James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2015

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Thelma Abeysinghe
Chemistry
Kinetic Isotope Effects and Structural Studies of Thymidylate Synthase

Thelma Abeysinghe and Amnon Kohen

Department of Chemistry, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA

The relationship between the protein motions, structure and catalytic activity is of contemporary interest in enzymology. Here, a combination of various techniques, including temperature dependence of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and other kinetic studies of both light and heavy enzymes was used in studying the catalytic mechanism of thymidylate synthase (TSase). TSase catalyzes the de novo biosynthesis of the DNA building block thymidine, 2’–deoxythymidine 5’–monophosphate (dTMP) in most organisms. It is a good model enzyme to study effects of protein vibrations that are likely to be altered by isotopically heavy enzyme. Our recent studies of a structurally identical but dynamically altered remote mutant of Escherichia Coli (ec)TSase, Y209W, showed that none of the chemical steps under study in this investigation were altered significantly [Wang, Z., et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2012) 134, 17722-17730]. However, a comparison of observed KIEs to their intrinsic values indicated that other kinetic steps were dramatically affected, which together with anisotropic B-factors from X-ray crystallography reveal the importance of long-range dynamics of the enzymatic complex and its catalytic function. Additionally, a conserved histidine (H147 of ecTSase) appears to coordinate the hydrogen bonding network in the active site and has been proposed to play a major role in catalysis. In contrast to the WT and most other TSase mutants, the intrinsic KIEs of H147V mutant at physiological temperatures were temperature-dependent. These findings suggest that this histidine plays a major role in the hydride transfer step in ecTSase, supporting mechanisms that involve charge accumulation at carbonyl 4. Comparative studies of light vs. heavy WT ecTSase are used to elucidate the different effects of the vibrationally altered heavy enzyme on different kinetic steps along the catalytic cascade.

Hema Achanta
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Distributed Control Law for Optimum Sensor Placement

Authors: Hema Achanta, Soura Dasgupta, Raghuraman Mudumbai
Email:hema999achanta@gmail.com
Abstract
The design of distributed algorithms for self organization in energy efficient networks with low communication overheads has gained considerable amount of research attention in the recent past. In this talk, I present the design and analysis of a distributed algorithm that guides the motion of the sensors in a network to form a particular network topology on the circumference of a circle. Each sensor communicates with one nearest neighbor in the clockwise direction and one in the ccounter clockwise direction. Our algorithm is based on gradient descent with an addition of a repulsion factor that prevents collisions between sensors. The surprising result is that our algorithm always reaches the global minimum (equal angular separations between all the sensor nodes) provided the algorithm is initialized by a set of distinct angular positions. I will present the simulation results for our algorithm.
 

Hema Achanta
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Distributed Control Law for Optimum Sensor Placement

The design of distributed algorithms for self organization in energy efficient networks with low communication overheads has gained considerable amount of research attention in the recent past. In this talk, I present the design and analysis of a distributed algorithm that guides the motion of the sensors in a network to form a particular network topology on the circumference of a circle. Each sensor communicates with one nearest neighbor in the clockwise direction and one in the ccounter clockwise direction. Our algorithm is based on gradient descent with an addition of a repulsion factor that prevents collisions between sensors. The surprising result is that our algorithm always reaches the global minimum (equal angular separations between all the sensor nodes) provided the algorithm is initialized by a set of distinct angular positions. I will present the simulation results for our algorithm.

Ryan Adam
Biomedical Engineering
Air Trapping Occurs Prior to the Onset of Airway Infection and Inflammation in Pigs with Cystic Fibrosis

Rationale: Air trapping and airflow obstruction are being increasingly identified in infants with cystic fibrosis.  These findings are commonly attributed to airway infection, and inflammation.  Objective: To learn if air trapping and airflow obstruction are present prior to the onset of airway infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis.  Methods: At birth, cystic fibrosis pigs lack airway infection and inflammation.  Therefore, we used newborn wild-type and cystic fibrosis pigs to assess air trapping, airway size, and lung volume with inspiratory and expiratory x-ray computed tomography scans.  Micro-computed tomography scanning was used to assess more distal airway sizes.  Airway resistance was determined with a mechanical ventilator.  Results: At birth, cystic fibrosis pigs exhibited air trapping more frequently than wild-type pigs (75% vs. 12.5%, respectively).  Moreover, newborn cystic fibrosis pigls had increased airway resistance that was accompanied by luminal size reduction in the trachea, mainstem bronchi, and proximal airways.  Conclusions: The presence of air trapping, airflow obstruction, and airway size reduction in newborn cystic fibrosis pigs, prior to the onset of airway infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation, indicates that cystic fibrosis impacts airway development.  Our findings suggest that early airflow obstruction and air trapping in infants with cystic fibrosis might, in part, be due to congenital airway abnormalities.

Ryan Adam
Biomedical Engineering
Tracheal Abnormalities in People with Cystic Fibrosis

Objective: Tracheal cartilage ring structural abnormalities have been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) mice and pigs.  Whether similar findings are present in humans with CF is unknown.  Study Design: Tracheal cartilage ring size and shape were measured in adults with (n=21) and without CF (n=18).  Methods: Ultrasonography was used in human subjects to non-invasively assess tracheal cartilage ring structure in both the sagittal and the transverse planes.  Tracheal cartilage ring thickness was also determined from histological sections obtained from newborn non-CF and CF pigs.  These values were compared with human data.  Results: Human CF tracheas had a greater width and were less circular in shape compared to non-CF subjects.  CF tracheal cartilage rings had a greater midline cross sectional area and were thicker compared to non-CF rings.  Maximal tracheal cartilage ring thickness was also greater in both newborn CF pigs and adults with CF, compared to non-CF controls.  Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that structural differences exist in tracheal cartilage rings in adults with CF.  Comparison with newborn CF pig data suggests that some of these changes may be congenital in nature.

Francis Agnoli
Film Studies
French Fox: The National Identity of Le Roman de Renard as an Animated Film

This presentation examines the national and transnational identity of Le Roman de Renard (Ladislas and Irène Starevitch, 1941) as France's first animated feature film. As such a milestone, this text's seemingly unquestioned identity as a French film is imperative and worthy of exploration. Building on Andrew Higson's writings on national cinema and border crossing, this presentation examines the state of animation in 1930s France as monopolized by American - specifically, Disney - imports as well as the status of immigrants and émigré animators during that time of mass migration and rampant xenophobia. Finally, by chronicling the film's troubled twelve-year production history, from the advent of sound through the Popular Front to its release during Nazi occupation, this presentation will analyze the visual, thematic and narrative content of Le Roman de Renard as reflective of the eras in which it was made, focusing on its stop-motion aesthetics and its critical portrayal of authority. Through this investigation, this presentation problemizes the otherwise straightforward narrative of Le Roman de Renard being an exclusively French film, arguing that - despite popular discourse - it has no definitive, single national identity.

Kawther Ahmed
Pharmacy (PhD)
Assembly and Characterization of a Cell-particle Hybrid as a Potential Cancer Vaccine

Purpose
      Cancer vaccines represent a promising treatment modality for a world-wide health problem. Cancer vaccines involve the administration of a tumor antigen along with an adjuvant. Whole cell tumor vaccines have shown promise in preclinical and clinical settings. This study involves the use of the avidin-biotin linkage to manufacture an irradiated tumor cell-particle hybrid as a prospective cancer vaccine where the tumor cell can be transduced to secrete immunostimulatory cytokine (e.g. GM-CSF) and the particles can be loaded with an adjuvant (e.g. CpG). The study represents a “proof of concept” of the possibility of manufacturing the proposed cancer vaccine.
Method
      Polymeric poly(lactide-co-glycolide) particles were prepared using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Prepared particles were coated with streptavidin using EDC/NHS chemistry. Murine melanoma cells, B16.F10, were biotinylated indirectly using biotin-antibodies. Particles were assembled to cells under specific incubation conditions using two particle:cell ratios and subsequently irradiated. Successful cell-particle binding was confirmed by flow cytometry, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Cell-particle hybrids were also assembled using the murine prostatic cancer cell line, RM11, to demonstrate the generality of the method adopted in this study.  
Results  
     Particles were successfully coated with streptavidin. Cell-particle hybrids were successfylly assembled for both cell line tested with the extent of binding increasing as the particle:cell ratio increased. The assembled hybrid was intact subsequent to irradiation. The particles were localized on the cell surface as shown by microscopy images.
Conclusions
       The assembled hybrids have the potential of a prospective cancer vaccine that delivers tumor antigens (endogenous to the tumor cell) and an immunoadjuvant (encapsulated in the particles) to the same antigen presenting cell. 

Michele Aichele
Music
"New Song" in the 'Las Huelgas Codex'

The Las Huelgas Codex (Hu) provides an interesting puzzle for medievalists. The organization of the Las Huelgas Codex is unique, the collection of pieces exceptional, the provenance unknown and confusing, and the possible uses of the Codex at the convent are still argued over by music scholars. In the past twenty years, medieval music scholars have discovered and researched a popular form of music that emerged in the 1100s called the nova cantica or ‘new song.’ I draw on the scholars of the Codex including Gordon Anderson, Juan Carlos Asensio Palacios, and Nicolas Bell, and tie in their findings with prominent scholars of the ‘new song’ genre including Wulf Arlt, Andreas Haug, Lori Kruckenberg, and Margaret Switten. By examining what experts of the ‘new song’ genre have found in their research as important traits of the genre, I then compare these traits to monophonic pieces from the Las Huelgas Codex for common characteristics. I argue that many of the monophonic pieces in the Las Huelgas Codex are ‘new songs.’ Placing some of the repertoire included in the Las Huelgas Codex creates a greater understanding of the music and some possible uses of the Codex

Ibrahim Al Naghemah
Chemistry
Environmental Advantages of Co-firing Biomass with Coal

Biomass is renewable fuel that holds significant potential for electrical energy production. Biomass co-firing is the practice of adding biomass as a practical substitute for coal in a high efficiency boiler. It draws upon widely-available existing infrastructure and presents immediate opportunity for the production of low-cost renewable energy. In this study, gases, particles and ash generated from firing coal only and co-firing either 50% oat hulls or 3.8% wood chips (by weight) with coal were chemically characterized. All tests were conducted in a circulating fluidized bed boiler at the University of Iowa Power Plant under constant energy input. Co-firing 50% oat hulls with coal significantly reduced the emission of atmospheric pollutants, including particulate matter by 90%, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by 40%, and metals by 51%. The most abundant metal species, and those responsible for the greatest reduction in mass, were Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, and K. In addition, oat hulls co-firing reduced fossil carbon dioxide emission by 40%. In contrast, co-firing small fraction of wood chips shows a negligible impact on theses atmospheric pollutants. This study demonstrates that co-firing oat hulls as a renewable source of energy offers several environmental benefits at the same time.

Wisam Al-Bakri
Pharmacy (PhD)
Characterization of Atrazine Transport and Effects on Bovine Nasal Tissues

The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used pesticides in United States. Studies have reported that exposure to ATZ causes dopaminergic toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction; these cellular changes have been linked to an increase in the incidence of Parkinson’s disease. The objective of this study is to characterize ATZ effects on the respiratory and olfactory mucosae with specific attention to the potential for ATZ transfer to the brain via the olfactory system. Uptake of ATZ was investigated across excised nasal mucosal tissues equilibrated in Krebs’s buffer (KRB) or in a co-solvent system containing propylene glycol (PG), similar to the commercial herbicide product. Active uptake pathways were probed using 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) as a metabolic inhibitor. Brightfield microscopy was used to assess the effects of ATZ exposure on the tissues. ATZ was found to be transported across the nasal tissues in a manner consistent with passive diffusion, and 2,4-DNP did not reduce the overall uptake of ATZ. Microscopy results showed erosion of the epithelial surface following exposure to ATZ-PG-KRB when compared to control and ATZ -KRB. These results suggest a negative effect of the ATZ co-solvent formulations on nasal tissues with the potential for increased systemic and CNS exposure.

Wisam Al-Bakri
Pharmacy (PhD)
Uptake of Atrazine from Commercial Herbicides Products Across Nasal Tissues

Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used herbicides in United States. Studies have reported that exposure to ATZ causes dopaminergic toxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction; these cellular changes have been linked to an increase in the incidence of Parkinson’s disease. The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of atrazine and commercial atrazine-containing products on the respiratory and olfactory mucosae, with specific attention to the potential for ATZ transfer to the brain via the olfactory system. Uptake of ATZ was investigated across excised nasal mucosal tissues equilibrated in Krebs’s buffer (KRB); in a co-solvent system containing propylene glycol (PG), similar to the commercial herbicides; and in two commercial products. ATZ was found to be transported across the nasal tissues in a manner consistent with passive diffusion. An even higher atrazine permeability was observed with the atrazine-containing commercial products. Microscopy results showed erosion of the epithelial surface following exposure to ATZ-PG-KRB and to the commercial atrazine-containing products when compared to control and ATZ-KRB exposed tissues. These results suggest a negative effect of the commercial atrazine-containing products on nasal tissues which may increase the likelihood for systemic and CNS atrazine exposure following nasal inhalation.

Stephanie Alberico
Neuroscience
Prefrontal D1 Dopamine Signaling is Necessary for Temporal Expectation During Reaction Time Performance

Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior.

Matthew Ampleman
Occupational and Environmental Health
Inhalation and Dietary Exposure to PCBs in an Urban and Rural Cohort via Congener-Specific Airborne PCB Measurements

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are an ubiquitous group of persistent organic pollutants with carcinogenic, neurological and respiratory toxicity. Despite continuing release of PCBs from urban areas and rising concerns about the body burden contribution of airborne PCBs, congener-specific air exposure estimates have seldom been developed. Using paired indoor and outdoor airborne PCB measurements and activity questionnaires for the AESOP Study, we model congener-specific exposure rates for adolescent children and their mothers in East Chicago and Columbus Junction. The resolution of our analytical methods (GC-MS-MS for 205 PCB congeners) allows unprecedented quantification of congener-specific inhalation exposure. We compare these results to dietary exposure using food PCB concentrations from a Total Diet Survey.  Preliminary results indicate that ∑PCB inhalation is greater for children than for their mothers in both locations, and is greater for East Chicago mothers and children than for Columbus Junction mothers and children, respectively. Schools contribute to more than half of children’s inhalation PCB exposure, due to the higher PCB concentrations in these masonry buildings. Individuals in both locations inhaled the non-WHO, neurotoxic PCB congeners 8, 11, 40/41/71, and 51. Additional congener-, and participant-specific inferences are possible via comparison with sera-based PCB concentrations.

