measure electrical and mechanical properties of nanoscale materials directly with a very high sensitivity.

Blake Rupe
International Studies MA
Quantification and Classification of Garbage Presence Along the Coast of Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico

Marine debris on coastal shores have detrimental effects to ecosystems, including hazards to the health and safety of marine life, as it often entangles or is ingested by seabirds, marine fish, and mammals.   Debris have varying effects locally; in certain cities in Mexico, for example, garbage presence has caused severe levels of impacts to the coastal zone.   This study is aimed at supporting marine researchers and conservation efforts in Mexico. I address the issues of debris presence along the coastal zone of Veracruz by assessing how much and what types of marine debris are present.  Garbage collection occurred between May, 2013 and June, 2013, along three separate collection sites totaling a combined 1.06 miles of rocky and sandy shores.  Debris abundance ranged between .01 pounds/meter and .55 pounds/meter, while this varied according to collection site.  This study provides a baseline for future debris scholarship on coastal zones.

Stephen Ryan
School Psychology
Evaluating Impact of Sibling Presence on Value of Parental Attention

Connor, a 4-year-old boy with diagnoses of autism and intellectual disability, was referred to the day treatment program at University of Iowa Children’s Hospital for aggression, destruction, and self-injurious behavior.   A functional analysis of problem behavior showed problem behavior occurred most often during conditions that included Connor’s sister.  A concurrent operant assessment (COA) was conducted to evaluate the impact of Connor’s sister on the momentary value of gaining his mother’s attention.  Three conditions were selected: 1) Mom and Toys vs. Toys Alone, 2) Mom with Sister and Toys vs. Toys Alone, and 3) Mom with Sister and Toys vs. Alone with Nothing.  Results indicated that Connor consistently chose the Mom and Toys option versus Toys Alone, and typically chose Toys Alone over Mom with Sister plus Toys.  The only session with high levels of problem behavior was a session in which Connor chose Mom with Sister and Toys over Toys alone.  These case study data illustrate the effect that the presence of siblings can have on the outcomes of assessment sessions such as concurrent operant assessments and functional analyses of problem behavior conducted within clinical settings.

Kevser Sahin Tiras
Efficiency improvement of organic photovoltaic cells by harvesting triplet excitons

There has been a great effort to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. A solar cell produces electrical current from absorbed sunlight. In OPV, the absorbed sunlight generates an excited energy state called an exciton. There exist two kinds of excitons, singlet and triplet ones. Usually, OPV use only the singlets. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic devices is limited by the short lifetime of singlet excitons, as they de-excite quickly and cannot be efficiently converted to electricity. To overcome this problem it is desirable to work with triplet excitons instead. These have a much longer lifetime, and can be converted to electrical current more easily. However, for this to work, a way must be found to produce triplets efficiently. For this purpose, we use the spin ½ radical galvinoxyl blended into the bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device. Our devices show a roughly 30% enhancement in power-conversion efficiency compared to the device without galvinoxyl. Magneto-photocurrent (MPC) measurements were performed on galvinoxyl doped devices to unravel the underlying mechanism for the increase in PCE. 

Kevser Sahin Tiras
The effect of thermal annealing on the performance of polymer based organic photovoltaic cells: P3HT/PCBM

Generating electrical power from other forms of energy can be accomplished by several different methods. Photovoltaics, the conversion of solar radiation into electrical current, is particularly promising. We present our work on organic photovoltaics, which uses organic donor-acceptor blends instead of regular silicon based materials. The fabrication steps of polymer based photovoltaic cells include cleaning substrates, spin-coating polymer blend layers, thermal annealing and evaporating the top electrode. Among them, thermal annealing, used to change the nanoscale morphology of the donor-acceptor blend, is a crucial step to improve the conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. We fabricated and studied photovoltaic cells based on the blends of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT, donor) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, acceptor). Our results reveal a strong relation between conversion efficiency and thermal annealing temperature for various times. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to assess how the thermal annealing changes the blend morphology.

Spenser Santos
English-Literary Studies
The Roodiments of Englishness: What the Dream of the Rood Says about the Christianization of England

It is commonly supposed that Christianity’s route to dominance in England was through the appropriation of formerly pagan spheres of influence. While this is one means by which the Christianization of Englisness took place, it is not the only one. I want to argue that The Dream of the Rood exemplifies another effort on the part of Christianity in early Anglo-Saxon culture, that of revealing the aspects of the culture which already comport with the Christian tradition. In order to do this, I will examine the poem according to three main lines of inquiry. First I will examine the language and context of the poem, looking for imagery that recalls Anglo-Saxon culture in a newly Christian context. I will include here analysis of the Ruthwell Cross, as well as contextual information about the manuscript, to further support the philological analysis. Secondly, I will bring in analysis of the scholarship on the poem’s function, liturgical or otherwise. Finally, I will examine the Dream’s unique doctrinal perspective, returning focus to the peculiarities of the intertwining of Englishness and Christian identity.

Spenser Santos
English-Literary Studies
Sufficiently Advanced: Thor as Technodivinity

Following Ben Saunders's approach in his book Do the Gods Wear Capes? I aim to read Thor for what he teaches about love. Thor's current series, Thor: God of Thunder portrays Thor in a way which encompasses Saunders's entire book: he is the space-being like Superman, the being of myth Wonder Woman is, the master of technology the way Iron Man and Spider-Man are. Yet Thor wraps these traits in magic, blending it with technology, and stands as a literal god enjoining his readers and supplicants to do one thing: love.  

Leslie Santos
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Using Foreign Language Interpreters in Counseling Session

The impact of immigration may be most visible on the health and mental health care system when an immigrant and refugee individual who have limited proficency in English seeks for help. Evidence shows that lenguage discrepancy  affects the access to service diagnosis accuracy, symptom severrity, the type and depth of topics expressed by clients, the ability of counselor to exxtract meaningful data from the client's droupout. It is noteworthy, however there is also evidence that the use of a well-trained interpreter is associted with lower dropout rates and improved client-therapist communication
Due the growing diversity in lenguage in the United States, many practioner will be working with foreing lenguage interpreters. Unfortunnately, the scholarship and training regarding clinical service to LEP clients is limited. There are challenges facing a practioner/counselor when an interpreter is involved, specifically in psychological testing, diagnostic interviewing, crisis intervention, family, child and individual adult therapy
Sometimes literature suggested that in US the educational training is not adequete in preparing counselors to work with clients via interpreter. Training for counselors are important not only to emphasize multicultural competence, but also to focus on the practical aspects of working with interpreters and recognizing the cultural limitations of diagnosis when applied to LEP populations. Most of the majority institutions who trainb mental health clinician/counselor lack in this kind of training

Daniel Schenck
Pharmacy (PhD)
Static analysis of microparticle submersion into lung relevant viscoelastic fluids

The goal of the present study was to identify particle physicochemical properties that influence submersion into viscoelastic fluids, which have been designed to mimic the physical properties of native tracheobronchial mucus.
A poly(acrylic acid) gel model mucus was produced that emulated the viscoelastic moduli of tracheobronchial (TB) mucus. Infasurf (a model surfactant) solutions were spread onto the gel surface to achieve, with surface compression, physiologically relevant surface tensions comparable to those in the TB region (~32 mN/m). Polystyrene and ceramic microparticles were delivered to the synthetic mucus surface using a dry powder insufflator. The deposited particles at this surface were then imaged by light microscopy to determine the exposed particle diameters. Particle submersion was studied at varying surface tensions and submersion percentages were calculated.
Stable surface tensions required surfactant addition and compression, and were able to reach values as low as 20 mN/m. Particle size and hydrophobicity affected the extent of submersion into the model mucus, with smaller and more hydrophilic particles submerging to a greater extent at a given surface tension. Lower surface tensions also resulted in greater particle submersion into the model mucus, while the subphase elasticity inhibited submersion in some cases.

Aaron Scherer
Getting Ahead of Illness: Using Metaphors to Influence Medical Decision-Making

Can metaphors be used to increase healthy decision-making? In the current studies, undergraduate (Study1) and online (Study 2) participants read a short description of the flu. Critically, the flu was described either literally or metaphorically. After reading the description, participants indicated the likelihood that they would get vaccinated during the next flu season (Studies 1-2) and whether they would like to receive an email reminder to get vaccinated (Study 2). Participants reported greater behavioral intent towards getting vaccinated (Studies 1-2) and were more likely to request an email reminder to get vaccinated (Study 2) when the flu was described metaphorically rather than literally. The results of Study 2 were moderated by vaccination frequency, where metaphors had an impact on individuals who occasionally receive flu vaccinations, but no effect on individuals who always or never receive vaccinations. The results of the two studies suggest that metaphors may help push people in the right direction to make better health decisions, particularly among those who inconsistently make good decisions.

James Schroeder
Study of Auroral Electron Acceleration in the Laboratory

Aurorae, shimmering lights in the extreme-latitude night sky, are one of the most visible impacts of solar weather on Earth. While known that aurorae result from collisions of accelerated electrons with neutral atoms and molecules in Earth’s upper atmosphere, the process for accelerating these electrons is not yet fully-understood. Decades of auroral study have produced several possible acceleration mechanisms related to the transfer of energy from the solar wind to the plasma (ionized gas) trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. Of these mechanisms, the acceleration of electrons by Alfven waves, a low-frequency wave mode that is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, is hypothesized to generate 30% of all auroral activity. Tests of this theory have been limited to correlations of satellite data and ground-based observations and are not well-controlled. Using techniques developed at the University of Iowa, a novel Alfven wave antenna and electron diagnostic are used in the Large Plasma Device (LaPD) in collaboration with UCLA. Data presented here shows progress towards the first controlled laboratory test of electron acceleration by Alfven waves.

Chaid Schwarz
Biomedical Engineering
Modeling of the Radial Compressive Properties of an Aortic Stent Graft

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a focal dilation of the aorta which can be potentially life threatening if left untreated.  Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a noninvasive treatment that can reduce the mortality rate when compared to the standard open repair.  Yet, EVAR is associated with other complications that can arise such as graft migration, endoleaks, or device related failures.  These complications drive the need for reinterventions which have been shown to occur more frequently using EVAR than with open repair.  The long term fixation and sealing characteristics of these devices is likely related to the nature of its apposition to the aortic wall when deployed.  Currently there is little understanding of the mechanics in how the device performs at the time of deployment.  A computational model that reflects the compressive nature of an endovascular graft is beneficial in investigating these mechanics.  Our research is poised to help us understand this fixation pressure and associated mechanics.  Using experimental evaluations we have made a representative computational model of the stent graft whose radial compressive properties match that of our experiments well.  This method will be used to shed light on the nature of a deployed stent graft and the complex mechanics involved in its fixation within the aorta.