Rachel Anderson
Psychology
Adrenocortical Status Predicts Age-Related Deficits in Prefrontal Structural Plasticity and Working Memory

Aging is associated with a gradual and steady decline in cognitive abilities, although considerable variability exists throughout the population. Previous work has linked individual differences in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and glucocorticoid secretion with age-related alterations in hippocampal dependent function, however the idea that these endocrine differences may predict vulnerability to other types of cognitive processes has largely been ignored. In the present study we interrogated the relationship between variations in HPA function in aging with prefrontal cortical structure and function. Aged (20 month-old) rats that underwent repeated blood sampling across a 24-hour period generally showed elevated AM and PM levels of corticosterone levels compared with 3 month-old rats, although variability was evident across both groups. Although aging was marked by a significant loss of dendritic spines and morphologic alterations in mPFC neurons, animals bearing elevated HPA output exclusively accounted for group differences.  In a separate experiment, adrenocortically characterized young and aged rats were tested on a spatial working memory task that is dependent on prefrontal cortex function. Impairments in performance resulted from an interaction between aging and increased HPA activity. These data suggest that age-related structural plasticity in mPFC and impairments in working memory may be largely accounted for by elevations in adrenocortical activity, and define a set of synaptic features that may help explain individual differences in cognitive functional capacity in aging.

Eli Asikin-Garmager
Linguistics
Speech Rate Effects on the Production of Hindi Stop Consonant Cues

In various languages, as speakers slow down, they produce key phonetic cues of stop consonants  differently (sounds produced with complete occlusion of airflow in the vocal tract).  Namely, rate affects the production of Voice Onset Time (VOT), which captures the relationship between the onset of vowel production following the articulation of a stop consonant.  Prior work shows an asymmetric effect of rate on the production of VOT, and one account (Beckman et al, 2011) suggests that this might result from how the sounds are organized abstractly by speakers.  These abstract categories then correspond to articulatory goals that can be realized more fully in slower speech.  This view makes empirical predictions that can be tested in a language such as Hindi.  Crucially, previous investigations have examined languages such as English, which have only a two-way contrast for stop consonants (e.g., orthographic pb, t – d, etc…).  Thus, I present results from an experiment investigating how rate affects the production of these consonants in Hindi, a language with a four-way contrast.  Results show an asymmetrical effect of rate on VOT, and can be straightforwardly accounted for by a production dynamics approach; the results also have implications for how we understand Hindi’s four-way contrast.

Stacy Astrove
Management and Organizations
Psychological Contract Breach and Counterproductive Work Behavior: A moderated Mediation Model

Our research explores the relationship between psychological contract breach and counterproductive work behavior. We suggest that individuals’ beliefs that their organization is to blame for intentionally breaching a psychological contract (internal attribution) mediates the relationship between psychological contract breach and counterproductive work behavior. We also propose that moral disengagement moderates this mediated relationship, such that individuals who blame their organization and are high in moral disengagement will be more likely to engage in counterproductive work behavior. Utilizing a sample of manufacturing employees from China, we found support for the conditional indirect effect, demonstrating that internal attribution for psychological contract breach and moral disengagement are important factors in the psychological contract breach and counterproductive work behavior relationship. 

Rakesh Awasthi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Prediction of THC Plasma and Brain Concentrations following Marijuana Administration: Approach and Challenges

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Increasing interest in the use of “medical marijuana” and the movement towards legalization of the recreational use of marijuana create an increased need to better understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this complex agent. Δ9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive substance in marijuana, has effects on a number of organs, including the cardiovascular system and the brain. THC, being highly lipophilic, distributes rapidly into vascularized tissues resulting in rapid onset of its pharmacologic and psychoactive effects. In order to predict drug concentrations in the brain, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) was developed using discrete major organs/tissue compartments with drug input and removal via the circulatory system. The model was initially parameterized based on data obtained from the intravenous administration of THC. The resulting simulations were used to predict brain THC concentrations, and the resulting peak concentration in the brain was observed to exceed that in the blood by at least four-fold. The brain THC concentrations were also considerably higher than the plasma concentrations at all times during 48 hour simulation, demonstrating the potential for longer-term psychoactive effects than would be predicted based on plasma THC concentrations. 

Yigit Aytac
Physics
Carrier Lifetime Measurements of Mid-wave Infrared InAs/InAsSb Superlattices

The ultrafast spectroscopic methods and the experiments using these methods to investigate dynamical processes of semiconductor systems are going to be discussed. More specifically, we present time-resolved differential transmission measurements using an electronically delayed pump-probe technique. The measurements of carrier recombination rates will be introduced for mid-wave infrared InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-2 superlattices (T2SLs). In this set of samples, by engineering the layer widths and antimony compositions a 16 K band-gap of ≈ 235 ± 10 meV was achieved for five unintentionally doped T2SLs. Shockley-Read-Hall, radiative and Auger recombination rates were determined by fitting a rate equation model to the density and temperature dependent data. Minority carrier lifetimes as long as 10 μs were measured. As a results, the minority-carrier and Auger lifetimes were observed to generally increase with increasing antimony content. However, the Auger recombination process was found to be more prominent in comparison to InAs/Ga(In)Sb T2SLs. 

Yigit Aytac
Physics
Carrier Lifetime Measurements of Mid-wave Infrared InAs/InAsSb Superlattices

The ultrafast spectroscopic methods and the experiments using these methods to investigate dynamical processes of semiconductor systems are going to be discussed. More specifically, we present time-resolved differential transmission measurements using an electronically delayed pump-probe technique. The measurements of carrier recombination rates will be introduced for mid-wave infrared InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-2 superlattices (T2SLs). In this set of samples, by engineering the layer widths and antimony compositions a 16 K band-gap of ≈ 235 ± 10 meV was achieved for five unintentionally doped T2SLs. Shockley-Read-Hall, radiative and Auger recombination rates were determined by fitting a rate equation model to the density and temperature dependent data. Minority carrier lifetimes as long as 10 μs were measured. As a results, the minority-carrier and Auger lifetimes were observed to generally increase with increasing antimony content. However, the Auger recombination process was found to be more prominent in comparison to InAs/Ga(In)Sb T2SLs. 

Amal Ayyoub
Pharmacy (PhD)
Population Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Pyronaridine in Pediatric Malaria Patients

Pyramax® is a pyronaridine/artesunate combination for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in adult and pediatric patients. A granule formulation of this combination is being developed for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria in pediatric patients. The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetic properties of pyronaridine (PYR) using a total of 1085 blood PYR concentrations available from 349 malaria patients younger than 16 years of age with mild to moderate uncomplicated malaria, and confirm the dosing regimen for the pediatric granule formulation. Non-linear mixed effects modeling was used to obtain the pharmacokinetic and variability parameter estimates. The population pharmacokinetics of PYR were described by a two-compartment model with first order absorption and elimination. Allometric scaling was implemented to address the effect of body weight on clearance and volume parameters. The final parameter estimates of PYR apparent clearance (CL/F), central volume of distribution (V2/F), peripheral volume of distribution (V3/F), inter-compartmental clearance (Q/F) and absorption rate constant (Ka) were 377 L/day, 2230 L, 3230 L, 804 L/day and 17.9 day-1, respectively. Covariate model building conducted using forward addition (p<0.05) followed by backward elimination (P<0.001) yielded two significant covariate-parameter relationships: age on V2/F and formulation on Ka. Evaluation of bootstrapping, visual predictive check, and condition number indicated that the final model displayed satisfactory robustness, predictive power, and stability. Simulations of PYR concentration-time profiles generated from the final model show similar exposures across pediatric weight ranges, supporting the proposed labeling for weight-based dosing of Pyramax® granules.

Catina Bacote
English-Nonfiction Writing
A Personal Narrative: Transforming Moral and Ethical Concerns into Art

The rate of violent crimes committed in the United States starts to rise in the 1980s and escalates at an alarming rate in poor urban areas.  By 1986, the murder rate has reached an unprecedented level in my hometown of New Haven, Connecticut. The local paper, the New Haven Register, reports that most of the homicides are tied to poverty and drugs.  The vast majority of the victims are African-American.  The population of New Haven is 130,000 and by 1989 there are more murders per capita than in Chicago, Los Angeles, or New York.       
The chaos happening in the rest of the city reaches the all-black housing projects I live in, Eastern Circle. It is a neighborhood with less than one hundred and fifty families, and in the span of four years, there are dozens of shootings and five murders. At the time, many policymakers dismiss the larger societal forces surrounding the violence in places like Eastern Circle by using the term “black on black violence.”  However, the violence is not inevitable, but is a result of political, economic, and social shifts in the country.  My personal essays have a very public dimension, but are ultimately an interrogation of how my family and our neighbors wrestle with a troubling and changing landscape.
 
 

Henry Baidoo-Williams
Electrical and Computer Engineering
On Sensors: Source Localization and Trajectory Tracking of Radioactive Sources

We present novel ideas on applications of sensor networks to localization and tracking of radioactive sources under some general conditions. We first consider the robust localization of radioactive sources by using their gamma-ray count at the smallest number of sensors needed to theoretically localize. We formulate a class of non-convex cost functions and consider their gradient descent optimization. We show that in N-dimensions, if there are exactly N +1 sensors and the source lies in their open convex hull, then this convex hull is devoid of false stationary points. We also show robust tracking of a source of radioactive material moving at a constant speed on a piecewise linear trajectory, with the speed known or unkown, usingcheap binary proximity sensors. We show that with probability 1, three sensors aresufficient to localize the 2D-trajectory of the source in the noise free case.

Bandaranayake Bandaranayake
Chemistry
Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to determine the polarizability of organic crystalline materials

Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to determine the polarizability of organic crystalline materials
B. Bandaranayake,  Thilini Rupasinghe, Kristin Hutchins, Alexei V. Tivanski*,
Leonard R. MacGillivray*, Mark Arnold*
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa.
 
Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (0.1-3 THz or 5-100 cm-1) is able to probe intermolecular interactions and lattice vibrations of solids, which helps to understand the structural properties of materials. The coherent nature of the THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) experiment can be used to determine important optical properties such as complex refractive index and dielectric constant of a material. Recently, the potential of THz-TDS to measure the refractive index of polymers and metal oxides (such as Teflon, silicon and zinc oxide) has been demonstrated numerous applications for characterization of semiconductors and dielectrics have been proposed.  The attractiveness of THz-TDS spectroscopy for such measurements is the high transmittance of polymers and semiconductor materials over THz optical frequencies. 
We are advancing THz-TDS by establishing the ability to measure polarizability of organic crystals through the Clausius Mossotti relationship.  This relationship links polarizability and dielectric properties or refractive index of the crystals.  In our experiments, organic crystals are embedded within polymer binder (Teflon or polyethylene) in order to prepare pellets. The refractive index of the pellet is determined from the THz TDS and this value is then used to determine the dielectric constant for the crystals within the pellet matrix.  The Landau-Lifshitz-Looyenga’s (LLL) model is used to determine the dielectric of the crystals in the pellet and the Clausius Mossotti relationship is used to predict polarizability of these crystals.  The accuracy of this method is evaluated by comparison of Young’s moduli values obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the same crystals. 

Na Mi Bang
Counselor Education and Supervision
The Content Analysis of Family Variables in Career Development

This presentation provides an opportunity to review and understand the impact of family variables on career development. Since understanding how the family affects vocational development decisions is a vital undertaking, exploring the influence of family on career development is required. In accordance with these needs, the presentation focuses on major themes and research trends in the literature regarding family influence on career trajectories. The researcher of this presentation examined studies conducted in relation to family variables and career development. This presentation provides the research results of analyzing publication trends, research, design, contents, leading authors, institutions, and journals. This presentation will benefit educators and counselors in understanding how family issues influence their clients so that they are able to provide more effective career counseling.

Madeline Basile
Chemistry
Synthesis and Characterization of Uranium-Citrate Complexes and the Analysis of Solution Chemistry Influences on Uranium Speciation

Evaluating the aqueous mobility and the complex speciation of U (VI) is crucial for interpreting and remediating radioactive environmental contamination.  The hydrological properties, such as pH, and chelation capabilities of the variety of labile ligands present in the matrix, such as citrate, play major roles in the uranyl cation transport.  The current study focuses on delineating pH and concentration effects of varying syntheses mediums on the resulting UO22+-Citrate oligomers.  Citrate-chelated uranium dimers (2:2), trimers (3:3), and clusters (6:6 and 9:6) have been successfully crystallized and characterized by solid-state methods, including FT-IR, pXRD, single-crystal XRD, and TGA.  Stable aggregation of these molecular complexes in their respective crystallization mediums have been analyzed by solution phase Raman spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry.  Trends related to how the uranyl speciation varies with the solution pH and the uranium to citrate concentration ratio has been observed for the [(UO2)2(C6H5O7)2]2-, [(UO2)6O2(C6H4O7)6]16-, and [(UO2)9(OH)3O3(C6H4O7)6]15- uranium-citrate species.  These results provide a comprehensive understanding of uranyl citrate complexes in environmentally-relevant aqueous solutions.

Bhanu Bejgum
Pharmacy (PhD)
Uptake and Transport Pathways for Ultrafine Nanoparticles (Quantum Dots) in the Nasal Mucosa

A wide variety of ultrafine nanoparticles (< 20 nm), including quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotubes, and viruses, have been shown to translocate across the nasal mucosa into the brain and the systemic circulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uptake and translocation mechanisms of QDs across nasal olfactory and respiratory tissue explants. The transport of QDs was evaluated by measuring the concentration of the QDs within the tissues using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy. Transport studies revealed that the uptake into the olfactory mucosa was ~2.5 fold higher compared to QDs uptake into the respiratory mucosa. Confocal visualization showed accumulation of QDs in the submucosal regions of both the respiratory and olfactory tissues.
Use of specific endocytosis inhibitors showed that the uptake of ultrafine nanoparticles in the respiratory nasal mucosa involved multiple pathways, including clathrin- mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis along with macropinocytosis. In comparison, additional energy-independent pathways, along with clatrhin-mediated endocytosis were observed in the olfactory mucosa.
These findings provide a fundamental understanding of ultrafine nanoparticle uptake mechanisms in the nasal mucosa and suggest that nanoparticulate delivery systems may be able to enhance material transfer across the nasal mucosa. 

Amy Belfi
Neuroscience
Damage to the insula is associated with abnormal interpersonal trust

Reciprocal trust is a crucial component of cooperative, mutually beneficial relationships. Previous research has suggested that the insula may be an important structure involved in judging and expressing interpersonal trust. Here, we investigate the role of the insula in reciprocal trust during the Trust Game (TG), an interpersonal economic exchange.  We found that neurologically normal adults reciprocate trust in kind, i.e., they increase trust in response to increases from their partners, and decrease trust in response to decreases. In contrast, patients with damage to the insula displayed abnormal expressions of trust, both by behaving benevolently (expressing misplaced trust) and malevolently (violating trust). These findings suggest that the insula is necessary for expressing normal interpersonal trust.

Laurena Bernabo
Communication Studies
What in the World is a Gleek? Adapting Glee for Italian Audiences

Glee is notorious not just for its unique mixing of various genres, including musical and public service announcement, but for its depiction of diverse representations of gender and sexuality.  When Glee is aired around the globe, the program is accompanied by promotional materials that shape the ways in which Glee is received by heterogeneous audiences. Some of these paratexts are adapted from American commercials, while others are original creations of the importing country. This study seeks to examine the ways in which Italian television creates and adapts promotional materials for Glee that alter the original construction of the series. It finds that conflict between hegemonic and subversive/resistant constructions of gender and sexuality are largely erased. Glee is instead introduced and promoted as a generic teen program, largely stripped of social significance, and much of the emphasis falls on the show's more linguistically playful side. Future studies should interrogate the role of American producers and creative teams in promoting particular articulations of reinterpreted American programming abroad.

Laurena Bernabo
Communication Studies
“No” Means Higher Ratings: Rape Fantasies, Seduction & Submission in Scandal

Despite America’s post-network television era, ABC’s Scandal serves as a cultural forum due to its diverse audience, groundbreaking representations, and popularity on Twitter. Scandal also exists in an era saturated with rape culture through victim blaming and other myths reinforced by rape fantasies. This paper conducts a textual analysis of the hit series, tracing the ways in which the primary romantic entanglement perpetuates troubling, even alarming aspects of rape culture through the utilization of rape fantasy narratives. Drawing upon rape fantasy research in the field of Psychology, this study identifies recurring themes in the central relationship (female resistance and submission, male dominance, etc.), and traces their adaptation from trends in rape fantasies. Similarities between their common narratives and Scandal’s most prominent pairing ultimately serve to silence and erase the female protagonist’s protestations and justify the male lead’s use of force and manipulation.

Santanu Bhowmick
Computer Science
A Constant-Factor Approximation for Multi-Covering with Disks

We consider variants of the following multi-covering problem with disks. We are given two point sets <em>Y</em> (servers) and <em>X</em> (clients) in the plane, and a coverage function k :X -> N . Centered at each server is a single disk whose radius we are free to set. The requirement is that each client <em>x</em> in <em>X</em> be covered by at least k(x) of the server disks. The objective function we wish to minimize is the sum of the areas of the disks.We present a polynomial time algorithm for this problem achieving an <em>O(1)</em> approximation.

Youwei Bi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of depot testosterone cypionate in healthy male subjects

The illegal use of testosterone cypionate (TC) and other anabolic steroids by athletes to gain unfair advantage in athletic competition has been occurring for over 50 years. The pharmacokinetics of high doses of IM formulations of testosterone such as TC in this population have not been well described. Therefore a population PK/PD model was developed to describe the change in testosterone concentrations, luteinizing hormone and spermatogenesis following long-term dosing of TC. 31 healthy male subjects received 14 weekly IM injections of TC and were randomized into a dose group of either 100, 250 or 500mg/week. Following the last TC injection up to 16 serum total and free testosterone samples were obtained during a 14-day washout. A linear one-compartment model best described the concentration-time profile of both total and free testosterone. The population mean estimates of clearance (CL/F) for total and free testosterone were 2.34*103 and 6.07*105 L/day respectively. Weight, albumin and serum creatinine were identified as significant covariates and decreased the inter-individual variability of the PK parameters. The estimated potency of total testosterone with respect to suppression of LH secretion was 7.19ng/ml. The suppression of endogenous testosterone, luteinizing hormone and spermatogenesis after TC injection was estimated to be greatest in the highest dose level. 

Matthew Blackwell
English-Literary Studies
What We Talk About When We Talk About Lish: Gordon Lish, James Purdy, and the Silencing of Raymond Carver

The relationship between the minimalist short story writer Raymond Carver and his editor and publisher Gordon Lish has long been a contested topic in studies of postwar American fiction. Lish, who was notoriously heavy-handed in his editing, was especially unforgiving in his treatment of Carver’s collection What We Talk About When We Talk About Love. Without Carver’s input, Lish cut many of the stories in this collection by upwards of 50%, and in some instances changed their titles and even endings. The questionable editorial ethics of this process has inspired commentary from creative writers and critics alike, but the aesthetic motivation behind it has garnered less attention. Because of this, Lish’s primary literary influence when editing Carver’s stories, the cult author James Purdy, has become a neglected figure in the genealogy of minimalist fiction. This paper seeks to re-inscribe Purdy into the history of American minimalism by mapping his influence on the editing of What We Talk About. By exploring the ways in which Lish co-opted Carver’s text, we can more accurately determine the extent to which Purdy’s sparse, stripped-down style informed the genesis of this seminal work and begin to reconsider Purdy’s influence on American minimalism as a whole.

Jeremy Blair
Dance
Masculinity in Performance

My choreographic research explores the behavior people adopt to suit social expectations of masculine or feminine gender identities. By addressing the contradiction between tolerance of sexual identification and expectations of gender conformity I want to create a forum in which people reexamine their assumption of a standard gender identity and repressed individuals feel at liberty to express themselves fully. My thesis performance draws inspiration from Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, who struggles with his identity after transforming from a man into a woman, I am asking my diverse cast to share their struggles with gender conformity as we investigate, through movement, the performance of gender.

Stephanie Blalock
Library and Information Science
“Walt Whitman Had No Talent for Fiction": Rediscovering Popular Short Stories by America's Poet

Before Walt Whitman became known as America’s Poet and the author of a volume of poetry entitled Leaves of Grass, he wrote short fiction for nineteenth-century newspapers and magazines.  Literary scholars have been highly critical of Whitman’s short stories, calling them “pretty terrible” and suggesting that the poet’s fiction was neither popular nor widely circulated after its original publication in the 1840s. However, my research on Whitman’s fiction reveals that far from being an unknown and largely unsuccessful writer of fiction, Whitman published short stories that were popular among readers of nineteenth-century periodicals. The stories were also frequently reprinted and circulated both nationally and internationally as early as the 1840s. Using several historical newspaper and magazine databases, I have discovered 320 previously unknown reprints of Whitman’s fiction in periodicals. This paper will discuss the implications of these discoveries and of considering Whitman as a well-known and often-read writer of nineteenth-century American fiction. It will also chart the publication history of a selection of Whitman’s short stories in the U.S. and abroad. Finally, this paper will propose ways that scholars might use this new information about Whitman’s fiction in their research and teaching.

Staja Booker
Nursing
Predictors of Analgesic Use in Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) guidelines recommend analgesics as first-line therapy, with total knee replacement (TKR) as a last treatment option. Nonetheless, the type and amount of analgesia taken to manage OA pain, particularly prior to TKR, varies widely and it is unclear what factors influence the type and amount of analgesia taken. We investigated which demographic and psychosocial factors predict analgesic use by conducting a secondary data analysis of 341 adults with advanced knee OA who were scheduled for a unilateral TKR. On average, participants were 62 years, with 54% (n= 184) being female. Seventy-six percent were taking non-opioids and 29.3% were taking opioids preoperatively. Logistic regression revealed that females (p< .0031) and those who scored high on trait anxiety (p< .0217) were more likely to take non-opioids. However, there was insufficient statistical evidence for associations between opioid use and the explanatory variables. Female patients with high trait anxiety are more likely to take non-opioids for pain control prior to TKR. In fact, a 1-unit increase in trait anxiety was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of taking non-opioid analgesia. Similarly, younger patients and those with high trait anxiety were more likely to take opioids prior to TKR. 

Heather Brockway
Genetics
A Novel Role for the CSN/COP9 Signalosome in Synaptonemal Complex assembly during Meiotic Prophase I.

Studies have shown up to 30% of human oocytes are aneuploid, which is the most common cause of birth defects and miscarriages in human reproduction. The synaptonemal complex  (SC) is a structure that holds together homologues chromosomes in meiotic prophase I to allow the formation of all crossover events.  SC morphogenesis is critical for crossover formation and therefore the proper segregation of chromosomes into gametes and yet, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of SC formation. Here, we examine the role of the CSN signalosome of SC assembly  in the model organism C. elegans. The CSN/COP9 signalosome is a key regulator of the ubiquitin degradation pathway and has been shown to interact with several meiotic specific proteins in C. elegans. We have shown that mutants in CSN subunits exhibit meiotic defects resulting in abnormal gonads and aberrant SC assembly. These defects are accompanied by a decrease in the association between homologous chromosomes and by reduction in the formation of crossover events between homologous chromosomes. Our work indicates a novel role for the CSN/COP9 signalosome in SC assembly in meiotic prophase I. 

Aaron Burns
Classics
Plutarch's De Virtute Morali Reconsidered

There have been many good studies of Plutarch’s philosophy, a topic all but neglected in the first half of the twentieth century, in recent years. These studies, however, have focused either on Plutarch’s exegesis of Platonic metaphysics, or on his practical ethics. There have been few attempts to show, however, how these two branches of Plutarch’s philosophy relate to each other. This paper proposes that Plutarch’s De virtute morali (On Moral Virtue) provides the link between the two branches. Modern scholars have often questioned the merit of De virt. mor.  as a work of philosophy, with even the editor of the Loeb Classical Library edition calling it “one of the least successful of Plutarch’s works.” This view is mistaken, however, in that it fails to understand the purpose for which Plutarch wrote De virt. mor. This paper, therefore, will argue that in De virt. mor. Plutarch attempts to place his ethics in a metaphysical framework and he is successful in doing this; thus, De virt. mor. is an important work for considering Plutarch’s philosophy as a whole. 

Maggie Butler
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Fostering Self-Advocacy Among College Students with Disabilities Through Collaboration

As the presence of college students with disabilities continues to increase on campuses across the U.S., self-advocacy skills are essential to their persistence. The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS), Wagner, Newman, Cameto and Levine (2005) stated that although students with disabilities are present in postsecondary education a gap remains in their persistence in college compared to their peers without disabilities. The purpose of this poster is to identify the relevance of collaboration as it pertains to the development of self-advocacy skills among college students with disabilities and their persistence in college settings.

Natalie Butterfield
Astronomy
Radio Observations of Star Formation in the Galactic Center

Star formation in the inner regions of the Galactic Center differs strongly from star formation in the Galactic Disk. In order to see how environment plays a role in star formation, we must look at several stages of star formation, including past, current, and future star formation. In this study we looked at multiple star forming regions in the inner 50 parsec region of the Galactic Center that trace these different stages, using the VLA observatories. We present broadband continuum images of these regions. Since we are using multiple frequencies we can map the spectral index to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes taking place. We also present many molecular line transitions that allow us to trace the temperatures and physical conditions of these extreme environments.
 

Fahrettin Cakir
Management Sciences
Shape-Based Clustering for Vehicle Routing

Clustering techniques constitute a popular method for many application domains. However, clustering has made little contribution to the vehicle routing literature in which effective approaches for large-scale problems use metaheuristics. In this paper, we propose a two-stage shape-based clustering approach. Our solution technique is based on creating clusters of customers that form certain shapes with respect to the proximity of a cluster to the depot. We obtain a routing solution by ordering all customers in every cluster separately. Our results come close to a state-of-the-art vehicle routing solver in terms of quality. Moreover, the results show that the algorithm we propose scales better.

Kelly Carden
Linguistics
Phonological transfer and the omission of tense suffixes in Chinese learners of English: a pilot study

One of the main differences between English and Chinese syllable structure is that English allows clusters of consonants at the end of a word while Chinese does not. Since many past and present tense verbs in English end in a consonant cluster ((e.g.) “walked” [wɔkt]) it is possible that omission of tense suffixes in spoken English is a pronunciation error rather than a grammatical error.
In order to test this hypothesis, I performed a pilot study in which I compared the results of written and oral grammar exams to determine if omission of tense endings is better explained as a grammatical issue or a pronunciation issue. If participants correctly use tense endings in written English but omit tense endings in oral English, it is likely that the errors are due to a pronunciation problem rather than a grammar problem.
In my presentation, I will present the results of this pilot study. All participants demonstrated more accurate use of tense endings in the written task compared to the oral task. When comparing tense endings in consonant-and vowel-final verbs, all participants used the tense endings with vowel-final verbs more accurately.
This pilot study strongly suggests that pronunciation errors, rather than grammatical errors, may be the primary cause of the omission of tense endings in Chinese learners of English. In the conclusion of my presentation, I will speculate on the pedagogical implications of these findings.

li chen
Journalism
A cross-cultural analysis of media agenda set by social media sites: comparing Twitter and Weibo

By conducting content analysis on headlines provided by Twitter and Weibo(Microblog) during the same time period, the study attempted to apply agenda setting theory and the model of five dimensions of cultural difference first developed by Hofstede to a new dimension: how does media agenda set by social media sites reflect the cultural and societal differences between the United States and China. Major features reviewed from the headlinessuggested that the several dimensions of cultural differences revealed by previous scholarly work were reflected in online media agenda. In addition, unique features of the headlines on Weibo suggested that social media attempted to play a vital role in encouraging civic participation among active social media users in China, while the trend was not found in Twitter. Societal and cultural implications were also discussed.

Dmitry Chernikov
Industrial Engineering
A stochastic PDE-constrained optimization approach to vibration control of a composite plate subjected to mechanical and electromagnetic loads

It is known from previous studies that mechanical vibrations of a thin plate can be effectively damped by applying electromagnetic field to it. However, application of excessive electric current may lead to overheating and damage of the plate, thus it is crucial to find the proper profile of the electromagnetic field to apply. In addition, the mechanical load is assumed to be stochastic with known discrete distribution. In this work we address the problem to find the optimal profile of the electromagnetic field under stochastic mechanical load which is formulated as a stochastic PDE-constrained optimization problem. The governing system of PDEs is solved numerically and the optimization is done with the aid of a two-stage stochastic programming. The gradient of the objective function is found by using automatic differentiation. Numerical results are presented.

Justin Christopher
Educational Policy and Leadership
Inquiry, Knowledge, and Truth: Pragmatic Conceptions

Pragmatism, formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the 1870s, is a philosophical position characterized by its specific mode of inquiry, and an account of meaning.  Some individuals argue that Dewey’s and James’s philosophical conceptions of truth and knowledge diverge from that of Peirce.  I believe that Dewey’s conceptions of truth and knowledge remained more aligned with that of Peirce.  For James, all that is needed for a belief to be true is satisfactory relations with our experiences.  For Dewey, knowledge is re-conceptualized as warranted assertability.  An assertion is warranted by the inquiry process that culminates in the assertion.  The process of inquiry warrants the resulting belief or assertion.  Utilizing the tools of inquiry, conclusions can be reached, which are well warranted to be true.  Methods textbooks often cite the Jamesian form of pragmatism in their philosophical framework for research methods. In this paper, I will argue that Peirce’s conception of inquiry, knowledge and truth has great strengths. I will argue, further, that with respect to inquiry, knowledge, and truth, Dewey’s development of pragmatism remains consistent with that of Peirce, and that Jamesian pragmatism diverges sharply from Peirce and Dewey.  Greater understanding of truth, knowledge and inquiry is important from a philosophical standpoint as well as in educational research.  Implications for educational research are thus discussed.