Yvonne Seale
<i>De Monasterio Desolato</i>: Patronage and Politics in a Frontier Convent

The nuns of the Cistercian convent of Ballymore, Ireland, vanish from the historical record in the later fifteenth century. Previous scholarship on the house has adhered to an older view of the status and roles of Cistercian women, suggesting that the failure of this house was the result of enclosure and an inability on the part of the nuns to manage their dispersed landholdings effectively. This paper, however, will draw on documentary and spatial evidence to argue that both the foundation of the convent and its eventual disappearance owe more to political circumstances than to economic mismanagement: Ballymore was located on the border region between Anglo-Irish and Gaelic-Irish dominated lands, and the town was the caput of the de Lacy family's Westmeath manor. As the Gaelic Irish lords experienced a resurgence in power, the fortunes of the de Lacys—and therefore the nuns of Ballymore whom they patronised—went into decline.

Yvonne Seale
A Curable Poison? The Role of Women in the Development of the Medieval Premonstratensian Order

The traditional historiographical narrative about the medieval Catholic religious order known as the Premonstratensians has emphasized its misogyny. It has characterized the history of the early order as a shift from one which included both sexes at its foundation in the 1120s, to an increasing refusal on the part of misogynistic male members to engage with women by the 1140s, to a final break in a papal decree of 1198. This paper will argue that this narrative is an oversimplification. While there were few Premonstratensian women in northern France past 1300, to say that their disappearance occurred solely because of institutionalized misogyny is to focus on narrative sources at the expense of the documentary evidence. This shows women as active participants in the order’s life well into the thirteenth century despite prohibitive legislation, and indicate that women ceased to be a substantial presence among the French Premonstratensians only once ecclesiastical infighting and changing economic conditions rendered their position untenable. Paying attention to the ways in which these women operated within and despite the restrictions imposed on them allows us to better understand the roles women played in the development of medieval religious orders.

Yujin Shin
Music Education
Comfort Women: Live to breathe with a song

In 1999, the California State Assembly adopted a resolution that recognized the suffering of comfort women, who were forced to provide sex for Japanese soldiers during World War II. In 2007, The U.S. House of Representatives proclaimed the responsibility of the Japanese Government for the coercion of the comfort women, and asked the Japanese Government to accept responsibility. In January 2013, The New York Senate recognized the suffering of comfort women by memorializing a monument placed in the town of Westbury that honored comfort women (NY Senator J304-2013 Action, 2013).
Despite this attention from the United States, and growing international attention to comfort women, the issue continues to be ignored by the government and mass media in Japan (Dolgopol & Paranjape, 1994, p. 12; Hayashi, 2008). Nevertheless, the attention that has been paid to these women has shown several aspects of the ways the survivors have coped. One of these ways is through music.
Surviving comfort women naturally reveal their personalities through their own songs, as well as through songs that have long been a part of East Asian history, even military songs from the time of the women’s suffering. This essay focuses on this music, exploring its function as well as its personal and historical meanings and implications. Through the essay, understanding is built about the ways in which former comfort women reclaim their identities through the visceral function of music. Music is further explored as a possible blueprint for a future through the “historical poetics” (Pilzer, 2012, p.13) of the comfort women.

Sara Shreve
American Studies
Expensive at Any Price: Solar Homes and the Marketing of Innovation

While renewable energies are the current trend, their history remains largely unexamined. This paper attempts to recover the history of excitement and experimentation surrounding solar homes in mid-twentieth century America, challenging the common conclusion that the primary barrier to widespread adoption of solar technologies is and always has been cost. 
A visual and rhetorical analysis of the publications about solar homes from the 1930s through 1960s demonstrates that a number of factors contributed to the failure of the solar home. Focusing solely on cost as the reason obscures possible lessons about societal adoption or rejection of technologies. Publications of the era make evident the lack of any clear, dominant definition of “solar house.” They are similarly unable to cultivate a coherent narrative for the solar house though might help Americans understand the new technology.
This examination of how primary sources constructed arguments about the solar home expands our understanding of Americans’ relationship to solar technologies in this period and beyond. Restoring this history helps complicate our understanding of mid-century building and sustainability. It also illuminates the process by which technologies with great momentum can fade and be forgotten, perhaps offering an instructive corollary to the present interest in solar design.

stef shuster
Punctuating Accountability: Microaggressions as Systemic Violence Against Transgender People

Examining the everyday lives of transgender people reveals how microaggressions are linked to structural inequalities and the systemic oppression that transgender people confront. This is an inherently social phenomenon. Power relations and systems of gender shape the patterning of violence directed towards transgender people. Using in-depth interviews with forty transgender people in a Midwestern metropolitan area, I examine the interplay of structure and interaction in regulating transgender people in everyday life. I found that given our pervasive binary gender system that provides cultural rules for interactions, microaggressions serve to regulate people whose gender does not conform to hegemonic gender norms. Accountability to a strict gender binary results in transgender people having few ways for interacting with cisgender people that do not reinforce difference from dominant culture. This research suggests that change must occur at individual, interactional, and structural levels of society for transgender people to enter interactions free from violence.

Jacob Simmering
Pharmacy (PhD)
Inter-Hospital Patient Sharing as a Mechanism of Disease Diffusion

Hospitals are highly interconnected via patient transfers and readmissions of previously hospitalized patients. This connectivity is a potential mechanism for the rapid and widespread dissemination of healthcare acquired infections. Using data from all inpatient events for the state of AZ, we have constructed a network of direct patient transfers between hospitals. We model the quarterly incidence of C. difficile as a function of mean length of stay and fraction of patients over age 65 for each hospital, year, season, year and a random effect for hospital. Using only these covariates, we have a network-naïve model. For a network-aware model of C. difficile incidence, we create a new variable that measures the weighted incidence of C. difficile at connected hospitals. This network-aware model results in a 5.7 unit decrease in Akaike Information Criterion compared to the naïve model. The effect of a 10% increase in incidence at connected hospitals is associated with a 0.3% (standard error: 0.1) increase in incidence at the focus hospital. These results suggest infection incidence and control has network dependence and should not be overlooked in future interventions.

Priyanka Singh
Extending the Network of Coupled Dynamics Across the Protein: Studies of Dihydrofolate Reductase

Enzymes display vast catalytic power and substrate specificities that preclude possible side-reactions. Although classical enzymology together with structural biology has offered many insights into the chemical mechanisms of enzymes, enzyme dynamics and their relation to catalytic function remain poorly understood. In our study, we have used dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as a model to address whether enzymes have evolved networks of coupled motions across the protein to enhance the catalyzed chemical transformation. In our current work, temperature-dependence of intrinsic KIEs for W133F, F125M, G121V-F125M and F125M-M42W-DHFR have been studied. Based on the results, W133F does not appear to affect the chemical step however; F125M shows inflated KIEs and substantial temperature-dependence, indicative of residues that do participate in the network of coupled promoting motions in EcDHFR. To examine this possibility the possibility of global dynamic network, the temperature dependence of the intrinsic KIEs for a double mutant F125M-M42W and G121V-F125M was measured and found to be steeply temperature dependent. The findings indicate that the F125M is a new residue that is the part of the global dynamic network in EcDHFRs. Moreover the finding helps in addressing a major contemporary question in enzymology: Are dynamics across the whole protein coupled to the catalyzed chemistry?

Ashish Singh
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Ambient Impact and Characterization of Landfill Fire Event in Iowa City during Summer 2012

Iowa City Landfill experienced a fire in May-June of 2012 where an approximately 1.3 million shredded tires were burned, generating large amounts of smoke that impacted the surrounding cities and towns.  A wide variety of measurements were taken by public health and University researchers to characterize to determine the concentrations at routine and ad hoc monitoring locations in Iowa City.  Measurements included PM2.5 and PM10 mass, aerosol size distribution, and criteria gaseous pollutants like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. 
 Concentrations of a variety of pollutants, including particle number, PM2.5, and black carbon, were far above background when smoke impacts downwind locations. The peak recorded concentrations of some key species like Benzene (known carcinogen) were >8-10ppb near 0.2 miles away from the fire, and was diluted to <0.1 ppb almost 2 miles down the landfill. Plume chase measurement showed elevated levels (>100 ug/m3) of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration (0.5 miles from fire), and dropped below < 50 ug/m3 2.7 and 5.5 miles in the downwind locations. Measurements were also complemented with a dispersion model using WRF meteorology and AERMOD dispersion at 500 m resolution, calibrated to the ambient measurements.

Bhupinder Singh
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science

Squat and forward lunge are the two commonly used exercises for rehabilitation and weight loss. Despite the potential for biomechanical differences with normal weight subjects, physical therapists and clinicians do not make different recommendations while prescribing exercises to the obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanics of obese and normal weight individuals, as measured by hip and knee moments, while performing common physical therapy rehabilitation exercises. Ten obese female subjects age 37.4 ± 3.7 years; with BMI 39.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2   and ten normal weight age matched female control subjects volunteered the study. Motion Analysis techinques were used to generate a link-based model for calculating the joint stress by tracking each bony segment. Subjects perfomed three variations each of squat and lunge activity with increasing difficulty. The results suggests that obese subjects experience higher biomechanical stress than normal weight subjects while performing basic rehabilitation exercises, although BMI did not show any significant correlations with any of the joint moments.This should be taken in consideration while prescribing exercises to obese subjects, especially in subjects with joint pathologies like osteoarthritis.  

Astha Singhal
Oral Science
Impact of Eliminating Medicaid Adult Dental Coverage in California on Emergency Department Use for Dental Problems

Objective: To examine the impact of eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage on emergency department (ED) use for dental problems by Medicaid adult enrollees.
Methods: Interrupted time series study was conducted using natural experiment of policy change in California, where Medicaid adult dental coverage was eliminated on July 1, 2009. State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) were acquired from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for 2006-2011. A non-equivalent dependent variable was used as a control to minimize treats to internal validity. Segmented linear regression analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.3.
Results: Before Medicaid adult dental benefits were eliminated, an average of 42 enrollees visited an ED for dental problem/ 100,000 enrollees/ month. After the policy change, an average of 55.43 enrollees visited an ED/ 100,000 enrollees/ month. The policy change had statistically significant, immediate increase in the proportion of Medicaid adult enrollees who visited ED for dental problem (beta=4.75, p-value=0.0011). There was a significant time trend throughout the study period (beta=0.25, p-value<0.0001), but policy change did not change this time trend significantly.
Conclusion: The quasi-experimental study provides strong evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits leads to an immediate and significant increase in ED visits for dental problems.