Ryan Cobb
Philosophy
A Difficulty for Rowe's Formulation of the Problem of Evil

 Bill Rowe, in his classic paper “The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism,” suggests that certain “natural evils”—instances of intense suffering for which humans are not responsible—provide good evidence that God does not exist. This paper challenges Rowe’s thesis in two parts. In part one, I explain Rowe’s argument, attempt to motivate it, and highlight what I think is a critical flaw. In part two, I examine an attempt to modify Rowe’s argument to avoid the flaw, and conclude that it is unsuccessful. I conclude that, barring a major reformulation, we have good reason to reject Rowe’s argument. This suggests that the theist can overcome the problem of (natural) evil.

Ryan Cobb
Philosophy
Anscombe, Abortion, and Human Dignity

G.E.M Anscombe rejects abortion as absolutely immoral, but her reasoning is quite terse.  Her argument, what I will call "The Argument from Human Dignity," breaks with much contemporary discussion of abortion by avoiding the question of the "personhood" of fetuses almost entirely.  Instead, Anscombe focuses on "human dignity."  I attempt some exegesis of this argument, and also defend it.  My hope is that this argument can advance the abortion debate by appealing to commonly acceptable premises. 

Daniel Cobian
Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science
Knee Extensor Rate of Torque Development after Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy

Background
Quadriceps muscle atrophy, weakness, and inhibition are notable following knee injury and surgery.  Objective measurements of quadriceps function largely focus on peak strength. But many activities of daily living and most athletic movements require rapid, not maximal, force development. Recent investigations suggest that functional ability, safety in movement, and patient-based outcomes are more closely related to rapid force development than they are to peak strength. 
Methods
20 subjects (age 42.3 ± 13.7, BMI 26.6 ± 3.1) completed tests of quadriceps speed, strength, and function prior to and after surgery with each leg. The testing protocol included quadriceps strength, speed, and activation testing, muscle imaging, and patient-based outcomes measures. Absolute differences between involved and uninvolved legs and adaptations in the same limb over time were analyzed, and the associations between strength, RTD, and outcomes variables tested.
Results
Significant differences were observed by side for all lower extremity strength and RTD variables.  Rapid quadriceps neural activation was strongly correlated with rapid force production.  Deficits in RTD variables were negatively correlated with patient-based outcomes scores after surgery.
Conclusion
Knee extensor RTD is controlled by a combination of neural and muscular factors.  The results of this study indicate that neural mechanisms are the primary limitation of rapid voluntary quadriceps action following knee arthroscopy and that the inability to quickly develop or modulate muscle force may have significant functional consequences.
 

Bethany Cockburn
Management and Organizations
The relationship between worker engagement, deviance, and injury

The present study investigated the relationship between employee engagement, deviance, and injury.  Approximately 190 employee–supervisor dyads at a local manufacturing facility completed surveys including engagement and trust in the supervisor.   Archival worker injury data reported near misses and injury severity for injuries in the past two years and archival deviance data reported individual-level counterproductive work behaviors.  Preliminary analyses indicate a positive relationship between worker injury and deviance.

Brian Collins
Philosophy
What is Philosophy and why is it important?

Studying and “doing” philosophy entails articulating a position or theory, supporting that position with arguments, anticipating objections, and formulating effective responses to those objections.  This practice helps to develop analytic and critical thinking skills that are extremely valuable and applicable in any academic field or career.  For these reasons, as well as many others, philosophy instruction is in a unique position to help encourage, and implement critical thinking into education curriculum and public discourse.  The goals of this presentation are (1) to increase awareness about ‘what philosophy is,’ (2) to increase awareness about pre-college philosophy, and (3) to share a “Pre-College Philosophy Project” I am working to develop which integrates explicit philosophical instruction into local school districts.  This project is “in progress” and my hopes with sharing it at the Jakobsen Conference are to start discussions, gather feedback, and engage potential advocates and collaborators.

Courtney Converse
Pharmacy (PharmD)
Micropore Closure Kinetics are Delayed Following Microneedle Insertion in Elderly Subjects

Micropore Closure Kinetics are Delayed Following Microneedle Insertion in Elderly Subjects
Courtney C. Converse1, Megan N. Kelchen1, Matthew J. Farly1, Grant O. Holdren1, and Nicole K. Brogden1 
1University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
nicole-brogden@uiowa.edu
 
Introduction: Microneedles (MNs) create dermal micropores, allowing percutaneous delivery of skin impermeable drugs. We compared micropore closure rates in young (18-30 yrs) and elderly (≥ 65 yrs) subjects treated with various MN geometries to determine differences in drug delivery timeframes. 
Methods: Impedance spectroscopy measurements were made at baseline, post-MN, and every 24hrs through 4 days. Micropore total permeable area (Apermeable) was calculated to measure area available for drug delivery. Student’s t-tests were used to determine when Apermeable was indistinguishable from control sites. p<0.05 was considered significant.
Results:  500 micron MN: In control subjects, Apermeable was indistinguishable from intact skin at 24 (p=0.48) and 48hrs (p=0.15) for 10 and 100 micropores, respectively; in elderly subjects Apermeable was indistinguishable from intact skin at 24 (p>0.05) and 96hrs (p>0.05) for 10 and 100 micropores, respectively.  750 micron MN: Apermeable was indistinguishable from intact skin at 48 (p=0.051) and 96hrs (p=0.15) for 10 and 100 micropores in control subjects, respectively, vs. 96hrs (p<0.05) for 10 and 100 micropores in elderly subjects.      
Conclusion: Micropores heal in aging skin at delayed rates compared to younger skin, and rates depend on MN number and length. Optimizing MN conditions may lengthen transdermal delivery timeframes in elderly populations.

David Cordie
Geoscience
Stony Coral Soft Tissue Systematics and Use of Histology in Coral Phylogenetics

Corals reefs are critical to maintaining the health of the oceans. Despite only covering a small percentage of the ocean floor they support vast numbers of fish, plant life, and invertebrates. However, these ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic climate change and require conservation to maintain biological functionality. Conservation managers are required to place priorities on coral species and new metrics using evolutionary life histories can be used to maximize preservation impact. Although, accurate phylogenies are required to use these methods. This study attempts to look for new sources of morphological characters with which to improve phylogenetic analyses of stony corals; specifically, characters in the soft tissue. Histological thin sections were prepared from eight Pacific corals and characters of the tissue and stinging cells were coded. Resulting phylogenies showed broad congruence to molecular and skeletal based phylogenies while utilizing only a small number of characters. This study shows that histological traits can be taxonomically relevant and should be added to morphological studies in the future. Further studies with a larger character set could reveal more resolution at the family and genus level, as well as adaptations that should be considered during conservation prioritization.

Natalie Covington
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Statistical Learning in Hippocampal Amnesia

Statistical learning refers to the ability of learners to track statistical regularities in their environment, in order to uncover the underlying structure of patterned stimuli.  Because learning unfolds incrementally over time and is largely unconscious, statistical learning has been assumed to rely on nondeclarative learning mechanisms.  However, surprising results from a recent study found impaired statistical learning in a patient with damage to the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe, neural structures important for declarative memory.  This study attempts to replicate these findings in multiple patients with hippocampal damage.

Joseph Cullin
Geoscience
Reach-Scale Predictions of the Fate and Transport of Contaminants of Emerging Concern at Fourmile Creek in Ankeny, Iowa

Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are an unregulated suite of constituents frequently detected in environmental waters, possessing the potential to cause a host of reproductive and developmental problems in humans and wildlife. Degradation pathways of several CECs are well-characterized in idealized laboratory settings, but CEC fate and transport in complex field settings is poorly understood. In the present study we use a multi-tracer solute injection study to quantify physical transport and photodegradation in a wastewater effluent-impacted stream. Conservative tracers are used to quantify physical transport processes in the stream. Use of a reactive fluorescent tracer allows for isolation of the relative contribution of photodegradation within the system. Field data is used to calibrate a one-dimensional transport model allowing us to use forward modeling to predict the transport of sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic in the effluent which is susceptible to photolysis. Forward modeling will predict both temporal persistence and spatial extent of sulfamethoxazole.

Sheetal D'mello
Pharmacy (PhD)
The Enhancement of Bone Regeneration by Gene Activated Matrix Encoding for Platelet Derived Growth Factor

Purpose: To develop and test a non-viral gene delivery system for bone regeneration that utilizes collagen scaffolds to deliver polyethylenimine (PEI)-plasmid DNA (pDNA) [encoding platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B)] complexes.
Methods: PEI-pDNA (PDGF-B) complexes were synthesized and characterized for size and surface charge using Zetasizer Nano ZS and the collagen scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy of the synthesized complexes was evaluated in bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) using MTS assay and by quantifying the amount of secreted PDGF-BB in cell culture supernatants using ELISA. In addition, the influence of the complex-loaded scaffold on cellular proliferation was evaluated in vitro using confocal microscopy. The in vivo regenerative capacity of the gene delivery system was assessed in critical-sized calvarial defects in Fisher 344 rats.
Results: The complexes were ∼100 nm in size with a positive surface charge. Complexes prepared at an N/P ratio of 10 displayed low cytotoxicity as assessed by a cell viability assay. Confocal microscopy revealed significant proliferation of BMSCs on complex-loaded collagen scaffolds compared to empty scaffolds. In vivo studies showed significantly higher new bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) % in calvarial defects treated with the complex-activated scaffolds following 4 weeks of implantation (14- and 44-fold higher) when compared to empty defects or empty scaffolds, respectively.
Conclusion: Non-viral complex activated collagen scaffolds are an effective gene delivery and bone regeneration system with significant potential for clinical translation.

Jason Daniels
American Studies
Blake and White: Blake Griffin and Portrayals of Biracial Identity in "Post-Racial" America

For several years now, basketball star Blake Griffin has been a popular endorser of Kia automobiles.  Griffin is known as one of the most athletic players in the National Basketball Association, recognized particularly for his exciting dunking ability.  I argue that his athleticism is especially connoted with the NBA, which has long been associated with an undesirable blackness.  Griffin’s own appearance, however, complicates this association because he is biracial (his father is black and his mother is white).  In order to move Griffin away from a perceived undesirability of the NBA, Kia sets many of these advertisements in suburban areas, where his blackness (or at least his not-whiteness) is minimized and his already affable and approachable demeanor is made amplified.  In this paper, I analyze some of these advertisements and discuss how the biracial Griffin’s rise as an endorsement figure parallels the increased (and controversial) view of the United States as a post-racial society, ushered in with the election of Barack Obama.  I invoke the work of scholars of sport studies, communications studies, and multiculturalism in this paper so as to address the various roles Griffin plays in contemporary media: as an athlete, an endorser, and as a biracial individual.

Colleen Davis
History
Like Other Mothers, Like A Mother: Edith Neal, Peg Mullen, and Public Roles for Mothers during the Vietnam War

“Why are you making such a fuss? Why can’t you be proud, like other mothers, that your son was killed in Vietnam?” These questions, perhaps rhetorical, were asked of an Iowa activist and quoted in a 1972 editorial in Burlington, Iowa’s local newspaper. What might it have meant to be “like other mothers” in the early 1970s in Iowa? How did being a mother relate to pride? How were expectations of motherhood changed during wartime?
This presentation looks at two Iowa mothers, Edith Neal and Peg Mullen, both of whom were active during the Vietnam War. Situating these two women within a larger history of motherhood and gendered patriotism in America, I argue that each woman used maternal stereotypes, while also expanding notions of motherhood and transforming her role as a mother, in order to meet her political needs; moreover, though the women used similar means, they sought different ends. Together, Neal and Mullen highlight a transition in discourse about motherhood that occurred throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. Though differing in many regards, the two shared one important quality: neither woman was particularly “like other mothers,” and, yet, each woman sought to be like a mother (figure) to countless American youths. 

Gemma de Choisy
Nonfiction Writing
Serpentecostal: Facebook Evangelism and Serpent-Handling Pentecostalism in Tennessee

On September 16th, 2013, Andrew Hamblin became a TV Celebrity. Last year, the 23-year-old star of NatGeo's "Snake Salvation" documentary miniseries was stocking shelves at an IGA grocery store to support his wife and five children. Now, Hamblin has a new plan. He wants to be the pastor of America's very first snake-handling megachurch. As career goals go, his is ambitious: his current venue, the Church of God with Signs following in Lafollete, Tennessee, is a squat, two room brick building in a residential neighborhood. On Friday evenings, Saturday afternoons, and Sunday mornings, Andrew Hamblin handles poisonous snakes - Timber Rattlers and Copperheads, mostly - while congregants and tourists pack the church. The windows are colored with tissue paper in lieu of stained glass, and the crux of his congregation's faith hinges on a literal interpretation of Mark 116:9-20, in which Jesus commands his disciples to spread the Gospel. Previously, writers who've reported on Hamblin so far have treated his church's methods and practices as outliers and anomalies, but remember: what they're dismissing as an antiquated form of backwards worship is what Hamblin wants to be the future of Christianity in America, the most Christian of nations. And his parish is growing.

Gemma de Choisy
Nonfiction Writing
Serpentecostal: Facebook Evangelism and Serpent-Handling Pentecostalism in Tennessee

On September 16th, 2013, Andrew Hamblin became a TV Celebrity. Last year, the 23-year-old star of NatGeo's "Snake Salvation" documentary miniseries was stocking shelves at an IGA grocery store to support his wife and five children. Now, Hamblin has a new plan. He wants to be the pastor of America's very first snake-handling megachurch. As career goals go, his is ambitious: his current venue, the Church of God with Signs following in Lafollete, Tennessee, is a squat, two room brick building in a residential neighborhood. On Friday evenings, Saturday afternoons, and Sunday mornings, Andrew Hamblin handles poisonous snakes - Timber Rattlers and Copperheads, mostly - while congregants and tourists pack the church. The windows are colored with tissue paper in lieu of stained glass, and the crux of his congregation's faith hinges on a literal interpretation of Mark 116:9-20, in which Jesus commands his disciples to spread the Gospel. Previously, writers who've reported on Hamblin so far have treated his church's methods and practices as outliers and anomalies, but remember: what they're dismissing as an antiquated form of backwards worship is what Hamblin wants to be the future of Christianity in America, the most Christian of nations. And his parish is growing.

Phillip Deierling
Mechanical Engineering
Thermo-Mechanical Response of Functionally Graded Materials for Extreme Enviornments

In this paper the thermo-mechanical response of functionally graded materials (FGMs a type of composite material) for extreme environments is studied.  Equations governing the thermo-mechanical coupling and the material distribution are discussed.   Effective material properties are estimated using well accepted bounding techniques.  A Finite element analysis procedure has been developed to numerically approximate the solution for the thermo-mechanically coupled problem.  An example problem is presented comparing a FGM thermal barrier to a traditional thermal barrier.  The effectiveness of the FGM is evaluated by comparing the weight and the maximum in-plane thermal stress for different material distributions.  It is shown that the implementation of the FGM leads to substantial weight savings and a significant change in the temperature gradient through the thickness of the thermal barrier.  This, in turn, results in a considerable reduction of in-plane thermally induced stress. 

Justine Delgado
Pharmacy (PhD)
Effect of Fluoroquinolone N-1 Substituents on DNA binding and Mechanism of Topoisomerase Inhibition.

Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Due to the emergence of bacterial resistance to current fluoroquinolones, the need for novel fluoroquinolone-class agents that are active against both wild-type and resistant mutants continues to grow. Fluoroquinolones exert their antibacterial activity by poisoning bacterial type-II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV, through the formation of a ternary complex with the enzyme and DNA. Mutations to genes encoding these two target enzymes are the main cause of fluoroquinolone resistance; affording topoisomerases that do not form the drug-enzyme-DNA ternary complex. Through the use of crystallographic investigation, the N-1 and C-7 positions of fluoroquinolones were identified as possible positions for structural modification to generate novel fluoroquinolones that would retain activity with current resistant mutants. During this study it was found that incorporation of certain aryl groups at the N-1 position of the fluoroquinolone core resulted in loss of activity toward the bacterial enzymes. However, these fluoroquinolones appeared to act through a novel mechanism of action. Thus further investigation into the DNA binding and mechanism of action for these novel fluoroquinolones was pursued and is presented here.  

Benjamin Deonovic
Biostatistics
Genome Wide Association Study of Ideopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Purpose: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by chronically increased intracranial pressure without clinical evidence for space occupying lesions or hydrocephalus. Increased pressure leads to papilledema, which may lead to vision loss. Although there appear to be a variety of associated risk factors for the disease, further research is needed to identify genetic loci associated with the condition. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to further understand this disease. Methods: We analyzed 95 case subjects with IIH and 95 controls matched by sex, BMI, self-reported ethnicity, and distance to procurement site. The samples were genotyped using Illumina's Infinium HumanCoreExome v1-0 array which examined 538,448 SNPs. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model that controlled for population stratification by multidimensional scaling. Results: No SNPs were found to be significantly associated with IIH after adjusting for multiple testing using the Benjamini-Hochberg Procedure to control for false discovery rate at 0.05. Quality control analysis uncovered a problem with the fourth batch of the data, resulting in an underpowered study. Conclusion: Further analysis is required to make a definitive statement of the genetic involvement to IIH. This paper exemplifies the impact of quality control analysis in GWAS.

Kamuran Dilsiz
Physics
Development of a Novel Cerenkov Detector for Particle Identification

"Co-Authors: Emrah Tiras"

Particle identification based on Cerenkov radiation has been utilized in many detector systems mostly with ring imaging Cerenkov detectors. Gas Cerenkov detectors have also been instrumented in the Fermilab and CERN test beam lines for beam users. Here we describe a novel, tracking Cerenkov detector constructed with a quartz-based crystal read out with multiple, directly coupled photomultiplier tubes. Upon optimization, the idea can be generalized to particle identification systems in the future collider detector experiments as well as Compton polarimeters. 

Kamuran Dilsiz
Physics
Study of a Novel Cerenkov Detector for Particle Identification

Particle identification based on Cerenkov radiation has been utilized in many detector systems mostly with ring imaging Cerenkov detectors. Gas Cerenkov detectors have also been instrumented in the Fermilab and CERN test beam lines for beam users. Here we describe a novel, tracking Cerenkov detector constructed with a quartz-based crystal read out with multiple, directly coupled photomultiplier tubes. Upon optimization, the idea can be generalized to particle identification systems in the future collider detector experiments as well as Compton polarimeters. 

Shani Egodawatte
Chemistry
Synthesis of Electrospun Hematite Nanofibers with a Mesoporous Silica Coating of Controlled Thickness

Hematite (Fe2O3) is the most thermodynamically stable form of iron oxide and is being used in various applications such as pigments, catalysts, gas sensors, magnetic devices and electrode material in lithium ion batteries. Electrospinning is a low cost, simple and scalable method for generating ultra-long polymer and/or metal oxide fibers with tunable diameter. The unique mesh-like structure of the nanofibers results in a three-dimensional reticular structure with high specific surface area and porosity.4 Applications for electrospun hematite nanofibers can be limited by the fragility and chemical stability of the nanofibers in aqueous environments. Mesoporous silica nanomaterials have very high surface areas (around 1000 m2/g), biocompatibility, tunable pore sizes and well-defined surface properties and are mechanically, thermally and chemically stable matrices, and hence have been used for various applications such as the adsorption of pollutants, catalysis, and chemical and gas sensors.5 Combining the properties of the electrospun hematite nanofibers with mesoporous silica represents a promising approach to a novel composite nanomaterial with a meso and macroporous structure which is very flexible, robust and chemically stable. In this study, electrospun hematite (ESH) nanofiber/mesoporous silica (MS) core/shell materials (ESH@MS) were prepared using a facile method that enabled control of the thickness of the mesoporous silica shell in the 20-60 nm range. The parent and the core/shell silica samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms for surface area and pore volumes. Dissolution studies show that the ESH@MS materials are more stable under acidic pH conditions compared to the parent ESH nanofibers.

Eric Eitrheim
Chemistry
Dual-Labeling for Nuclear and Fluorescence Molecular Imaging

Molecular imaging probes used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) have been used to image cancer cells using radioactive elements attached to an imaging probe that emits a positron. These compounds bio-accumulate in the cancer tissue where they can be imaged. Our current goal is to synthesize a molecule with the intent to use it as an imaging vector for melanoma cancer cells that utilize two imaging agents, fluorescence and PET imaging, in one dual-labeled molecular imaging probe. This would enable targeted molecular imaging of cancers as well as intraoperative fluorescence-guided surgery. Fluorescence from a molecular imaging agent could enable real-time visual detection of the cancer enabling precise excision of the cancer by the surgeon, increasing survival rates and decreasing the need for more surgeries or further treatments. Some similar compounds have been synthesized that are currently in clinical trials that utilize Near-Infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dyes that are always fluorescing.  The molecular agent we will employ has precedence for only fluorescing when aggregating to other molecules, for example, on a cancer cell surface. This shows promise in decreasing background in fluorescence imaging as compared to NIRF molecules currently being utilized.

Landon D. C. Elkind
Philosophy
An Emotivist Natural Law Jurisprudence

I argue that the natural law school of jurisprudence should dispense with the claims of natural law theory. I develop a natural law jurisprudence that keeps the core claim of the natural law school while avoiding the more contentious claims of natural law theory. If my approach succeeds in retaining the main thesis of the natural law school, then we should abandon the broader natural law theory for purposes of jurisprudence.

Landon Elkind
Philosophy
On Pluralism in Mathematics

I claim that key features of the relatively recent position in philosophy of mathemat-ics, pluralism, appear in the Jain doctrine of anekantavada (`non-one-sidedness'). The development and defense of anekantavada offers useful lessons for the pluralist, plus responses to possible criticisms. The theory of anekantavada also raises some questions for the pluralist, answers to which serve to distinguish pluralism and relativism.

William Ettema
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Alternative Tile Intake Design for Tile Drainage: A Case Study

The goal of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of an alternative tile intake (ATI) at reducing runoff, sediment, and nutrient loads from agricultural fields during extreme storm events in the Clear Creek, IA watershed.  An ATI is a best management practice (BMP) consisting of a gravel intake modified with a layer of wood chips.  Gravel intakes have been shown to be highly efficient at trapping sediment and sediment-bound particulates, like phosphorus, by enhancing settling through ponding and filtration, while the addition of the wood chips is to facilitate denitrification, similar to a bioreactor.  These intakes can help attenuate runoff relative to conventional intakes by reducing the flow rate of runoff into the subsurface tile drainage.  To date, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has been used to simulate field conditions at the demonstration site for calculating runoff volumes and sediment fluxes to the ATI for different magnitude events.  A physical model of the installed ATIs at the demonstration site is currently being used in the laboratory to quantify the saturated hydraulic conductivity and filter efficiency of different combinations of pea gravel and wood chips.  These laboratory experiments will be complemented with analytical exercises and infield monitoring of the installed ATIs.  Preliminary measurements suggest that ATIs have a filtering efficiency of about 80%.

Matthew Even
Geoscience
How resilient are vegetation communities to climate change at the Ciha Fen (Johnson County, IA, USA)

The distribution of water availability and soil properties at a site creates a suite of hydrological niches occupied by different vegetation communities.  Water availability is a primary determinant of vegetation patterning, and is itself a function of soil properties, landscape position, climate, and other factors.  In systems with a shallow groundwater table, both precipitation-derived soil moisture and groundwater are available for use by plants. The contribution of groundwater to a plant’s transpiration can be quantified as groundwater subsidy.  Groundwater subsidy is defined as the additional amount vegetation transpires through root water uptake from groundwater versus transpiration through root water uptake from soil moisture (Lowry & Loheide 2010).  Here, we take the Ciha Fen (Johnson County, IA, USA) as a case study in the effects of position in space and soil type on groundwater subsidy.  Based on field monitoring, three vegetation communities (wetland, transitional, upland) occupying at least three unique soil types at the site were studied.  These field data were used to calibrate a 1-D numerical model to predict water availability as a function of climate.  This model was then used to analyze root water uptake using changes in the pressure head to drive the model.  Results of this study will support ongoing management of the Ciha Fen preserve.

Gavin Feller
Communication Studies
Weak Ties, Neck Ties, Tongue-Tied: Navigating Theoretical Challenges in the Study of Mormon Missionary Social Media Use

This paper explores theoretical challenges to the study of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ (LDS) missionary media communication. I utilize diffusion of innovations theory and media multiplexity theory to highlight the LDS Church’s emerging social media strategy. While the LDS Church’s most recent missionary communication efforts closely mirror both theories in several ways, important discursive and cultural considerations are not addressed in either theory. I present a few dominant discursive struggles within LDS culture to demonstrate the need for further research on the relationship between religious media discourse and media use. I argue that research on LDS missionary communication, and media and religion more broadly, must be more conscious of the competing theological, technological and cultural discourses surrounding the value of media in religious and social life in order to understand the role of digital media in the construction of religious identity. 
 

Gavin Feller
Communication Studies
Weak Ties, Neck Ties, Tongue-Tied: Navigating Theoretical Challenges in the Study of Mormon Missionary Social Media Use

This paper explores theoretical challenges to the study of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints’ (LDS) missionary media communication. I utilize diffusion of innovations theory and media multiplexity theory to highlight the LDS Church’s emerging social media strategy. While the LDS Church’s most recent missionary communication efforts closely mirror both theories in several ways, important discursive and cultural considerations are not addressed in either theory. I present a few dominant discursive struggles within LDS culture to demonstrate the need for further research on the relationship between religious media discourse and media use. I argue that research on LDS missionary communication, and media and religion more broadly, must be more conscious of the competing theological, technological and cultural discourses surrounding the value of media in religious and social life in order to understand the role of digital media in the construction of religious identity. 
 

Ana C. Ferreira
Pharmacy (PhD)
Activity of the LAT-2 Transporter in the Nasal Mucosa and its Role in the Uptake of Gabapentin

The passage of molecules from the circulatory system into the brain is regulated and limited by the blood brain barrier (BBB). One approach to overcome the BBB is to deliver drugs via the olfactory route from the nasal cavity. Uptake transporters may assist in the distribution of molecules between the nasal mucosa and the brain, and the current study focuses on the activity of L-type amino acid transporters, specifically LAT-2, in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa whose action may increase the uptake of amino acid-analog substrates. The LAT-2 transporter is localized in the submucosal glandular region and basolateral region of the epithelium of bovine nasal respiratory tissues and in the epithelial and submucosal regions of the olfactory region. The activity of the transporter in these tissues was assessed by measuring the flux of gabapentin, an LAT-2 substrate, across tissue explants. Active uptake of gabapentin was also probed using BCH and L-alanine, LAT-1,2 and LAT-2 selective inhibitors, respectively. The uptake of gabapentin was shown to possess an active, saturable process with a Km value ~2500μM. The uptake of gabapentin was significantly inhibited by both BCH and L-alanine, clearly indicating that the amino acid transporters play an important role in the transfer of this substrate across the nasal tissues.

Ana Ferreira
Pharmacy (PhD)
Expression and Activity of the LAT-2 Transporter in Bovine Nasal Mucosa

The passage of molecules from the circulatory system into the brain is regulated and limited by the blood brain barrier (BBB). One approach to overcome the BBB is to deliver drugs via the olfactory route from the nasal cavity. Uptake transporters may assist in the distribution of molecules between the nasal mucosa and the brain, and the current study focuses on the expression of L-Type amino acid transporters, specifically LAT-2, in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa whose action may increase the uptake of amino acid-like substrates. The localization of LAT-2 in nasal mucosal tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the activity of the transporter was assessed by measuring the flux of gabapentin, an LAT-2 substrate, across excised tissues. Active uptake of gabapentin was probed using 2-aminobicyclo(2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) and L-alaline, LAT-1,2 and LAT-2 selective inhibitors, respectively. IHC demonstrated that LAT-2 is expressed in both respiratory and olfactory bovine tissues and is localized primarily in the glandular region of the respiratory tissues. The uptake of gabapentin was via an active, saturable process which was inhibited by both BCH and L-alanine, clearly showing that amino acid transporters play an important role in the transfer of substrates across nasal tissues.

Michael Freedberg
Neuroscience
Comparing the effect of positive and negative feedback in categorical learning

     One critical way that humans learn a new skill is through feedback.  For example, a teacher may tell a student they are correct when the student answers a math question with the right answer (an example of “positive feedback”), or the teacher may tell the student they are incorrect when the student responds with the wrong answer (an example of “negative feedback”).  The purpose of the current research study was to compare the effectiveness of positive and negative feedback to categorical learning.  Participants were asked to categorize stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories by integrating two features of the stimulus (the frequency and angle of the stimulus).  Participants received partial positive or partial negative feedback depending on whether they were assigned to the positive (PFB) or negative feedback (NFB) group (N = 20; 10 per group).  A custom-written algorithm controlled the amount of feedback that participants received throughout the experiment so that both groups received feedback on a similar amount of trials (~ 25% of trials).  Preliminary data shows that positive feedback is more effective in supporting categorical learning than negative feedback.  These results suggest that humans may show better learning in the presence of positive feedback than in the presence of negative feedback.   