James Skretta
A Performance History and Analysis of the Altissimo Passages in Jacques Ibert’s <i>Concertino da Camera</i>

Jacques Ibert’s Concertino da Camera is perhaps the first saxophone composition that fully explores the instrument’s altissimo register. The register’s extensive inclusion is the result of the Concertino’s dedicatee, Sigurd Raschèr. Raschèr was well known for his exceptional control of the register, an ability that few in the 1930’s and 40’s possessed. While the modern edition of the Concertino shows the altissimo passages in an optional 8va ad lib form, Raschèr states that his original solo copy was written without ad lib markings. The addition of these markings is believed to be the result of saxophone virtuoso, Marcel Mule. Because he was not proficient in the altissimo register, Mule asked Ibert if he could perform the passages in a lower octave, and with Ibert’s consent, Mule did. Mule’s action set a precedent for future non-altissimo-playing saxophonists. Performance practice of the passages has been further dictated by the availability of altissimo pedagogy. In 1941, Raschèr published the first altissimo method book, Top Tones for the Saxophone. This set in motion the publication of many other successful methods in the following decades. Raschèr’s altissimo development has been so influential that all modern saxophonists are expected to be proficient in the register. However, because of the extreme difficulty of the Concertino’s altissimo passages, modern performance of the ad lib sections continues to be dictated by the performer’s ability. While saxophonists must consider how their octave choice musically affects the performance, Ibert’s acceptance of ad lib usage allows the performer to choose the interpretation that can be played most comfortably.

Samuel J. Smidt
Experimental Design for Quantifying the Role of Stream Gradient and Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange

The hyporheic zone is the area located adjacent to stream and river channels where surface water and groundwater are able to mix. As surface waters enter groundwater flowpaths, important ecological components such as dissolved oxygen and organic material are carried into the subsurface. This exchange derives numerous ecosystem services including nutrient cycling, thermal buffering, catering to a unique habitat, and pollutant attenuation. Due to its critical role in stream ecosystems, encouraging hyporheic exchange is a growing area of interest for watershed management and restoration. However, in order to restore or manage hyporheic interaction, the physical processes controlling this exchange must be quantified. Hyporheic exchange is dependent on several hydraulic parameters including stream slope, stream curvature, stream discharge, and groundwater setting (e.g., net gaining vs. losing streams). Here, we present a framework for studying the controls of discharge and stream gradient on hyporheic exchange. Through the use of geophysical techniques and solute tracers applied in a physical scale model, we are able to quantify the effect of discharge and stream gradient on hyporheic exchange flux and subsurface residence time in an unprecedented, spatially 3-D and temporally dynamic framework. The result of this study will be improved conceptual models of hyporheic hydrology and increased predictability of hyporheic exchange fluxes for stream restoration and management practices.

Samuel Smidt
Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography to Quantify Hyporheic Exchange

Using electrical resistivity (ER) tomography to quantify hyporheic exchange in a stream setting has emerged as a popular method due to its ability to collect high-resolution, in-situ data in a spatially and temporally inclusive framework. As a 2-D voltage potential field is created in response to an electrical perturbation, fluid conductivity values can be inverted to create a conceptualized image of the subsurface. When coupled with a solute stream tracer, ER tomography can detect saline surface water interacting with groundwater flowpaths due to increased conductivity of saline water. As saline surface water flowpaths cross the electrical plane, pixel solute time-series can be used to quantify several spatial and transport metrics (e.g., transit times, temporal skewness, and spatial extent) of hyporheic exchange. The results of using ER tomography are geophysical datasets fully capable of conceptualizing hyporheic interactions in a stream setting at temporal and spatial resolutions unattainable using other methods. 

Rebecca Smith
Art History
Glazed or Stoned? A Discussion of the Development of Gothic Rose Windows.

      Rose windows are large, circular stained glass windows, and are one of the most iconic and breathtaking elements in Gothic architecture. They are a principal feature in numerous Gothic churches, and have developed alongside Gothic architecture. As Gothic cathedrals became taller and increasingly skeletal throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, rose windows became more and more grandiose using progressively larger panes of glass and less stone. However, despite their prominence, little scholarship has been devoted to their development, history, or design, instead often focusing on the narratives within them.
       In general, bigger rose windows, which feature delicate stone tracery supporting expansive panels of glass, are harder to build and more difficult to support structurally than small roses with thick branches of stone. The engineer Jacques Heyman argues that there is a minimum stone-to-glass ratio required in order for rose windows to withstand wind thrusts. This paper will explore the intricacies of the relationship between stone and glass within rose windows. Specifically, I will demonstrate that the thickness of tracery used in rose windows followed a sort of bell-curve. From c. 1140 to 1300, medieval masons used increasingly-delicate tracery until they became of aware of structural problems, and thickened the stone tracery used in post-1300 rose windows in response.

Veronica Smith
Art History
Old Brick: Living History, Building Community

A beautiful pre-Civil War structure, Old Brick has been on the national registry of historic places since 1973, but the focus of the building has been its usefulness as a venue for community events and as a hub of non-profit offices. Though community events and non-profit work are certainly worth celebrating, the Board of Directors has determined that the historic importance of Old Brick must be emphasized as a springboard for future conservation efforts. My project center on creating a dialogue with history through an creating an engaging and interactive tour. Ideally ever-evolving and thoroughly rooted in a public narrative, the tour of Old Brick is be a piece of living history to which any Iowa City resident can contribute. At the Jakobsen Conference, I will present my research for this tour as well as solicit suggestions on how to more thoroughly integrate public perspectives with academic scholarship.

Rebecca Smith
Art History
Contemporary Congregations: Bringing the Gothic to 2013 through Axis Mundi's Cathedral Fold

“Cathedral Fold,” created by John Beckmann’s design firm Axis Mundi in 2011, is a proposed design for a new cathedral for Strasbourg, France. The project was in response to a competition that the city sponsored for a new cathedral, although it has never been realized. While, Cathedral Fold utilizes some the most advanced structural technologies, sharing similarities with contemporary architectural trends like Blobism, Folding, and Parametric architecture, it explicitly references a number of typical Gothic characteristics. Not only does the design deliberately engage with the medieval architectural tradition, but it alludes to the extant cathedral in Strasbourg, specifically, bringing the Gothic style, and the still largely medieval city, into the twenty-first century. 

Negin Sobhani
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Distribution and Sector-based Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols in Central Asia

Semi-arid Central Asia countries face many severe environmental problems. However, very little is known about the air pollution levels in this region.  Observations of Black Carbon (BC), Organic Carbon (OC), PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at two sites in Central Asia for the time period of April 2008 to August 2009 (16 months) are reported.  The WRF-STEM model is used to predict the transport of pollution into and out of Central Asia. The model is evaluated using the observations.  The contribution of each source sector (i.e. transportation, residential, industry, biomass burning and power) and source geographical region to particulate pollution in Central Asia are estimated. The results suggest that in this region the main sector contributor to BC concentration is residential BC and transportation BC. The main source contributor to BC is Europe and China. However, most of anthropogenic PM2.5 is from power and industry sectors with the main source region as Europe and Central Asia and China. Results of simulations for 2030 emission scenario are analyzed. These results suggest an increase in PM2.5 and BC concentration levels. Therefore, air pollution control policies should be established and developed for lowering the future emissions, hence reducing environmental and public health effects of the particles.

Osman Sonmez
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Investigation of Flood Risk of The Lower Evros River

One of the areas faced with the danger of flooding in Turkey is the portion of the Meric River between Edirne and Enez, the so-called Lower Meric River Basin. The appeal of flood zones in terms of the settlement and land-use has caused the region mentioned above to be used as both a residential and agricultural area. Known damage and losses of floods are also valid for this region. Therefore, flood damage in the Lower Meric River Basin has been tried to be prevented by the levees made by the State Water Works (DSI). However, there are floods in some regions leading to the need to review and update the sections of some important points in the riverbed. In this study, it is targeted to determine the flood area with various flow rates in a section of the Meric River. The stream flow data from monitoring stations present are used. The model created by HEC-RAS software is calibrated by the flood in 2006. After the calibration, flood inundation maps were created for study area with flow rate 1000, 2000 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000 m3/s. Using these maps,the areas were determined which have a flood risk.

Susan Stanfield
Women's Studies
A School for Young Colored Ladies and Misses: Antebellum Anxieties and the Education of African American Girls

By the antebellum era, schools for African Americans had become more commonplace, with a variety of schools operating throughout the urban north.  While most functioned with little notice, a few generated public backlash.  This paper examines Prudence Crandall’s Canterbury, CT (1831) and Myrtilla Miner’s Washington D.C. (1851) schools.  Crandall and Miner were both white single women interested in abolition.  Crandall’s school began as a private school for white young ladies, but upon the acceptance of Sarah Harris, “a colored girl of respectability” parents and locals protested the integrated school. Crandall’s decision to reopen the school as one exclusively for “young ladies and little misses of color,” escalated the public’s outrage.  Miner’s school was always intended to be exclusively for African American girls and faced opposition since its founding.  I argue that these schools generated backlash because of a fear of abolitionist involvement in the education of free women of color.  Perhaps of even greater importance was the clash of images of ‘womanhood,’ and the belief by many whites that the education of young women of color should emphasize employment training rather than provide ‘finishing touches’ for a young lady.  As the slavery debate became more volatile, teaching across the color line became a revolutionary act.

Pam Stek
“They are Perfect Viragoes”: Bohemian and German Immigrant Women and the Oshkosh Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898

On May 16, 1898, Oshkosh, Wisconsin’s, mostly male woodworkers went on strike for higher wages and union recognition.  The strike, the first of its kind in the city, lasted fourteen weeks.  Historians have largely ignored the political activism of Midwestern immigrant women, but I argue that their involvement was integral to the Oshkosh strike’s development, progression, and eventual settlement.  Immigrant women planned, coordinated, and helped execute strategic acts of resistance against non-union men and law enforcement officials and later took their case directly to the mayor and mill owners.  As strike leaders and strategists, female strike supporters asserted the right and even necessity of women’s active participation in the labor movement.  They paid a price for openly asserting their rights to economic and legal justice.  The state and local press excoriated the women for taking a public stand, questioning their racial status and denying them the protections of femininity.  Immigrant women’s strike activism reveals not only their determination to improve the economic conditions of their families and communities but also their commitment to claim a space in the city’s legal, political, and economic institutions.

Gregory Stoutenburg
"Knowing" and Knowledge

Philosophers have long been interested in analyzing our concepts by means of figuring out the rules we follow when we speak.  This approach has become extremely popular with philosophers interested in knowledge in recent years.  I argue that adopting this approach has surprising and unfortunate consequences.  First, because there are systematic irregularities in the use of “knows” in English, there is no unique concept that can be identified by the word “knowledge”.  Second, thanks to a more global outlook, philosophers have become interested in discovering the rules behind words equivalent to “knows” in other languages.  But doing this just exacerbates the problem: by adding more (supposedly equivalent) words that follow different rules, we simply add more concepts that are picked out by “knows”.  That the linguistic approach shows that there is no unique relation means that the linguistic approach forces us to deny that there is any such (one) thing as knowledge.  That is a skeptical conclusion.  Third and finally, I argue that the linguistic approach (as I shall call it) we just surveyed entails a kind of skepticism about knowledge.  I conclude by arguing for a different methodology: if we are to find out what knowledge is, we won’t do it just by finding out how people use words.

Gregory Stoutenburg
Lucky to Know?

Ever since Edmund Gettier's 1963 paper, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" philosophers have argued over the correct analysis of knowledge.  Recently, many philosophers have thought that what goes wrong in so-called 'Gettier cases' is that people are merely lucky to have their beliefs turn out true, and that is why the subjects in Gettier cases lack knowledge.  In my paper, I challenge a recent attempt to say what luck is, and offer an original perspective on luck which promises to explain why luck rules out knowledge.

Mark Sulzer
Language, Literacy and Culture
A discourses analysis of teaching: The competing "common sense" of the Gates Foundation and three first-year English teachers

The purpose of this paper is to explore the “cultural logic” (Luke, 1994) represented in talk about teachers.  Reform movements such as the Race to the Top Program have emphasized the role of teachers in a quality education, and as a result, state governments and private foundations have shown interest in developing systems to evaluate the work of teachers.  While some scholars have focused on measurement issues in these evaluation systems (Rothstein, 2010; Newton et al., 2010; Koedel & Betts, 2011; Hill et al., 2011), less scholarship has focused on the role of language in framing the constructs under consideration.  Following sociocultural scholarship (Bakhtin, 1994; Vygotsky, 1978), this study begins with the premise that language represents and reinforces non-neutral ways of reasoning.  The purpose of this research is to examine how language works to build “common sense” notions about the work of teachers in two language communities: (a) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and (b) individuals who currently teach.  Building on other discourse analyses on teacher representation in media and legislation (Ryan & Bourke, 2012; Harrison & Cohen-Vogel, 2012; Cohen, 2010; Cochran-Smith & Fries, 2001; Sachs, 2010; Larsen, 2010), I first analyze a document from the Gates Foundation entitled “Measuring Effective Teachers” (MET); second, I analyze interview data from practicing teachers.  By placing the analyses from these language communities side-by-side, this study contributes to the literature by directly comparing the ways in which language generates separate representations of teaching, separate ways of reasoning about teaching, and separate conceptualizations of contested terms, such as “teacher effectiveness.”  I offer two labels to characterize the competing representations: the mechanistic discourse of teaching and the fluid discourse of teaching.   

Matthew Sutterer
Age-related differences in anterior cingulate-insula connectivity are associated with the fronto-executive but not emotional saliency network.

Healthy aging is associated with declines in executive functioning, but enhanced emotion processing. The neural architecture hypothesized to underlie these changes has a high degree of shared regions. Intrinsic connectivity networks, which look at temporally correlated activity across separate brain regions, may provide insight about how aging is related with changes in brain networks involved in executive function and emotional processing. We examined resting state functional MRI data from a group of 60 healthy adults between the ages of 19 and 83. We looked at networks related to executive function and emotional processes, the fronto-executive (FE) network and the emotional saliency network. These networks share regions of interest in the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) and the anterior insulas, so we examined age-related differences in network correlation strength between these networks excluding the overlapping regions. Age was associated with less connectivity strength only in the FE network, and not the salience network. FE network changes appear to be driven by selectively lower connectivity between the dACC and insular cortices within the FE network in older adults. Preserved connectivity of the salience network in aging adults may reflect older adults’ greater focus on attending to positive affective information.

Hiromi Takayama
Foreign Language and ESL Education
Teacher Identity and Efficacy in Non-Native English Speaking Teachers’ Professional Development: A Qualitative Study

Non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) have been compared, sometimes unfavorably, with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) particularly in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom due to the increase of NNESTs in the world. As some scholars explained, NNESTs can have low confidence in teaching practices and self-perceived language proficiency.
This session presents a qualitative study of factors associated with Japanese NNESTs’ teacher efficacy, including identities, pedagogical beliefs, professional development, teacher training experiences, self-perceptions of their English proficiency, and cultural backgrounds. This study is comprised of three data sources: interview, classroom observation, and think aloud protocol. The interview and classroom observation data were derived from two Japanese English teachers at a university in Japan. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scales and additional demographic questions were collected from three Japanese English teachers using think aloud protocol.    
Participants’ identity is closely associated with their classroom practices. Also, their Japanese cultural and educational backgrounds influence teacher efficacy, which in turn correlates with teacher training and past teaching experiences. These findings are relevant to all EFL contexts for teachers and teacher trainers.

The Public Health Burden of Influenza: Clustering, Modeling, and Predicting Incidence for Diseases Associated with the Influenza

Investigating the associations among common diseases that follow a similar incidence pattern is of great interest in public health. Influenza has been linked with many seasonal diseases. However, diseases that follow a similar seasonal pattern to that of influenza may not necessarily be causally related. In this work, the first problem we consider is to identify empirically homogeneous diseases with influenza based on similarities in the temporal dynamics. We employ a structural time series model that characterizes each candidate disease incidence series as an additive combination of three latent processes: a long-term trend, seasonal variation, and a local anomaly. Correlation measures based on local anomaly and seasonal dynamics are applied to cluster the disease series. The second problem is to augment the state space models to evaluate the extent to which influenza can predict the incidence of those diseases to which it might be causally related. As a natural experiment, we examine the utility of influenza activity in predicting incidence during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

Taryne Taylor
English-Literary Studies
Elizabeth Burgoyne Corbett’s New Amazonia (1889): A Feminist Satirical Disutopia

Utopias represent an understudied and undervalued mode of feminist thought. The end of the nineteenth century has been called the age of the utopia— it was also the age of the feminist utopia. Yet there has been very little scholarly discussion of British nineteenth century feminist utopias. This paper is part of a larger project focused on recovering and establishing a taxonomy of these forgotten feminist utopias to recover their value for literary history, feminist history and thought, and the history of utopian thought. Corbett’s New Amazonia is one such work. Though New Amazonia is written in the utopian literary form and adheres to the conventions of the literary utopia, I argue that Corbett subverts the utopian tradition to create a work that transcends traditional genre classifications. New Amazonia slips seamlessly from satire to dystopia to utopia. These shifts in genre and tone highlight the intentional contradictions and ambiguous moments that characterize the work. Through historically contextualized close readings of the five primary themes in the work—time, misandry, vivisection, eugenics, and imperialism—I argue that New Amazonia develops a hybridized utopia that requires the creation of a new category: the satirical disutopia.  

Kelsey Thiem
Stereotype Validation and Self-Affirmation: A Test of Two Competing Hypotheses

Recent research suggests that activating stereotypes after an intellectual task can validate performance perceptions held by stigmatized individuals. This study examined how this stereotype validation phenomenon may be influenced by the opportunity to affirm self-worth. Two competing hypotheses were tested. The certainty reduction hypothesis derived from stereotype threat literature predicted less certainty in performance evaluation following a self-affirmation task. The certainty enhancement hypothesis originating from the attitudes literature predicted greater performance evaluation certainty after self-affirmation. To test these hypotheses, women were subjected to the math-gender stereotype manipulation (i.e., the stereotype was made salient or not) after completing a difficult math test. They then either took part in a self-affirmation task or did not. Results showed that women who reported performing poorly on the math test and experienced stereotype validation felt more confident in their performance evaluation when they self-affirmed compared to poor-performing, non-affirmed women. Poor-performing, affirmed women also experienced lower beliefs in their mathematical ability. Certainty was shown to be a mediator between the affirmation manipulation and math ability beliefs and between the gender stereotype salience condition and math ability beliefs.

Kelly Thompson
Library and Information Science
Electronic Communication and Privacy Rights: Rape Shield Laws, Sexual Assault Survivors’ Rights, and Defense Subpoenas in a Digital World

As electronic communications and online information access become indispensable components of our day-to-day lives, they also begin to trigger changes in policy and produce unintended consequences from existing policies.  Privacy of personal information has always been an issue in legal cases dealing with sexual assault, but in the information age, so much more information exists in a digital format, and without proper protections, provides a tempting trove of information ripe for unjust “fishing expeditions.”  Privacy protections for survivors of sexual violence are as important as ever in this new technological landscape. Consumer education and awareness of privacy issues should also play a large role in our near future as we grapple with these promisingly persistent issues.

Heather Thorpe
Art History
Reconciling Caravaggio: The Artist and the Myth

The seventeenth-century Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio has been portrayed in the art historical narrative as a divisive figure – breaking from tradition with his use of extreme naturalism and dramatic chiaroscuro.  Some modern scholars, such as Michael Fried, have gone so far as to label him as the first modern artist, self-consciously breaking with tradition in pursuit of the new.  My aim is to show that Caravaggio is not as divisive a figure as modern scholarship and popular culture have made him out to be.  By locating Caravaggio within his historical context, I provide evidence suggesting that the artist was, in fact, influenced throughout his career by the Leonardesque tradition of painting, which he was introduced to during his apprenticeship in Milan, and by the artistic and literary culture of seicento Rome in which he began his career as an independent artist. 

Ashley Tickle
Saint Patrick's Purgatory and Altered States of Consciousness

Visions of and journeys to the otherworld are found across many cultures. These visions often share similar content. Using the vision literature associated with St. Patrick’s Purgatory, located in Lough Derg Ireland, I examine what may cause the similarities of these visions. I first establish the commonalities of these visions to each other and to similar vision journeys from different cultures such as Persian Zoroastrianism, late antique Greek Christianity, as well as fictional visions of the secular world. I then explore biological, psychological, social, and religious theories that could account for these similarities and explain the cause of the visions themselves. I conclude that the best explanation for the visions of Saint Patrick's Purgatory and their similarities is that they are a result of Altered States of Consciousness. This is not to say that these journeys and visions are unreal or the result of mental deficiencies. Science still has many more areas of our world and our minds to examine.  