Lauren Freese
Art History
Crafting an Image of Unity: The New York Federal Procession, 1788

On July 23, 1788 at ten o’clock in the morning, thousands of people processed through New York City in celebration of the ratification of the Constitution of the United States by ten states. While New York State would not ratify the document until three days later on July 26, 1788, the Federalist Party elected to stage the New York Federal Procession. The procession was a carefully crafted spectacle designed by New York Federalists to display a homogeneously pro-Constitution image of New York State. In the midst of heated debates and violent riots, the New York Federal Procession served a propagandistic function in order to present New York State as unified in support of the Constitution. A cohesive program of imagery and ephemeral architecture obscured political tensions and worked to promote Federalist ideology as a source of unity and prosperity. 
This cohesive visual program opens an avenue for the interpretation of the use of spectacle in the Early Republic as a potent social tool. While scholars have considered individual components of the procession imagery and the larger political landscape of New York State, this paper considers visual imagery and ephemeral architecture produced for the procession as a unified whole.
In the context of political unrest, the Federalist Party utilized the New York Federal Procession as a platform to present imagery that worked to obscure tension in favor of political homogeneity. Therefore, the imagery and architecture designed for the procession clearly express Federalist desires rather than political reality.

Erika Frierdich
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement with English Language Learners

For the past few decades, the education system in the United States has gone through a rapid increase in the enrollment of students who are culturally and linguistically diverse, many of whom have been classified as English language learners (ELLs).  Due to their limited English proficiency, ELLs may be inappropriately identified for special education services.  In order to effectively implement Response to Intervention, a method that can aid with the efforts to accurately identify ELLs, schools must have valid, reliable assessment tools to screen for academic difficulties, monitor student progress, and indicate when instructional changes are warranted.   Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a promising approach for these purposes.  CBM allows teachers to measure students’ growth over time by sampling students’ performance multiple times within one academic year.  Additionally, teachers may be able to use the data collected to measure the effectiveness of new strategies or to decide to further test their ELL students for possible learning difficulties. 

Michaela Frischherz
Communication Studies
Negotiating Orgasmic Imperatives: Climaxing Public-Private Divides

While public discussions about women's orgasm continue to intensify—spanning the pages of scientific studies, sex-advice columns, and self-help books—the trope of the female orgasm as an individuating secret and a mystery-ridden reflex simultaneously preoccupies our popular imagination.  And despite, or perhaps because of, the cultural normativities that seek to prescribe that which is proper in pleasure, women continue to articulate pleasure and orgasm as a site of relational self-transformation, and creative bodily stylization in variegated modes that resist, augment, and invent those normativities anew.  This paper analyzes the rhetorical explosion of how-to orgasm literature and asks what kinds of sexual publics are forged in the wake of these rhetorical enactments. By examining the rich fragments that make these seemingly private sites, indeed, very public, I argue that orgasm and pleasure are always already relational and thus their public discussion serves to build more hospitable futures.  

Jacob Frueh
Chemistry
Design of Multifunctional Resurrecting Agents for Aged AChE-OP Adducts

            Organophosphates (OP) are effective transition state inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE).  Due to the effectiveness of these compounds to act as inhibitors of AChE, particularly as chemical warfare agents, new remedies must be developed in order to avoid the high number of mortality cases being reported each year due to unintended or intended exposure.  The most common used antidote, Pralidoxime (2-PAM), has several deficiencies, most significantly its failure to reactivate the “aged” AChE-OP adducts.  To solve this dilemma, several multifunctional methylating agents, including some containing a skeletal structure similar to the Alzheimer medication Aricept, are being developed to help resurrect/reactivate “aged” AChE by methylating the AChE-OP adducts.  Presented here are initial results of employing thiomethyl ethers as methyl transfer agents and the kinetic analysis of a model system.      

Celine Gaillard
Second Language Acquisition
Multiliteracies in the Beginner Foreign Language Classroom

Multiliteracies in the Beginner Foreign Language Classroom
The MLA report of 2007 identified “the two-tiered configuration” (p. 3) of language and literature within language departments. It recommended the creation of a “broader and more coherent curriculum in which language, culture, and literature are taught as a continuous whole” (p. 3). Allen and Paesani (2010) defended that implementing a pedagogy of multiliteracies was the key to build such a curriculum. Created in 1996 by the New London Group, this framework is now applied to foreign language teaching. However, its application is not without challenges, especially in the beginner classroom.
The present study examines the impact of training on the understanding and implementation of the multiliteracies framework in the beginner classroom. The participants, 18 foreign language teaching assistants (TAs), were enrolled in a course titled “Teaching and Learning Languages” which included a training module about multiliteracies. The TAs were asked to create activities following Paesani et al.’s model (2015) for the language and level that they were currently teaching.
This study explores how new instructors react when introduced to the concept of multiliteracies. It also suggests how to improve future training to better implement the pedagogy and bridge the gap between beginner and advanced language classes. 

Reddy Pratap Gandrajula
Physics
First Observation of B^+→ψ(2S)ϕK^+

Recently CDF, CMS and D0 collaborations reported evidence for a new structure in mass spectrum in exclusive decays that could not be explained using traditional quarkonium knowledge. A natural extension to this exotic structure is a possible   structure. We conducted a study for   structure in exclusive   decays, where  and using proton-proton collision data at  collected by the CMS detector. We report the first observation of with a statistical significance above 5 standard deviations and the branching fraction measurement.

Aruni Gankanda
Chemistry
Wavelength Dependence of Nitrate Photochemistry on Mineral Dust

In the atmosphere, nitrate adsorbed on mineral dust particles act as a potential source of renoxification in the presence of solar radiation. Here, the wavelength dependence of nitrate photochemistry has been investigated using   ,  and NaY Zeolite as proxies to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and aluminosilicate materials present in mineral dust. Nitrate photochemistry on mineral dust particles is governed by wavelength of light, physico-chemical properties of dust particles and adsorption mode of nitrate. Nitrate adsorbed on oxide particles can be photo-decomposed over a broader wavelength region of solar spectrum compared to nitrate ion in solution.  is the major photolysis product formed from nitrate adsorbed on oxide particles under dry conditions.  yield and the initial rate of production is higher on  than    indicating that nitrate photochemistry is more efficient on photo-active oxides in mineral dust. Nitrite ion complexed to sites is the major photolysis product of nitrate in zeolite. Photodecomposition of nitrate in NaY zeolite ceases around 335 nm. In this paper, reasons for wavelength dependence of nitrate photochemistry and mechanisms for the formation of gas phase and surface adsorbed products are discussed.

Karee Garvin
Linguistics
Exploring Narrative Potential- Northern Shoshoni Oral Narratives

Narratives can be anything that we, as a species, give meaning to.  Once we interact with something, whether it be text, numbers, an object, etc., it becomes narrative.  This means narratives are a central part of human existence.  They exist in every culture in the world and have likely existed as long as the species has had language.  Narratives are so pervasive, it is likely that they are linked to brain structure.  Humans use narratives to house and transmit knowledge and a great deal of culture is reflected within a narrative.  Once this knowledge is passed on, narratives help to mold new identities and subsequently create culture. This cyclical relationship defines our day-to-day interactions and what it means to be human.
This paper approaches narrative from an interdisciplinary standpoint, exploring narrative through the lens of Linguistics, Anthropology and English.  First, the paper seeks to define narrative and explore the relationship between narrative and culture to determine how narrative can be used to better understand communities and individuals.  Narrative can also be used as a tool for language learning and preservation.  Specifically, the paper investigates a Northern Shoshoni Oral Buffalo narrative and how this narrative can be used within the classroom.

Kevin Gerstle
Mathematics
The Green Rings of Pointed, Co-serial Hopf Algebras

The Green ring is a structure that gives information about the representations of an algebra or coalgebra. This ring is formed by taking direct sums and tensor products starting from a basis of indecomposable modules or comodules. A Hopf algebra, which has the structure of both an algebra and coalgebra, is thus a natural object for studying these rings. We will discuss the problem of classifying Green rings of Hopf algebras that are pointed and co-serial. While these algebras themselves have been previously studied, determining their Green rings remains an open problem with applications to ring theory and linear algebra. We will discuss how to write tensor products of comodules of these structures as sums of indecomposable comodules and thus how to write the Green ring as a quotient of a polynomial ring.

Sachin Gharse
Pharmacy (PhD)
Development of novel inhalation formulations for eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

                                                                                
Purpose: To develop a novel formulation consisting of an antibiotic and a nutrient dispersion agent for eradication of P. aeruginosa (PA) biofilms.
Methods: Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) were obtained. Growth curves of PA clinical isolates were obtained using Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) and Nutrient Broth (NB) to determine the best growth medium. Biofilm growth of each isolate was characterized in minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBECTM) assay troughs. MBECTM assays were initiated on biofilms of clinical isolates grown for 24 hours using antibiotics alone and combinations of antibiotics and nutrient dispersion agents.
Results: Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) gave the most distinct growth curves for PA isolates. Optimum biofilm growth conditions for MBECTM assay were obtained in biofilm characterization studies. MBECTM assays performed on clinical isolates demonstrated enhanced biofilm eradication by antibiotic and nutrient dispersion agent combinations compared to antibiotics alone. These results matched with preliminary studies carried out on PA lab strain BAA47.
Conclusion: Preliminary MBECTM assays using few combinations of antibiotic and nutrient dispersion agents showed enhanced eradication of biofilms of PA clinical isolates. However, further studies need to be performed using more such combinations to determine the most suitable combination.

Hamidreza Ghasemi Damavandi
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Analyzing Chemical Data as a pattern Recognition Problem

Analyzing the chemical data, by studying their underlying components may be of paramount importance for the chemical engineers, trying to find the chemical properties of the chemical elements. In our research, we are trying to turn the chemical problem of analysis of chemical data to a pattern recognition probelm and use the signal processing approaches to study them.

Tariq Ghazal
Oral Science
Factors Associated with Early Childhood Caries Incidence among African-American Children in Alabama

Objectives: To assess the relationships between behavioral factors and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in African-American pre-school children.
Methods: Ninety-six African-American children were recruited by word of mouth from Perry County, Alabama (non-fluoridated community) at 12 months of age, and followed for three years. Dental examinations were conducted annually (baseline, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-up) and dental caries incidence was calculated.  Parents provided detailed oral hygiene and dietary information every six months by questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariable relationships between caries incidence and different behavioral factors were assessed using logistic regression for dichotomous dependent variables and negative binomial modeling for count dependent variables.
Results: Relatively high percentages of children at baseline (about one year old) reportedly brushed their teeth (41.5%) and used toothpaste (33.3%). Almost all children (99%) consumed sugar-added beverages at the 2nd follow-up. Greater baseline frequency of toothbrushing and 100% juice consumption were associated with lower incidence of dental caries (ORs=0.34 and 0.37, P-values=0.01 and 0.049, respectively). More frequent consumption of sweetened foods was associated with greater incidence of ECC (OR=9.22, P-value=0.002).
Conclusion: For those living in a non-fluoridated community, frequency of sweetened food consumption (greater), 100% juice consumption (lower), toothbrushing (lower) were associated with more ECC incidence.

Tariq Ghazal
Oral Science
Factors Related to Receipt of Dental Care in Eastern Iowa Nursing Facilities

Objective: To assess factors related to nursing facility residents’ receipt of dental treatment when it was offered on site.
Methods: Screening forms that included demographic, general and dental health information were obtained from residents of ten nursing facilities in Eastern Iowa, and their dental procedure history for up to seven years after screening was recorded.  Residents were grouped as having received either no procedures; diagnostic procedures only; or non-diagnostic procedures.
Results: Of the 586 residents, the mean age was 83.8 years at screening and 31.3% were edentulous. The odds of receiving non-diagnostic procedures were lower among residents who were older (OR=0.98, 95%CI 0.96-0.99) or edentulous (OR=0.31, 95%CI 0.20-0.46), compared to those who received no dental procedures.
Conclusions: Those who were older or edentulous had lower odds of receiving non-diagnostic dental procedures. Well-designed prospective cohort studies are needed to better evaluate barriers to receipt of dental treatment among the institutionalized elderly.

Gwendolyn Gillson
Religious Studies
Pure Land and Politics: An Examination of the Religious Underpinnings of Burakumin Political Action in the Postwar Period

 

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Japanese burakumin (untouchables) have had great political success since World War II. However, little scholarship has examined the reasons that burakumin were inspired to become politically active. One potential source of political action is the religious community amongst burakumin. The instances of adherents to the True Pure Land Buddhist School among burakumin has always been far higher than among the general populace. True Pure Land itself accepted burakumin much more than the general populace and its doctrine of the decline of Buddhist law enabled burakumin to imagine a world where they were social equals with other Japanese people. Booklets published following World War II in English also point to an ideological basis in True Pure Land that burakumin may have identified which spurred political action. Furthermore, the figure of Shinran, the founder of True Pure Land, presented a model figure of resistant to dominate authority. This presentation uses these points to argue that the history of True Pure Land Buddhism amongst burakumin was one of the major factors that created the ideological basis for robust burakumin political action in the post-war period.

Javier Gomez
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Understanding the Unfolded Protein Response Signaling Network During Chronic Stress

The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a transcriptional mechanism set to deal with imbalances in protein processing capacity within the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The UPR is composed of three ER-resident transmembrane sensors: PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. These sensors and their downstream reestablish ER homeostasis through several mechanisms, including transcriptional regulation. The UPR signaling framework is also been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, among them Obesity. A hallmark of UPR activation is upregulation of molecular chaperones, of which Bip is one. However we have shown that obesity causes suppression of Bip mRNA in mice and humans. We hypothesize that chronic stress, and in particular obesity, lead to changes in the UPR signaling cascade which inhibit its ability to reestablish homeostasis. Treatment of mice with a prolonged low dose pharmacological agent induces downregulation of chaperone mRNA. The main UPR transcriptional sensor involved in chaperone gene regulation is ATF6. Mice lacking ATF6 are not able reconstitute the downregulation phenotype. Furthermore, assessment of gene expression through real-time PCR analysis suggests that this downregulation is limited to targets of ATF6. This gives evidence that chronic stress changes the UPR transcriptional response and may challenge the protective function of the UPR.

Allison Gorga
Sociology
The Production and Maintenance of Female Hegemonic Masculinity in a Women’s Prison

The current paper takes advantage of the unique microcosm of a women’s prison to explore female hegemonic masculinity. Using semi-structured interviews with 27 individuals living at Midwestern Correctional Facility for Women (MCFW), I found that masculine women in prison, referred to as “studs,” were held to more rigid gender expectations and were frequent victims of gender policing. These studs, however, obtained high status among those incarcerated and received certain benefits if they could successfully achieve masculinity. Interestingly, both masculine and feminine individuals at MCFW produced definitions of masculinity, suggesting that multiple individuals are responsible for (re)producing the gender system, while several individuals questioned or challenged the current rigid definition of “stud masculinity.” Ultimately, this study illustrates how hegemonic masculinity can be produced and maintained among a group of females, while also showing how others can be complicit in its maintenance.