Emrah Tiras
The Search for Heavy Majorana Neutrinos at CMS Experiment: The Analyses of Same Sign Isolated Dimuons (μ^∓ μ^∓) and Jets

With the discovery of neutrino oscillations, the non-zero masses of the neutrinos has been confirmed. With this confirmation, a search for a mechanism to explain the non-zero mass of neutrinos has become popular among particle collision experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the world’s largest particle accelerator. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), one of the general-purpose detectors of the LHC, is gathering data to measure the energies of the particles such as hadrons, leptons, jets, and photons produced by the proton-proton collisions at very high energies.  In this presentation, we briefly explain the current status of a search for heavy Majorana neutrinos, one possible mechanism to explain the massive nature of the known neutrinos. The data used in this analysis comes from the data collected with the CMS detector during the 2012 operation of the LHC. In this work, the same sign muons are found with the decay products of an accompanying W boson. Specifically W decays into two jets are considered. Also, Monte Carlo simulations were used to understand what might be expected in the CMS data.

Mai Tu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Functionalized Polymeric Particles for Targeted Delivery to the Lung Epithelium

Targeted drug delivery to the lung is challenging due to poor penetration through the mucus barrier and limited uptake into the lung epithelium. To facilitate mucoavoidance and cell attachment of drug-containing particles, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lipooligosacharides (LOS) from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was used to coat the surface of polymeric vehicles. The goal was to develop polymeric particles with tailored surface characteristics to enhance targeted delivery to the lung epithelium.
Polystyrene particles (1 µm) were coated with either PEG or the targeting ligand LOS 3198 with high Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) content. LOS was isolated using proteinase K/hot phenol method and the ChoP expression was verified using dot immunoblot and ELISA. The particle surface was characterized by ELISA and zeta potential measurements. The fate of coated particles was investigated using the in vitro bronchial epithelial cell cultures 16HBE14o-. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to quantify particle association with cells.
The fate of surface-modified particles is dependent on the concentration and type of ligand coating. As the concentration of the particles increases, the %cells associated with these particles increases. This study provides evidence of selective uptake of LOS-coated particles on 16HBE14o- cells via the platelet activating factor receptor.

Julia R. Van Liew
Psychosocial factors in adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer: An emerging context for adherence research

Purpose: For patients with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, survivorship entails prolonged self-management of adjuvant treatment in the form of daily hormone therapy.  Although sustained daily adherence across the five-year course of therapy is associated with improved recurrence-free survival outcomes, adherence is suboptimal and many women discontinue hormone therapy prematurely.  Factors associated with breast cancer survivors’ non-adherence and non-persistence are not comprehensively understood.  Furthermore, psychosocial variables have only received limited research attention, despite their documented relationships with adherence in other chronic illness populations.  Methods: A comprehensive literature review identified fourteen studies that analyzed relationships between psychosocial factors and breast cancer survivors’ adherence and/or persistence with adjuvant hormone therapy.  Results: Although identified relationships were complex and at times inconsistent, salient conclusions emerged.  Interpersonal factors, in the form of positive social support and patient-centered interactions with medical providers, as well as intrapersonal factors, such as beliefs about the relative benefits of medication use, were reliably associated with better adherence and persistence.  Contrary to data from other medical populations, mental health factors were not consistently related to adjuvant hormone therapy adherence outcomes in the reviewed literature.  Conclusions: Adjuvant hormone therapy appears to be a unique context for medication adherence, which warrants further attention and more rigorous analysis in future research.  Individual patients’ psychosocial characteristics and health care preferences should be considered when striving to optimize medication adherence.

Brigitte Vanle
Pharmacy (PhD)
GAPDH Inhibition and Covalent Modification by 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde: Novel Target in Parkinson's Disease

Parkinsons disease is a slow-progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting 5-6 million people around the globe. The disease is manifested by the rapid deterioration of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra portion of the brain; however, the pathological mechanism of selective dopaminergic neuronal death is unknown. Dopamine is oxidatively deaminated and catalyzed by monamine oxidase to form the endogenous neurotoxin 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehye (DOPAL). The reduction in levels of DOPAL is biologically critical as this aldehyde has been shown to be toxic to dopaminergic cells and is a highly reactive electrophile. Investigating neuronal protein targets of the DOPAL electrophile is essential in determining the cause of dopaminergic cell toxicity. An essential protein, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an abundantly expressed enzyme known for its glycolytic activity and recent research has directly implicated its role in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death. GAPDH has been shown to be highly susceptible to covalent modification and inactivation by DOPAL. Upon treatment with DOPAL (5-25 µM), enzyme activity was significantly inhibited compared to control. In order to assess the mechanism of enzyme inhibition by DOPAL, enzyme was digested with trypsin and analyzed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The resulting tryptic peptides were mapped for possible sites with DOPAL modification. A total of eight adduction sites with Lys and Arg residues were discovered. Of these seven, five are within the Rossman Fold of the enzyme. This NAD+ binding domain is crucial in maintaining normal enzyme function. Disruption of cofactor binding by small molecules such as DOPAL can be detrimental for enzyme activity. In addition, extensive GAPDH crosslinking by DOPAL was observed using Western blotting. Given GAPDH’s intracellular abundance and its pivotal role in multiple metabolic and apoptotic pathways, compromise on protein structure and enzymatic activity may have devastating effects on cellular homeostasis. Thus, GAPDH is a viable target of modification by DOPAL.  In addition, the intracellular formation of GAPDH may serve as a cellular phenotype in neurodegenerative disorders.

Matthew Vasquez
Social Work
A Qualitative Examination of Families who have Adopted Children with Reactive Attachment Disorder

Adopted children with special needs can experience a multitude of developmental, emotional, and behavioral issues as a result of pre-adoption maltreatment. Tension, stress, and poor family functioning can develop when families are unprepared to address these issues, especially when an adopted child’s behaviors turn violent and/or self-destructive. In some instances, these behaviors can fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Children with RAD have experienced extreme neglect and maltreatment during early infancy, and as result, struggle with forming stable attachments to primary caretakers. Behaviors often associated with RAD can include lying, stealing, fire setting, violence toward animals and persons, and self-harming behaviors.  Families who adopt children with RAD need to therefore be prepared to address the multitude of issues that can arise. Currently, there is no research on this topic, which may make it difficult for adoption agencies and mental health professionals to know how to better prepare parents who adopt children with RAD.  Using semi-structured interviews, this study explores the impact an adopted child with (RAD) has on families. In the presentation, I discuss the topic of RAD, my qualitative approach and study design, and provide a summary of my initial findings.  

Raychel Vasseur
Second Language Acquisition
Chatting about Comics: What role does the L1 have?

Comic strips can be a viable, interesting resource for second language learners, providing them with alternative input sources from the target language (TL). Through authentic comics learners are exposed to culture, humor, and fun in second language learning, potentially increasing their motivation to learn. This study makes use of an authentic, Spanish comic strip, Goomer, as the topic for chat between third-semester learners of Spanish. It investigates the uses of the first language (L1) for students while discussing and creating a story based on the comic. Learners completed a two-way jigsaw task via synchronous, computer-mediated communication in Google chat, first putting the different panels of a comic that they were given in order. Following rich descriptions of the scenes to create an order, learners used Google Docs to write a creative story about the pictures. Learners did not use outside resources to complete the task, instead relying just on the knowledge of themselves and their other group members to co-construct meaning together. The extent and functions of the uses of their L1 (English) were analyzed using a sociocultural theoretical framework. Findings suggest that the amount of the L1 varied across students, however the functions were rather constant; the majority of learners used the L1 to fill in gaps in their lexical knowledge of the TL both while they were describing the pictures and later when they were writing the story.

Dan Vatterott
Experience modulates attention to irrelevant distractors: Evidence from saccade deviation

In tasks such as visual search for a target item among distractors, the question whether attention is primarily allocated based on bottom-up or top-down factors has dominated the literature for the past twenty years.  Recent research on the role of experience in driving attentional control has created a more nuanced picture than the classic dichotomy would suggest. In the present investigation, we examined whether experience with specific distractors changes the amount of attention allocated to them, or the amount of time needed to filter them. To answer this question, observers voluntarily executed saccades to a target location across four blocks of trials; each block contained a different color distractor on 80% of the trials. Saccades deviated away from distractors more early in the blocks than late. These results show that experience with distractors does not modulate the amount of time needed to filter them; it instead indicates that experience with distractors decreases the amount of attention allocated to them. 

Daniel Vatterott
The attentional window configures to object boundaries

When searching your desk for a pen, how do you constrain your attention to the desk and avoid being distracted by your office partner’s bright shoes? The attention literature posits that people constrain attention to relevant locations with an “attentional window.” This window filters in visual information within its spatial window and filters out information outside of its window. For example, if your attentional window is configured to your desk, your visual system will process the objects on the desk, but not objects on the floor. One unanswered question about the attentional window is whether it can configure to objects or, instead, acts as a spotlight on different vague locations (i.e. zoom-lens). To answer this, observers completed a simple search task with a salient distractor and were cued to search for the target at either locations or objects. When locations were cued, salient distractors at both cued and uncued locations captured attention, indicating imprecise configuration of the attentional window. When objects were cued, only salient distractors on the cued object captured attention, indicating the attentional window configures to specific objects; not vague locations. This research demonstrates that when searching your desk for a pen, you are able to specifically search items on your desk and not just search the vague location of your desk.

Lindsay Vella
Writers’ Workshop
Snare Snare Antipodes

            This series of poems aims to create a space where language blurs. Coil and coin. Lung and sung. Dusk, husk, flux. Outer to other. Twin from twinge from twine. Dawn to drawn to drain. The morphing of sound is crucial to the tension in this series, which exists in a space where things are floating in all directions or no direction. And though these poems may have no answer when it comes to the direction one is going or even facing, they certainly know the condition in which they exist.
            The space where language blurs is a box, a lens, a chamber, a cage. Each poem is formally identical. They are all a self-contained rectangle—seven lines and justified margins. The experience of isolation and entrapment created by the form extends itself into the content, through different modes of language that blur the line between one another—the medical, biological, the mechanical, the nautical, the astronomic, textile, music, pregnancy, water. These things orbit each another, blur into one another, collide.

Miriam Verploegh
Not Thinking Straight: How Sexual Orientation and Gender Display Shape Inequality in Task Groups

This dissertation addresses the question of whether sexuality, similar to gender, will lead to status differentiation within group interaction. First, I propose that that sexuality, like gender, is a diffuse status characteristic that shapes the production of status hierarchies. Second, I emphasize the importance of decoupling gender from sexuality so that we can see the influence of sexuality on its own as well as how it works with gender to inform expectations.  In order to test these propositions I will use Expectation States Theory, to formalize these claims about sexuality and gender and lay out a framework for testing them. This is an 8 condition experimental study that will allow us to manipulate both gender display and sexual orientation.  The experimental design uses a stay response protocol, during a task we refer to as the contrast sensitivity test. This research is new and integral to the fields of gender and sexuality studies because it works to incorporate expectation states research (Wagner and Berger 1985) with feminist research on sexuality and “doing gender, doing difference” (West and Zimmerman 1987). This research is significant because if we find that behavioral inequalities do exist around sexual orientation in the laboratory setting than we assume that behavioral inequalities are also developing in real world settings like occupational or educational arenas. Once we understanding how sexuality shapes stratification and inequality in a laboratory setting, we can better understand how to intervene in these processes in the larger social world.

Miriam Verploegh
Social Interaction and Status: A Study of How Sexual Orientation and Gender Influence Social Stratification

This research suggests that sexuality, similar to gender, will lead to status differentiation within group interaction. More specifically, I am interested in exploring the effect of sexual orientation on performance expectations during interaction and how these expectations ultimately affect behavior. A few researchers have suggested the possibility that sexuality, similar to gender, functions as a status characteristic (Johnson 1995; Webster and Hysom 1995; Webster et al. 1998). However no one, as of yet, has tested this proposition with an experiment. By using Expectation States Theory we can explore the distinct effects of sex category, gender, and sexuality on influence processes. Expectation States Theory is unique because in no other theory are we allowed to clarify the potential differential effects of gender and sexuality. This research consists of an 8 condition experimental study that will allow us to manipulate both gender display and sexual orientation.  The experimental design uses a stay response protocol, during a task we refer to as the contrast sensitivity test.  The contrast sensitivity test is invaluable because it provides a behavioral measure of influence in groups. My main contribution is to develop and evaluate a model that will help us to better understand the influence of sexual orientation on social stratification.  Once we understanding how sexuality shapes stratification and inequality in the laboratory setting, we can better understand how to intervene in these processes in the larger social world.

Stacy Voccia
Management Sciences
Same Day Delivery for Online Purchases

Same day delivery for online purchases is a trend being embraced by Amazon, Wal-Mart, eBay, Google, and a handful of recent Internet startups. Same day delivery, however, is a logistically complicated and expensive service to operate. There is a need for efficient routing strategies for large-scale operations. We introduce a dynamic pick-up and delivery problem with deadlines that incorporates key features associated with same day delivery logistics.

Jennifer Vojtko Rubí
Second Language Acquisition
Naturalistic Bilingual Discourse: A Case Study of Two Preschoolers

Although negotiation of meaning in an L2 has been extensively researched among adults, how young bilingual children orient to and resolve comprehension difficulties has received relatively little attention. This study focuses on the negotiation strategies used in playtime tasks by two bilingual preschoolers—one a sequential bilingual (a native Spanish speaker now acquiring English in the U.S.) and the other a simultaneous bilingual (acquiring Spanish and English since birth, but now mostly a receptive bilingual in Spanish)—over an 8-month period. The study focuses on changes over the 8 months in how the children use their two languages to resolve problems of comprehension and self-expression. 

Leah Vonderheide
Film Studies
Intersecting Archives and Gaylene Preston's "War Stories Our Mother Never Told Us" (1995, New Zealand)

Analysis of Gaylene Preston's "War Stories Our Mother Never Told Us" (1995, New Zealand) reveals an intersection between three archival mediums: film, photographs, and oral histories. Preston's "deceptively simple" documentary is comprised of interview footage of seven elderly New Zealand women - Flo Small, Penny Quill, Tui Preston (the filmmaker's mother), Jean Andrews, Rita Graham, Neva Clarke McKenna, and Mabel Waititi - who recount, one-by-one, their experiences during World War Two. As each woman speaks, the mid-shot to close-up footage of the interviewee is crosscut with photographs and film clips from national archives in New Zealand, Great Britain, and the United States, as well as personal photographs from the women's family albums. Despite its seemingly simple formal construction, I propose that Preston's film is a new type of archival document that not only juxtaposes the public/official history of the archive with the private/personal testimony of oral traditions, but also weaves together these fractured histories into a new cultural text. Thus, created by a filmmaker who insists that the only difference between documentary and drama is "the process," "War Stories" provides a distinctly new public narrative of World War Two New Zealand.

Yeqing Wang
Mechanical Engineering
Effects of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Layers on the Electrical Response and Damage Self-Sensing Sensitivity in IM7/977-3 Laminate Composite

    In the present work, electrical properties and the damage self-sensing sensitivity of IM7/977-3 carbon fiber polymer-matrix composite laminates with carbon nanotube (CNT) buckypaper layers are investigated. The main goal is to examine the effects of the addition of various numbers of CNT buckypaper layers on the electrical resistance and damage self-sensing performance of IM7/977-3 composites. A four-probe electrical resistance measurement was carried out using a fully automated setup to examine the electrical responses of the composite laminate samples. Electrical resistances along the fiber direction at the top surface, the bottom surface, and through the thickness in the transverse direction were measured. Mechanical impact was introduced on the same composite samples to perform the self-sensing damage detection test after the electrical characterization test. Results show that the addition of buckypaper layers significantly decreases the electrical resistivity of the laminate composite. Furthermore, the electrical resistance change at the bottom surface is found to be the most sensitive to impact damage. However, the addition of buckypaper layers did not show any significant effect on the sensitivity of damage self-sensing of the composites.

Amanda Ward
Association between Olfactory and Higher Cortical Functions in Alzheimer’s disease

Recent research has shown that a smell deficit is present in Alzheimer’s disease patients. The primary olfactory cortex is a structure closely tied to smell functioning, along with proximal regions which include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior medial temporal lobe (AMTL). The OFC and AMTL are also responsible for higher cortical functions which include decision-making and emotional memory respectively. Due to the location of early pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, deficits occur in emotional memory and decision-making along with smell functioning. In this study, patients with Alzheimer’s disease and healthy elderly conduct smell, emotional memory, and decision-making tasks. Olfactory functioning is expected to correlate with decision-making and emotional memory abilities. Such associations have not been explored and could help generate a better understanding of the nature of neural dysfunction in several key brain regions known to be affected by Alzheimer’s disease.

Andrea Weare
Mass Communication
“Thin is what we’re supposed to be, not what we’re supposed to talk about”: A qualitative study of pro-eating disorder blog users

Experts argue that sensationalist media coverage of too thin celebrities heightens the taboo of eating disorders. Females suffering from such diseases and those with habits to develop them find themselves unable to speak out in fear of stigmatization. Pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) blogs, however, offer such a location for an open dialogue where fellow bloggers can encourage each other to not eat, work out, and “think thin.” Using the tenets of the spiral of silence and third-person effect theories, this study utilized in-depth interviewing with 10 female bloggers 19 to 23 years old from the U.S., U.K., Canada, and Australia. It was conducted from 2007 to 2008 during the emergence of growing criticism by mainstream media and formal banning. It investigated how and why pro-ED bloggers covertly formed an online community to divulge their emotions and indulge in discussions related to eating practices and body image without fear of stigmatization. Results show digital and print media images of thin models inspired weight loss and became more influential when bloggers perceived their peers to emulate them. Results indicate pro-ED blogs provided a space for community. Yet, while many bloggers sought thinness at all costs, they did not wish their condition onto others.

Andrea Weare
Mass Communication
“The Allure of Budget-Worthy Beauty”: Women’s personal finance media and the beauty myth on LearnVest.com

Media and feminist studies have looked critically at beauty industry discourse production and the ramifications for consumers, but a gap exists in discussing beauty industry discourses within the booming genre of women’s personal finance media. This discursive juncture quite literally draws in female readership with promises of “the good life.” This study conducted a discourse analysis of LearnVest.com using Wolf’s (1991) beauty myth as its theoretical framework to explore: 1) what is the discourse on LearnVest.com surrounding the values and actions of the beauty industry, and 2) how does the website’s interwoven economic mobility discourse engage questions of intersectionality? Results show that while LearnVest indicates potential for progressive messages, the assumptions and expectations to research, perform, and maintain “beauty work” largely render its readers economically disempowered. Additionally, while LearnVest may aim to address a range of readers, its beauty discourse largely speaks to middle/upper class white females.

Timothy Weng
Revealing The Brain’s Hidden Potential: Cognitive Training & Neurocognitive Plasticity.

Contrary to the traditional view that progressive, irreversible cognitive decline occurs with age, recent research shows that it is neither universal nor inevitable. While aging is inevitable, cognitive decline is not. Indeed, recent evidence shows that the human brain retains a substantial amount of plasticity, or abilty to change in response to experience. One basic component of cognition that changes the most with aging is working memory (WM). To account for age-related changes in WM processing, the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH) model proposes that older adults recruit more neural resources at lower task loads than younger adults to maintain performance proficiency, leaving no resources for higher task loads, and thus leading to decrements in behavioral performance. The present report quantitatively supported the CRUNCH predictions in behavioral performance and the effect of training. Fourty-two older adults, ranging in age from 55 to 89, participated in 3 sessions of a Sternberg WM task (in which the task load was systematically manipulated) while brain activity was recorded. Behavioral results supported the CRUNCH model in the oldest adults for the first two sessions, but the age by load interaction disappeared after three sessions. Further analysis showed significant improvement across sessions for the oldest adults at the higher loads. This suggested that with only three sessions of training, the oldest adults improved their cognitive performance. The present findings have implications for simple lifestyle changes in older adults to lead cognitively enriched lives.

Timothy Weng
Differential effects of acute exercise on distinct aspects of executive function.

An abundance of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that across many age groups regular participation in physical exercise is an effective behavioral strategy that benefits cognition, particularly executive functions. However, exactly how exercise improves cognition remains poorly understood in humans, hindering the development of evidence-based recommendations for improving cognition. Investigating the acute effects of exercise may reveal insights about the parameters that determine accumulated outcomes of long-term exercise interventions. Moreover, comparing the acute effects of exercise on functionally distinct components of executive function may illuminate specific mechanisms through which exercise affects the brain. In the current report, participants (N = 26; mean age = 25.23 years) performed cognitive testing on two different aspects of executive function (working memory and inhibitory control) before and after a thirty-minute bout of physical exercise. The results indicate that working memory processes are differentially affected by acute exercise compared to inhibitory control. This specificity suggest that brain mechanisms related to working memory are preferentially targeted by physical exercise. 

Gloria Wenman
Urban and Regional Planning
Engaging the National Guard in Recycling and Composting

This presentation will consider the combination of academic knowledge and military experience to positively influence increased recycling and initiation of composting in Iowa National Guard units. The military throws away a staggering amount of waste each year. The only recycled items are paper and cardboard—both because of federal mandates. The objective is to keep as much waste out of landfills as possible by including plastics and other recyclables, and by composting food that would otherwise be thrown away. This would decrease the need for additional raw materials to enter the production stream, thereby decreasing energy needs and reliance on resources which grow scarcer every day. The presentation looks at several factors including the civic engagement potential of the project. Society may benefit as a result of decreased energy and raw resource needs, as well as decreased need for additional landfill space. Of practical concern is buy-in from the National Guard, education for proper recycling, sustaining the project after implementation, and initial funding resources.