Bharath kumar Gowdampally
Pharmacy (PhD)
Quantitative Analysis of Proteins and Phospholipids in Infasurf

Nanoparticles are used as potential carriers for the delivery of drugs to specific locations in lungs. Nanoparticles, when exposed to the lung environment might undergo changes in the physical and chemical properties due to interaction with the pulmonary surfactant system. These changes alter the fate of nanoparticles. Studies have shown that the physical properties of nanoparticles in blood were altered due to adsorption of serum proteins onto the nanoparticles. Very little information is available on the interactions of nanoparticles with the lung surfactant system. The main goal of the research is to expose nanoparticles to lung surfactant system and study the changes in properties of the particles, and the adsorption profiles of proteins and phospholipids onto the particles. For this purpose, quantitative methods are being developed for the analysis of proteins and phospholipids present in Infasurf.
Infasurf is a calf lung surfactant and used as a model for human lung surfactant. The total proteins and phospholipids were quantified by bicinchonic acid and ascorbic acid assays, respectively. The individual proteins and phospholipids in Infasurf are analyzed by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The total protein concentration in Infasurf was found to be 0.7 mg/mL.

Dana Gravesen
Communication Studies
"'I'm Home': <i>In the Heights</i> and the Narrative of U.S. Dominican Transnationalism"

Broadway musical In the Heights tells the story of first generation U.S. Latinos in the New York City neighborhood of Washington Heights. The majority of the characters are of Dominican descent, representative of the over 250,000 actual U.S. Dominicans who reside and work in Bronx County, NY. Every character in the musical, from bodega owner to hairstylist, dreams of winning a $96,000 lottery pot when it is discovered the winning ticket was sold in the neighborhood. For this presentation, which consists of work drafted as part of my dissertation Turbulent Nationalism on media narratives and the complexities of Dominican transnationalism, I will argue two primary points. First: In the Heights is a metaphor for the specific experiences of Dominican transnationals, with each character’s expressed desires regarding the lottery money illustrating their allegorical position as it relates to the multifarious particulars of Dominican transnationalism (e.g., assimilation, social and racial stratification, neighborhood sustainability, cultural awareness, a return to the Dominican Republic). Second: In addition to the characters, In the Heights’s settings—street, bodega, beauty salon, taxi hub, night club—serve to demonstrate the complicated negotiation of Dominican transnationalism with regard to a definition of “home,” as the musical dialogue consistently takes place in public neighborhood spaces.

Katherine Greenstein
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Synthesis and Performance Evaluation of Photoactive TiO2 Nanofibers and Au/TiO2 Nanofiber Composites for Water Treatment Applications

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning to optimize photocatalytic treatment efficiency. Nanofibers of controlled diameter (60 nm) were developed along with composite nanofibers with surface-deposited Au nanoparticle catalysts. Their reactivity was then examined in batch suspensions toward model (phenol) and emerging (pharmaceuticals, personal care products) pollutants across various water qualities. Optimized TiO2 nanofibers meet or exceed the performance of traditional nanoparticulate photocatalysts (e.g., Aeroxide® P25). Surface Au deposition consistently enhanced photoactivity by 5- to 10-fold across our micropollutant suite independent of their solution concentration, behavior that we attribute to higher photocatalytic efficiency from improved charge separation. However, the practical value of Au/TiO2 nanofibers was limited by their greater degree of inhibition by solution phase hydroxyl radical scavengers and higher rate of reactivity loss from surface fouling in non-idealized matrices (e.g., partially treated surface water). Ultimately, unmodified TiO2 nanofibers appear most promising for use as reactive filtration materials because their performance was less influenced by water quality, although future efforts must increase the strength of TiO2 nanofiber mats to realize such applications.

Rebecca Grekin
Psychology
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis

Research has demonstrated that women develop postpartum PTSD.  Prevalence of postpartum PTSD has ranged from 1% to 30%, and many risk factors have been identified as predictors of postpartum PTSD.  While qualitative reviews have identified patterns of risk, the lack of quantitative reviews prevents the field from identifying specific risk factors and making a single estimate of the prevalence of postpartum PTSD.  The current meta-analysis investigated prevalence and risk factors of postpartum PTSD among community and targeted samples.  Prevalence of postpartum PTSD in community samples was estimated to be 3.1% and in at-risk samples at 15.7%.  Important risk factors included postpartum depression, history of psychopathology, interactions with medical staff, as well as postpartum social support.   Further research should investigate how attitudes towards pregnancy and childbirth may interact with women’s experiences during delivery.  Additionally, studies need to begin to evaluate possible long-term effects that these symptoms may have on women and their families.

Stephanie Grossnickle-Batterton
American Studies
Holding Out for a Better Way: Permissive Transgressions and the Cold War in Friendly Persuasion

This paper examines the 1956 film Friendly Persuasion in the context of Cold War ideologies regarding gender and religion. I argue that the film, which centers on a fictional Quaker family living in Indiana during the Civil War, be read with attention to its multiple “permissive transgression.” Friendly Persuasion, on the one hand, creates space for subversive understandings of gender roles and religious beliefs, particularly in its portrayal of a pacifist family whose matriarch is a Quaker minister. Ultimately, however, the film forecloses significant subversion by containing those gender transgressions and alternative religious beliefs in the name of masculinized moral individualism. Thus, though its “permissive transgressions,” Friendly Persuasion posits the United States as a land of freedom, while simultaneously setting clear limits on that freedom, illuminating important ideologies in the containment culture of Cold War America.

Jodi Gullicksrud
Immunology
Critical regulation of T follicular helper cell differentiation by the β-catenin-interacting isoform of TCF1

In response to a pathogenic infection, antigen-specific CD4 T cells will become activated and undergo differentiation and proliferation. This is followed by contraction and memory T cell persistence. We have previously demonstrated that T cell factor-1 (TCF1), a Wnt transcription factor, is required for memory CD8 T cell generation and persistence. However, the role of TCF1 in CD4 T cell responses has been largely unexplored.
We generated a TCF1 reporter allele by “knock-in” insertion of an “IRES-GFP” cassette into intron 2 of the TCF1 gene. GFP precisely reported TCF1 expression levels in thymic and peripheral T cell subsets. Homozygous TCF1-reporter mice lack the long isoform of TCF1 (p45) capable of binding β-catenin. We crossed the TCF1-reporter to the SMARTA CD4 TCR transgene, which specifically recognizes the GP61 epitope of LCMV. By adoptive transfer followed by LCMV infection, we observed diminished TCF-1 expression in Th1 cells at effector phase, but retention of TCF1 in Tfh cells. In the absence of p45, both Th1 and Tfh cells showed reduced numbers at effector and memory phases. Furthermore, p45-deficient Tfh cells failed to expand when re-challenged. This suggests unique TCF-1 requirements for Th1 and Tfh cells during immune responses.

Genevieve Guzman
Comparative Literature/Translation
A View onto Ruins: Joseph Brodsky's "Roman Elegies"

Nobel-prizewinning Russian poet Joseph Brodsky, a lifetime lover of Italy, pays homage to the artistic inspiration of the city of Rome in his “Roman Elegies,” a twelve-part poetic cycle first published in his collection To Urania (Ardis, 1984). As a translator from Russian to English, I am drawn to the existentially fraught, lovelorn, yet unsentimental lyric voice that Brodsky employed throughout his oeuvre, including these elegies.  Because he knew English and self-translated or collaborated with other poet-translators on self-translations, Brodsky scholars favor the work in which he himself had a hand, despite the fact that these versions, while authorized, frequently do not read like poetry in English, but rather, as we say in the field, “translatese”: awkward attempts to hew too closely to the devices of the original at the expense of the translation. So while an English version of this cycle appears in Joseph Brodsky: Collected Poems in English (FSG, 2000), in my translation I attempt to capture the elegant density of the original Russian, which to my mind is bloated with explicitations in the existing translation. I also strive to maintain a cohesive register throughout, and to render Brodsky’s arresting metaphors with the most vivid images in English I can conjure. By these efforts, I hope my resultant version distinguishes itself as translation and poetry alike.

D. Emily Ha
Nonfiction Writing
The Valley of Opportunity

The essay explores the myth of America as a Promised Land and its impact on immigrants by looking at two milestones in the history of the city of Binghamton, New York: the prosperous days of the Endicott-Johnson Shoe Company in the 1930s and the American Civic Association shooting that occurred in April 2009. 

Christine Haedtke
Nursing
Depressed Heart Failure patient perspectives on exercise in general and as a pain management option.

Despite strong evidence to support exercise as beneficial for heart failure (HF) patients, many are not willing or feel unable to begin or sustain an exercise program. Pain and depression are common co-morbidities that interfere with exercise. As the potential number of HF patients seeking cardiac rehab is likely to increase due to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services beginning payment for cardiac rehabilitation for HF patients now is a critical time to determine the best approaches to facilitate depressed HF patients use of cardiac rehabilitation programs. In an effort to increase exercise participation in depressed HF patients who also suffer from chronic pain a questionnaire was developed to help understand their perspectives on exercise and potential barriers. Of the 50 people who filled out the form, 6 report being told not to exercise due to their health. The majority report being told to increase their physical activity and felt exercise would be helpful in managing their pain. The most common barriers were: being afraid exercise will hurt their heart, having no one to exercise with, the weather, other health conditions, too much pain or pain gets worse when they exercise. Lastly the majority would like to be more physically active.

Jessica Hall
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Lexical-Semantic Differences betweenin Young Adults with Language Learning Disorders and Their Peers

Lexical-semantic deficits characterize developmental language disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. To what extent do lexical-semantic deficits extend into the young adult years? In the current study, we administered a semantic fluency task to address this question. We asked 52 college students with confirmed language learning disorders (LD) and 133 typical college students to name as many items as possible in two categories, foods and animals, in one minute each. The college students with LD produced fewer words overall and had fewer embedded semantic clusters than typical college students. We conclude that lexical-semantic deficits are characteristic of young adults with LD and that the deficit manifests as imprecise specifications of meaning. 

Robert Hart
Mechanical Engineering
Development and Implementation of the Experimental Procedure to Examine the Response of Carbon Fiber and Buckypaper Composites Subjected to a High-Intensity Pulsed Electric Field

In this work, the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field has been studied. A new fully automated experimental setup was developed that allows for real time measurements of the pulsed electric current and voltage on the carbon fiber polymer matrix composite laminates. The experimental setup included a new custom-built current pulse generator that utilizes a bank of capacitor modules capable of producing a 20 millisecond current pulse with an amplitude of up to 2500 A. A series of electrical characterization tests were performed on 16-ply IM7/977-2 and 32-ply IM7/977-3 unidirectional and symmetric cross-ply CFRP composites to assess the ability of the composites to withstand application of a pulsed electric current and determine the effects of the lay-up and thickness on the electrical response. Carbon nanotube buckypaper was added during the manufacturing of select specimens to determine the effect of this highly electrically conductive material on electrical response of the laminates. It was found that the electrical resistance of specimens decreased with an increase in the electric current magnitude and lay-up and thickness have a significant effect on the electrical resistance.

Nicole Hendrix
School Psychology
Use of Parent-Guided Numeracy Board Game with Young Children: A Preliminary Investigation

Preschool-aged children from low-income families tend to perform significantly below peers from higher-income families on early numeracy tasks.  Parent-guided home interventions may offer a means of increasing children’s numerical knowledge and decreasing this discrepancy.  In this study, a multiple-baseline single-case design was used to evaluate the effect of a linear number board game on children’s early numeracy skills when played by four parent-child dyads three times per week for two weeks.  Data were collected regularly on early numeracy probes examining counting, numeral identification, number line estimation, and numerical quantity comparison.  Procedural fidelity and parent perceptions about the game were also examined.  High fidelity and social validity ratings suggest potential for use of this intervention in the home.  Variability in child numeracy skill growth is considered in the context of previous board game literature, and implications for these results and future work are discussed.

Anusha Priyadarshani Silva Hettiyadura
Chemistry
Development of a Novel Analytical Method to Quantify Atmospheric Organosulfates

Development of a Novel Analytical Method to Quantify Atmospheric Organosulfates
A. P. S. Hettiyadura1, E. A. Stone1, S. Kundu1, Z. Baker1, E. Geddes2, K. Richards2, and T. Humphry2 
1Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA 2Chemistry Department, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501, USA
Abstract
Atmospheric aerosols absorb and reflect solar radiation and affect cloud formation, altering the radiative balance of the earth. Organosulfates (OS, a.k.a. sulfate esters) are components of aerosols that form by reactions in the atmosphere. Precursors to OS include biogenic volatile organic compounds such as isoprene and sulfuric acid. These compounds may be useful tracers of anthropogenically-influenced secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Quantification of individual OS is challenging due to lack of authentic standards and quantification methods. To fill this gap, we have synthesized authentic standards and developed and validated a new analytical method to quantify OS with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Then we compared two aerosol preparation methods, sonication and rotary-shaking and assessed sampling artifacts.  The developed method was applied to ambient aerosols collected in Centreville, Alabama in 2013, and provided the first measurement of hydroxyacetone sulfate in the atmosphere. Time series analysis reveals both temporal and diurnal variations in the target analytes. This study demonstrates that HILIC separation coupled with MS/MS detection provides a sensitive analytical technique for quantification of individual OS in the atmosphere.
 
 
 

Hyeri Hong
Curriculum and Supervision (Education)
The Association between School Environmental Factors and Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Authority in an Age of Standardized Testing

Using the national data from the Survey of the Status of Social Studies (S4), this study examines the associations between school environmental factors and the self-reported levels of authority and control over key classroom tasks among middle and junior high school social studies teachers in the context of standardized testing. Employing the analytic sample of middle and junior high school social studies teachers (N=2,050), multiple regression analysis was conducted. The findings from this study indicate that the more minority and more low-income students are enrolled in the school setting, the less authority and control middle and junior high school social studies teachers reported. Much research supports that teachers’ professional authority has brought about a lot of positive effects on teachers’ professional lives, their instruction, student academic achievement and learning, and effective operation of schools. Teachers’ undermined authority and control in high-minority and low-income schools may generate negative consequences. It may degrade the quality of social studies instruction because administrators pressure teachers to focus on teaching literacy skills rather than social studies content, and teaching to the standards and the state tests so that their students can pass the state tests. Also, teachers who feel they lose professional authority, creativity, and flexibility tend to leave the schools they work or leave the profession completely. In this regard, this study is significant in that it sheds light on the issue that standardized testing force may disadvantage low-income, minority children’s social studies learning and quality of education.
 