Gloria Wenman
Urban and Regional Planning
Planning Considerations of Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is increasing in importance as a domestic energy source for the U.S. This article reviews the process of hydraulic fracturing, environmental concerns, current regulatory oversight, and relevant legal precedents to prepare and inform planners when considering environmental land use issues and resource extraction topics. Hydraulic fracturing is a useful energy resource but has an impact on local seismology, air quality, and water quality. The positive aspects of hydraulic fracturing can be short term whereas the negative aspects can be long term. The federal and state regulatory landscape is complex. In regulating and zoning decisions, municipal planners should be aware of the positive and negative aspects of hydraulic fracturing to minimize societal externalities.

Katherine Wetzel
English-Literary Studies
The New Woman’s Environmental Ethic: An Ecocritical Reading of Charlotte Mew’s “The Trees Are Down”

Many writers throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century discuss the natural world in terms of its impact on humans and society, or as an extension of identity or sexuality. However, poet Charlotte Mew offers a unique environmental ethic in her poem “The Trees are Down” that challenges this all too common trend in environmental writing and complicates her additional identity as a new woman. Despite the complexity of Mew’s work and subject matter, only a handful of critics have written anything on her life or work. Therefore, my aim is to approach this paper as an ecocritical work and discuss what that means from Victorian, new woman poet. Furthermore, while this poem advocates for an ethical care for or nurturing of the environment, Mew does not use her own femininity to make her argument. Instead, she does so through the juxtaposition of nostalgia for nature and violent imagery in order to foreshadow an apocalyptic future that will come as a result of the current treatment of the environment. As such, I argue that while Mew is recognized as a New Woman, this poem complicates traditional definitions of the new woman by including an environmental aesthetic that challenges conventional socioeconomic concerns to promote a wider ethical scope of what it means to be a New Woman.

Kayla Wheeler
Religious Studies
Who Speaks for Islam?: Policing Muslim Women’s Voices on YouTube

The circulation of translated Islamic texts such as the Quran, the hadith, and the works of Muslim jurists has increased access to religious knowledge and the ability and to make independent interpretations of Islam.  With their new religious knowledge, Muslims have taken to YouTube to create their own space in order to discuss their interpretations of Islam.  While this is a global phenomenon, American Muslim women contribute a large portion of the available information and opinions of Islam on YouTube.  American Muslims and western Muslims in general are no longer dependent on classically trained Muslim scholars, who are often male and located in the Middle East, for advice.  YouTube allows Muslim women to create safe, anonymous spaces in which they can discuss issues and seek guidance from other women who are experiencing the same day-to-day struggles without fear of censorship from government officials or religious leaders.
Men, or people who depict themselves as men online, have entered these digital spaces reserved for Muslim women in order to criticize and police these women, in order to challenge their right to make individual interpretations.  Responses from men opposed to female YouTube bloggers can range from submitting verses from the Quran to death threats.  This paper will explore how Muslim woman bloggers have responded to these challenges.   Through this paper, I hope to show that these women are a part of a larger movement that undermines the traditional power relations with in Islam.

Lahiru Wijenayaka
Improved Theoretical Prediction of Functionalized Nanoparticle Stability and Ensuing Optoelectrical Properties via Interaction Pair Potential Modeling

Prediction of the thermodynamic stability of nanoparticle dispersions is commonly achieved via the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (xDLVO) theory, and is central to most nanotechnology applications. However, this model often fails at predicting nanoparticle stability when surface coatings are present on the nanoparticles. In this study, synergistic contributions from a size-dependent Hamaker constant, surface potentials and ligand tilt angles produce a novel and empirically consistent application of the xDLVO theory, which is experimentally verified using carboxylic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles in solution. First, a size-dependent Hamaker constant for gold nanoparticles is incorporated into van der Waals contributions by assuming size-dependence of the imaginary part of dielectric permittivity of the metal. Second, surface potentials contributing to the electrostatic interactions are estimated assuming a Poisson-Boltzmann charge distribution and a uniform local dielectric constant. Finally, the effective monolayer thickness which governs the steric interactions for the three selected ligands is quantified using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity towards changes in the local dielectric environment. Interaction pair potentials between functionalized nanoparticles modelled via the inclusion of these three modifications to xDLVO theory provides an accurate description of functionalized gold nanoparticle interactions as experimentally verified using the electrical properties of these carboxylic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles.

Shaun Wilkinson
School Psychology
The Role of Self-Concept in the Attendance - Achievement Relationship

Presented are the results of a research study designed to examine how seemingly non-academic components of self-concept may predict academic achievement through the moderating factor of attendance rates. A review of the literature on self-concept, school attendance, and academic achievement is included. The results indicated statistically significant relations between non-academic components of self-concept and attendance, and between attendance and achievement. Attendees will learn about the implications for identification of and intervention with at-risk students.

Tyler S. Williams
Communication Studies
The Nintendo Entertainment System as Ushering in the Personal Computer Revolution – for Kids

At its U.S. debut in 1986, the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) represented an innovative, computation-driven model for how to use the family television. At a time when middle-class professionals began using computers at work, these parents could now effectively bring the personal computer revolution home in a form their young children could recognize: digital game worlds which resembled animated TV cartoons.
Nintendo’s system represented the maturation of a nascent media technology, the innovative but bare-bones Atari Video Computer System (VCS) introduced in 1977, into a highly graphical and intuitive format. Nintendo’s media appliance crossed computers with cartoons, incorporating the emotionally-expressive and dynamic formal conventions of Japanese manga comics into its game worlds, creating a format which the first-borns of Generation Y intuitively grasped.
The NES gained entrance to middle-class U.S. homes through magazine marketing as a family-friendly home toy, yet it converted kids into followers with TV and poster promotions declaring: “Now You’re Playing With Power!” Indeed, the NES’ hybrid of sophisticated graphics hardware with innovative game design offered children of the ‘80’s new powers of imagination. Through transforming child’s play at a mass-market level, Nintendo was inducting the first digital-native generation into the new computational world.

Jessica Williams
Radicals of Module Extensions over Commutative Rings

Over a commutative ring, the radical of an extension of one module by another module is something about which little appears to be known. It has been shown that if X is an extension of the rational numbers by a semisimple abelian group, then the Jacobson radical of X is the rational numbers if the sequence splits and zero otherwise. These results were then expanded to show that an image of the Jacobson radical of an extension of a divisible abelian group by a torsion abelian group is injective. A natural next step is to find more information about objects similar to the Jacobson radical of R-module extensions where R is a commutative ring, perhaps with special properties. We will examine the findings thus far obtained, specifically over Dedekind domains.

Katie Winn
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Importance of Creating a Culture of Belonging for Refugee Students

Education for refugee children in the United States has been shaped by policy, influenced by perceptions, impacted by personal history, challenged by previous trauma and distress and encouraged by welcoming and inclusive school environments.  The goal of this presentation is to call attention to the uniqueness of the refugee student population’s needs, the challenges these students face, and what school leaders and classroom teachers can do to facilitate educational success.  Research indicates that when schools, families, and communities work together and provide appropriate support for the refugee students and their families, the result is a sense of belonging.

Kathleen Winn
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Intersection of Policy Implementation and the Elementary Principal as an Instructional Leader

Through the principal-agency theory (PAT) lens, this study analyzes the literature pertaining to the principal’s role as the instructional leader and the literature on professional development opportunities aimed to advance this capacity for school leaders.  Hallinger’s (2013) conceptual framework on reviewing educational leadership literature is employed to highlight the pertinent theoretical and empirical literature.  Suggestions are given for K-12 district leadership to provide effective support of their building administrators in order to facilitate an increase of self- efficacy for both building principals and their elementary teachers during the potential implementation of new educational policies such as the recent release of the Next Generation Science Standards.

Amaraporn Wongrakpanich
Pharmacy (PhD)
Mitochondria targeted PLGA particles that protect against myocardial cell death

Myocardial cell death in ischemic/reperfusion injury is caused by an excess of Ca2+ influx to mitochondria. These results in Ca2+ overload and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which leads to the induction of programmed cell death. The Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enzyme is responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ entry. To address this problem, we have designed polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) particles, loaded with 21-mer peptides (a CaMKII inhibitor), that can target mitochondria within cardiomyocytes. The targeted release of the 21-mer CaMKII inhibitor in the mitochondria is expected to reduce myocardial cell death. These carefully engineered particles will also be formulated to include mitochondria localization sequences (MLS) to increase particle uptake by mitochondria. Using the double emulsion-solvent diffusion method with 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant and ethyl acetate (EA) as the organic solvent, particles in the size range of 200 nm were generated and tested for their capacity to be taken up by cells in a differentiated rat cardiomyocyte-like (H9c2) cell line in vitro.

Amaraporn Wongrakpanich
Pharmacy (PhD)
An evaluation of toxicity and inflammatory response of chitosan/pDNA polyplexes as a gene delivery system to lung

PurposeThis study aims to 1) characterize transfection efficiency (the ability to deliver genetic materials into cells) and toxicity of chitosan-pDNA polyplexes in vitro and 2) determine the inflammatory response following nasal administration in mice.
MethodsChitosan-pDNA polyplexes were formulated at different ratios of primary amine groups in chitosan to phosphate groups in plasmid DNA (pDNA) and using two different types of pDNA [CpG(+) and CpG(-)]. The complexes were characterized for size and zeta-potential using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The efficiency of transfection and degree of toxicity of the polyplexes was determined in human alveolar adenocarcinoma (A549) and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using luciferase expression and MTS assays, respectively. In vivo inflammation responses and gene expression were investigated following nasal instillation of chitosan-pDNA polyplexes to mice (n = 6/group). Two doses of 50 μl (12.5 μg pDNA/50 μl) were given one hour apart. After 24 hours of treatment, mice were sacrificed followed by isolation of lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected. The number of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in the BAL fluid were counted to quantify the inflammatory response. Total proteins were determined using a Bradford protein assay. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured using a spectrophotometric detection kit. Cytokines were measured using a multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay.
ResultsChitosan-pDNA polyplexes generated high luciferase expression in HEK293 and A549 cells, especially when using polyplexes prepared at N/P ratios ranging from 5 to 20. When compared to poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-pDNA polyplexes (the gold standard in non-viral gene delivery), the chitosan-pDNA polyplexes had significantly higher cell viability. Nasal instillation of chitosan-pDNA polyplexes in mice increased the number of neutrophils as compared to control groups. LDH activity and cytokines were also increased with chitosan-pDNA polyplexes treatments.
ConclusionPolyplexes made from chitosan and pDNA have potential as non-viral gene delivery systems. Chitosan-pDNA polyplexes have significantly lower toxicity when compared to PEI-pDNA polyplexes. However, pulmonary delivery of chitosan-pDNA polyplexes to mice induces an inflammatory response.

Kristan Worthington
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Controlled Physical Properties of Stem Cell Scaffolds for Photoreceptor Regeneration

The degeneration of photoreceptors is one of the leading causes of blindness in the western world. Injection of a single cell suspension, although partially successful for the treatment of this condition, does not translate to advanced disease due to low cell retention, viability and integration. The goal of this project is to provide support to differentiating replacement cells using an injectable stem cell scaffold with controlled physical properties. Micro- and nano-porous cell scaffolds were synthesized by direct and lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) templating, respectively, of photopolymerizable pre-polymers. To test the effects of the varying physical features, the scaffolds were seeded with murine induced pluripotent stem (MiPS) cells. Scaffold physical features were found to significantly influence the growth and differentiation of iPSCs. Similarly, the presence of nanostructure improved the diffusion properties of the material and thus also positively influenced iPSC behavior. The optimized materials produced were shown to support the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells toward mature retinal cell phenotypes. This work shows that physical properties of photopolymers can be successfully manipulated to meet the needs of photoreceptor regeneration applications. An optimized material of this kind could lead to the successful transplantation of replacement cells for retinal regeneration.

Shengtian Wu
Educational Psychology
Experience vs biological competence in cognitive ability

There was long existing controversy. Some experts contended that cognitive ability depended on our biological aspects while other groups of people said that living experiences mainly influenced human intelligence. Nonetheless, dichotomy between the two does not appear to reasonably explain the intelligence. So, what is the intelligence? In the presentation, for clarifying the definition of cognitive ability or intelligence, the history of development of the definition of intelligence will be discussed. Moreover, the most important part, comparison the power of two factors between experience and biological aspects, will be presented as well. At the very last place, I will briefly mention my personal thought on this topic.

Xianwei Wu
Mass Communication
From Sick Man to National Hero: Portrayals of Nationalism in Martial Arts Cinema

This paper aims to explore the different ways in which martial arts cinema produced under different social and historical contexts deal with this period of national trauma.  The four films chosen are Bruce Lee’s Fist of Fury (1971) as a representative of the individualized nationalism that is closely entangled with Lee’s own experiences as an immigrant; Tsui Hark’s Once Upon a Time in China (1991) will illustrate Hong Kong’s post 1989 anxiety about the upcoming hand over to mainland China; finally Jet Li’s Fearless (2006) are presented as examples of how the collaboration with the mainland film industry has influenced Hong Kong’s nationalist expressions.  The results show that the theme of nationalism can be interpreted and presented very differently according to the different historical contexts in which they are produced, thus affirming the idea that nationalism as an idea is malleable and can be reconstructed as according to individual needs. 

Jiaju Wu
School Psychology
The Acculturation Experience of International Students in the United States: A Literature Review

Universities in the United States host a large number of international students. These international students not only pursue a higher education, but make a range of contributions to the country. However, they often experience difficulities for not receiving much attention from the U.S. mental health researchers when it comes to acculturation issues. This presentation explores the acculturation experience of international students in U.S. university settings through a literature review. Some factors were foujnd to affect students' acculturation experience, such as language proficiency, length of residency in the U.S., gender, personality, social support, and self-efficacy. Among these factors, research has reported that second language anxiety is the most frequently reported acculturative stressor. Additionally, most authors do not have specific suggestions or intervention plans to assist international students in the U.S.

Wusheng Xiao
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Selenoprotein P Regulates 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in Human Keratinocytes

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that are believed to have adverse health effects presumably by inducing oxidative stress. To determine if 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ: metabolite of 4-monochlorobiphenyl, PCB3) induced oxidative stress is associated with changes in the expression of specific antioxidant genes, mRNA levels of 84 oxidative stress-response genes were analyzed using RT²Profiler Human Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense PCR Arrays, and results were verified by performing quantitative RT-PCR assays. The expression of selenoprotein P (sepp1) was significantly downregulated (8-10-fold) in 4-ClBQ treated HaCaT human skin keratinocytes, which correlated with a significant increase in MitoSOX oxidation. Overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, or treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced toxicity. Sodium selenite supplementation also suppressed 4-ClBQ-induced decreases in sepp1 expression and cell survival. Furthermore, HaCaT cells overexpressing sepp1 were resistant to 4-ClBQ induced oxidative stress and toxicity. These results demonstrate that SEPP1 represents a previously unrecognized regulator of PCB induced biological effects. These results support the speculation that selenoproteins can be an attractive countermeasure for PCB induced adverse biological effects. 

Nilanthi Yasapala
Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 2-PAM Analogs as Potential Resurrecting Agents for Aged Human Acetylcholinesterase

Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 2-PAM Analogs as Potential Resurrecting Agents for Aged Human Acetylcholinesterase
Sumana N. Yasapala and Daniel M. Quin٭
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme in the human neuronal system. The essential role of AChE makes it a main target for the development of organophosphorus compounds (OP) such as pesticides and extremely toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs). After inhibition of AChE by OP, the inhibited enzyme can undergo two processes called spontaneous reactivation by nucleophilic attack of a water molecule in the active site, or an aging process where the enzyme is irreversibly inhibited after loss of an alkyl group of the phosphylated enzyme. The current OP poisoning treatments include the administration of a muscarinic antagonist, e.g.atropine, , an agent  to treat seizers that arise from inhibition of AChE in the central nervous system and certain oxime such as 2-pyridinium aldoxime methyl chloride, 2-PAM, which serves as an antidote by nucleophilically displacing the phosphyl moiety from the active site. There is no known oxime or other antidote that is able to displace the phosphyl moiety from the active site of aged AChE. However, if the phosphonate anion of the aged adduct is alkylated, known oximes could then be used to reactivate the OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therefore, we synthesized several methyl analogs of 2-PAM and studied kinetic parameters to determine the ability of reactivation of aged-AChE. Some of the methyl analogs of 2-PAM may arylate the aged enzyme, thereby making the non-aged form of the enzyme. The data further revealed that known oximes can then be used to reactivate the resulted non-aged enzyme. However, from our preliminary study, none of the compounds showed reactivation of the aged-AChE adduct after incubation with the well-known oxime, 2-PAM. This might be due to steric hindrance. However, we hypothesized that a small oxime such as monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) has the potential to reactivate the arylated enzyme. This issue is currently under investigation.

Jennifer Yirinec
English-Literary Studies
Illness and Identity in W. E. Henley’s <i>In Hospital</i>

With an amputated left foot and fearing the other’s removal, William Ernest Henley in 1873 sought the help of Joseph Lister, who was experimenting with antiseptic surgery at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. The twenty months Henley spent recovering in the infirmary inspired a twenty-eight-poem sequence, In Hospital, which has received surprisingly scant attention from critics. Clear from the outset of the poem sequence—from the Balzac epigraph, which (translated) reads, “One couldn’t say at what point a man, alone on his sick-bed, becomes an individual”—is the poet’s preoccupation with selfhood. Disability theorists such as Arthur W. Frank, Susan Sontag, G. Thomas Couser, and Diane Price Herndl have elucidated the effects of illness upon a patient’s sense of self, which often becomes fragmented as a result of the disease’s interruption of the patient’s life story. My essay traces Henley’s exploration and reconstitution of selfhood. I argue that Henley portrays his disrupted identity as resulting from two forces that work to silence the hospital patient: both the voice of the disease (speaking through the body) and the voice of the doctors usurp the voice of the patient, whose life story becomes fragmented as a result. Yet while Henley’s In Hospital probes the negative effects of disease as well as the detrimental effects of the doctor’s voice upon the patient’s voice, it also suggests a means by which a patient may reclaim his voice—namely, by constructing a coherent, communal illness narrative.

Ke Anne Zhang
Modeling the Sources of Stability and Change in Externalizing Psychopathology: A Longitudinal Meta-Analysis

Structural equation modeling techniques can be applied to longitudinal data to disentangle contributions to patterns of stability and change to a variety of phenomena. The current meta-analysis is interested in describing the course of externalizing psychopathology over the life span as well as quantifying contributions from constancy factors, transactional processes, and stochastic processes. Emphasis is placed on testing whether stability is a result of unidirectional processes conceptualized as constancy factors or whether it is a result of the emergent properties of transactional processes. Results showed long-lasting stability in externalizing behavior, such that correlations between externalizing behavior never decays to zero over longer test-restest intervals. Influence from constancy factors were more important than transactional processes in contributing to this stability. This suggests that such stability in the level of externalizing psychopathology may be determined directly by factors in and around the person, instead of emerging through dynamical interactions. Practically, this indicates a need for researchers to elucidate those sources of constancy and intervene at whatever level that constancy is found in order to disrupt ongoing externalizing psychopathology.

Hailin Zhao
Employees’ Reactions to Organizational Change in Leader Transition Processes

In spite of the frequency and impact of leader transition in organizational change processes, very little studies have examined how employees perceive and react to new leader entrance and organizational changes. Drawing from theories of endowment effect and contrast effect, we propose that the past experience with the former leader can have either a direct (i.e., endowment) or an indirect (i.e., contrast) effect on the current leader. We surveyed 203 employees at 22 work units who were in the process of leader transition at two different time points. We found partial evidences for both mechanisms and supported a compensatory pattern of the former leader and the new leader. We also found that these effects are likely to indirectly reduced employees’ behavioral resistance to organizational change via organizational commitment. 

Hui Zu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Solubility and dissolution characteristics of an acetaminophen cocrystal

Cocrystals have been found as an approach to modify drug solubility and dissolution. The red color of acetaminophen (ACE) -2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDA) cocrystal, arising from a decreasing pi-pi* separation, indicates the color-characterized interaction of these two components.
The goal of this study is to determine the intrinsic dissolution behaviors for ACE-PDA cocrystal, and to elucidate how one component affects the dissolution and solubility of the other.
The aqueous solubilities of ACE and PDA were determined by adding excess ACE into PDA aqueous solutions at various concentrations, or vice versa, and equilibrating at 37 °C for 3 days. The solid forms of undissolved solutes were characterized by DSC. Rotating disk was utilized for intrinsic dissolution studies of cocrystal, pure ACE, PDA and their physical mixtures in water at 37 °C.
The addition of ACE or PDA did not change solubility of the other. Physical mixture dissolution and the phase solubility diagram have demonstrated the weak complexation between ACE and PDA in water. Cocrystal congruently dissolves into water at the same rate as pure PDA, but less than ACE.  Since ACE and PDA did not interacts with each other too much, the dissolution rate of cocrystal depended on PDA which dissolved more slowly than ACE.