 

Anna Hoppe
Biomedical Engineering
Cerebral Aneurysm Growth as the Etiology of Recurrence After Successful Coil Embolization

A cerebral aneurysm occurs when a portion of a blood vessel in the brain dilates. Over time the aneurysm can remain dilated but stable, or grow or rupture. Doctors may choose to treat aneurysms because rupture may lead to death.  A less invasive treatment method is the catheter placement of metal wires into the aneurysm sac. These wires act to slow in-coming blood into the dilation, which initiates the blood-clotting cascade and leads to occlusion of the aneurysm. Yet in some patients complete aneurysm occlusion may not be maintained indefinitely. Either because of changes in aneurysm or wire-clot morphology over time blood can re-enter the aneurysm, necessitating additional treatment. The conventional belief is that compaction of the wire-clot within the aneurysm is the mechanism behind this phenomenon, but the supporting evidence is weak. Instead we hypothesize that the aneurysm continues to grow even after placement of the metal wires. To assess this hypothesis we used 3D image processing techniques to quantify aneurysm and wire-clot volume over time in patients treated with metal wires. Paired Student’s T-Tests (p<0.05) were done to assess whether the change in aneurysm and wire-clot volume was statistically significant. The findings indicate that aneurysm growth is primarily responsible for aneurysm blood re-entry and re-treatment over time in this study population.

Sha Huang
Foreign Language and ESL Education
An investigation of reading strategies of learners of Chinese as a foreign language

Reading strategy is an important factor that contributes to reading comprehension. However, so far, most studies about reading Chinese as a foreign language have focused on lower-level processing. Studies about reading process and strategies of learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL learners) engaging in independent text reading are extremely limited, and there are few studies comparing reading strategies and perceptions of successful and less successful CFL readers. This qualitative study attempts to fill these gaps by answering two research questions: 1. what are reading strategies used by advanced-level CFL readers. 2. Compared with less successful readers, what are characteristics of successful CFL readers in terms of strategy use in reading Chinese texts? About 7 advanced-level Chinese learners will be asked to read a Chinese text and do think aloud task. Then they will recall the content of the text and answer several text-related questions. After that, they will be interviewed about strategies used in the previous reading task, their background as readers, and their perceptions of Chinese reading strategies and difficulties. Based on the transcriptions of think-aloud tasks and interviews, the researcher will identify reading strategies used by participants. The researcher will also grade participants’ recall protocols and answers to text-related questions and identify the successful readers. By comparing their transcriptions and those of other participants, the researcher will analyze characteristics of successful CFL readers in terms of strategy use, and identify the main difficulties of less successful CFL readers.
       Key words: reading strategies, perception, CFL learners, reading Chinese

Seth Hurley
Psychology
A History of Sodium Depletions May Reduce the Reinforcing Efficacy of Cocaine

When many terrestrial mammals, including humans and rats, are depleted of sodium they exhibit salt appetite, or the seeking and ingestion of salty substances. Repeated episodes of sodium depletion produce long-lasting changes in the brain and behavior. One of the most prominent effects of repeated sodium depletions is an elevation in sodium intake. Interestingly, sodium depletion also induces neuroplasticity, or the change in neuron structure or function, in brain systems important for promoting motivated behaviors. This finding raises the possibility that sodium depletion may alter motivated behaviors in general. We hypothesized that a history of sodium depletions would affect the pathological motivated behavior of drug addiction. Two groups of rats received a total of 4 sodium depletions or sham depletions and then underwent surgery where they received jugular vein catheters. After recovering from surgery rats were trained to lever press for a descending range of cocaine doses. Preliminary data indicates that rats with a history of sodium depletions exhibited a reduced craving and sensitivity to the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine and this effect was maintained for weeks after the last sodium depletion. It is possible that sodium depletion alters central motivation systems resulting in a long-term decrease in sensitivity to the addictive properties of cocaine.

Sara Hussain
Integrative Physiology
Perturbation schedule does not alter retention of a locomotor adaptation across days

One important feature of locomotion is the ability to adjust the walking pattern in response to altered conditions. The central nervous system achieves this by using both feedback and feedforward control.  Locomotor adaptation is one way that locomotor patterns are modified in a predictive manner, specifically in response to a perturbation that becomes predictable over time. During motor adaptation, the central nervous system experiences an error signal that drives the updating of predictive motor commands in order to adjust the movement to better suit the current context.

Motor adaptation in response to gradual versus abrupt perturbation schedules may involve different neural mechanisms, potentially leading to different levels of motor memory.  However, no study has investigated whether perturbation schedule alters memory of a locomotor adaptation across days.  We measured adaptation and retention (memory) of altered interlimb symmetry during walking in two groups of participants over two days. On day 1, participants adapted to either a single, large perturbation (abrupt schedule) or a series of small perturbations that increased in size over time (gradual schedule).  Retention was examined on day 2.  On day 1, initial error sizes for swing time and foot placement symmetry differed between groups, but overall adaptation magnitudes were similar.  On day 2, participants in both groups showed similar retention, re-adaptation, and aftereffect sizes, although there were some trends for improved memory in the abrupt group.  These results conflict with previous data, but are consistent with newer studies reporting no behavioral differences following adaptation using abrupt versus gradual schedules.  Although memory levels were very similar between groups, we cannot rule out the possibility that the neural mechanisms underlying this memory storage differ.  Overall, it appears that adaptation of locomotor patterns via abrupt and gradual perturbation schedules produces similar expression of locomotor memories across days.

 

Emilia Illana Mahiques
Second Language Acquisition
Impact of Context in Selection of L2 Learning Strategies

This research studies the impact of social and cultural context when learning a foreign language. By comparing Spanish learners studying At Home (USA) with Spanish learners Studying Abroad (Spain) the study explores how the different settings may affect learners’ selection and use of vocabulary strategies. The study, therefore, focuses on the field of learning strategies while narrowing the scope of analyses to the area of vocabulary learning.
Continuing with Cubillos, Chieffo and Fan’s work (2008), the study intends to individually track students' use of learning strategies. Similarly, and continuing with Gao’s work (2006), this study aims to analyze whether the setting of study (study abroad vs. at home study) affects learners’ use of different types of vocabulary strategies. The variable of learners’ language proficiency is also taken into consideration when analyzing selection and use of L2 strategies in both contexts. Ultimately, the investigation intends to determine if there is a correlation between the type of strategies used by learners under different learning conditions (abroad and at home), and if there are any vocabulary gains associated with those choices. The interaction between L2 learning context, learners’L2 proficiency, and selection and use of L2 vocabulary strategies are analyzed in this study.

Anna Isbell
Art History
Speaking to the Dead: The Permanence of Memory through Late Gothic Tomb Sculpture

Mortuary monuments, specifically tombs, are one of the most easily recognizable forms of the visual manifestation of cultural memory. The tombs of the late Gothic were created, not as an expression of artistic individuality or personality but as a way to commemorate the dead. In this manner, they served as a reminder that all must return to God in the end. But this was not the only way they shaped cultural memory. Indeed, the mortuary monument of the Middle Ages served as a reminder of the dead to the living, effectively creating a cult of remembrance. This is illustrated through the different type of tombs created in the late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Case studies of grave slabs, tomb reliefs, and transi tombs exhibit the different artistic interpretations of memorializing the dead. This paper focuses on how the different influences of the socio-cultural environment shaped the forms of the death culture and visual manifestation of the Christian beliefs about death. Special practices were put into place in order to maintain the remembrance of the dead through prayer, intercession, and commemoration. Placement of the dead and mortuary monuments acted as a focus for the prayers concerning the souls of the dead. Just as important as the idea of the soul continuing to exist after death was the concept of the memory and identity of the person living on after death. The slabs, themselves, symbolize the permanence of the memory of the deceased in the minds of the living. The intransience of the stones combined with portraits of the deceased stress the importance of being remembered by future generations. In this way, the dead were never truly forgotten and were eternally fixed in the memory of the living.

Thilina Jayarathne
Chemistry
Fluoride Emissions from Biomass Burning Aerosol

Fluoride is the 13th most abundant element on earth and widely dispersed throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Fluorides enter the atmosphere through soil dust, sea spray, and volcanoes, as well as anthropogenic sources: brick manufacturing, aluminum smelting, fertilizer production and coal burning. It is well established that vegetation accumulates fluorides from the surrounding environment, which can be toxic to plants and animals that graze on them. In the study, we test the hypothesis that the burning of biomasses re-emits fluoride into the atmosphere. We analyzed water-soluble fluoride in 55 fine particulate (PM2.5) samples from biomass burning collected at the Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. Fluoride was detected in samples from all conifers (n=11) and agricultural residues (n=15), but only 25% of the grasses (n=11). The rest (n=18) which was collected from peat, shredded tires and hardwood burns did not contain measureable amounts of fluoride. A tight correlation (R2 > 0.95) between mass of PM2.5 and fluoride emitted from coniferous and agricultural residue burns, reflects a consistent fluoride mass fraction among similar fuels. Fluoride accounted for 0.6 – 1.5 g kg-1 of PM2.5 emissions from conifers and 0.5 – 1.3 g kg-1 of fluorideemitted by burning grasses.  Agricultural residues varied considerably, from 0.1 g kg-1 to 4.4 g kg-1, with maxima likely influenced by application of fluoride-containing fertilizers.  These measurements help to explain prior ambient observations in which particulate fluoride in the atmosphere coincided with major biomass burning events and provide new insight to the global cycling of fluoride.

Jessica Jensen
Mathematics Education
Changes in Cognitive Demand of Teaching Questioning During the Phases of Mathematical Development

Previous studies have shown that meaningful teacher questioning and student discourse can elicit higher cognitive levels of understanding in mathematics. Researchers have not yet explored how that questioning changes throughout the beginning, middle, and end of a mathematics lesson, or during the continual development of concepts over time. This study examined one secondary mathematics teacher’s prompting patterns in cognitive demand over the course of six class periods, as well as the prompting patterns over the long-term development of mathematical concepts. Results indicated that all levels of cognitive demand were reached during each lesson, however different levels were emphasized during each phase of the lesson. A lack of increase in cognitive demand was also noted as concepts were revisited. This data indicated a need for researchers and educators to explore how teachers can prompt students to think more critically about mathematical concepts. 

Vijaya Joshi
Pharmacy (PhD)
Biodegradable polymeric particle vaccine against house dust mite allergen

Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles carrying antigen and adjuvant is a promising vaccine system which has been shown to stimulate systemic antigen specific immune response in various disease models. In this study, we explored the ability of this vaccine system to prevent asthma induced by exposure to the house dust mite allergen, Der p2. We evaluated the magnitude of immune response stimulated in mice that were vaccinated with PLGA particles carrying Der p2 and CpG oligonucleotide (CpG). We also investigated the relationship of (1) the sizes of PLGA particle vaccines and (2) the presence of CpG, with the extent and type of immune response stimulated against Der p2. Mice were vaccinated with Der p2 and different sizes of blank or CpG loaded PLGA particles. Der p2 specific responses were measured after daily intranasal challenge of Der p2 for 10 days. We found that PLGA particles showed a size dependent decrease in the proportion of eosinophils found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after Der p2 exposures. Mice vaccinated with the Der p2 coated on large empty PLGA particles showed increased airway hyperresponsiveness which was significantly reduced by loading CpG in these particles. This study shows that size of PLGA particles used for vaccination and presence of CpG plays a major role in the type and intensity of developed antigen-specific immune responses.

Sara Kaalberg
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Cationic Photopolymerization of an Epoxide: Effect of Oxetane Additives on Dark Cure and Physical Properties

Photopolymerization is utilized in many applications, such as in the adhesives, coatings, and inks industries. Free-radical photopolymerization, which has most of the market, has very high curing speeds but has trouble curing thick or pigmented films and is inhibited by the presence of oxygen. Cationic photopolymerizing systems are able to overcome these difficulties, but do not reach cure rates as high as in free-radical systems and tend to form very brittle polymers. The goal of this project is to study the effect of cationic monomer formulation on the polymerization kinetics and physical properties of the resulting polymer. To follow the reaction kinetics, the most common cationic monomer, a difunctional cycloaliphatic epoxide, was mixed with varying ratios of four oxetane monomers. The monomer conversion was measured using real-time Raman spectroscopy during both illumination and dark cure. Physical properties were measured for the neat epoxide and two oxetane formulations using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the resulting polymer film. It was found that increasing oxetane concentrations improved the epoxide conversion and significantly lowered the Tg of the films. Oxetanes as additives are promising for enhancing both the kinetics of cationic photopolymerization and the physical properties of the resulting films.

Kate Kedley
Language, Literacy and Culture
“Helping Promote a Better Understanding of Other Peoples on the Part of Americans”: Representation in Five Peace Corps Volunteers’ Blogs

This project examines how five Peace Corps Volunteers (PCVs) to the Central American country of Honduras use language in blogs to represent themselves, their experiences, and their host communities. The authors joined the Peace Corps because they desired to “make a change” (I Hope in Honduras, n.d.) and wanted to help others achieve “a better quality of life” (Bryan and Life in Honduras, n.d.). These personal goals, coupled with the institutional goals of the Peace Corps, are politically situated; a transnational feminist critique highlights complex power dynamics between PCVs and host communities. This paper posits that representations are constructed through language use and this creates relational differences that work to maintain hierarchies; critical discourse analysis as a research method can highlight nuances of how PCVs describe their cross-cultural social life, their lived experiences during the 2009 Honduran coup d’état, and the difficulties of living outside of their home country. Both frameworks of analysis, the transnational feminist theoretical lens and a method of critical discourse analysis, unveil a complex set of power dynamics, including race and gender. The analysis I propose contests these representations and language use and challenges their views of volunteering abroad in order to work towards a more just and democratic transnational project.

Megan Kelchen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Beta-Caryophyllene as a Novel Topical Treatment for Osteoarthritis Pain

Beta-Caryophyllene as a Novel Topical Treatment for Osteoarthritis Pain
M.N. Kelchen, N. Leelakanok, A. Wongrakpanich, K. Sluka, A.K. Salem, N.K. Brogden
 
Introduction: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is an FDA-approved food additive and major component of essential oils. BCP interacts with CB2-cannabinoid receptors, producing analgesic effects. Topical BCP administration would be ideal for localized osteoarthritis joint pain. The objective of this project is to develop a topical BCP formulation for sustained local analgesia.
Methods: Hydroalcoholic gels were formulated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), added to an ethanol-water-BCP solution. BCP-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles for extended delivery were constructed by dissolving BCP in the oil phase of an oil-water emulsion. A GC-MS detection method was developed for BCP.
Results: Gel formulations containing 5.95 mg/ml of BCP were constructed (1.2% and 1.3% w/v PAA; 1.5% and 2% w/v HEC). 1%, 5%, and 10% v/v BCP-loaded PLGA particles were formulated. Particle diameters were 1733.6 nm, 3386.4 nm, and 7085.6 nm, respectively. Resulting zeta potentials for the particles were -37.32 mV (1%), -36.14 mV (5%), and -37.02 mV (10%).  GC-MS detected BCP fragments at 13.4 minutes (m/z: 91.1).
Conclusions: GC-MS will be used to evaluate BCP loading efficiency into the particles and measure drug concentration after gel application to excised porcine skin. After gel optimization, local analgesic effects of topical BCP will be determined in animal pain models.

Megan Kelchen
Pharmacy (PhD)
Beta-Blocker Loaded Nanoparticles for Topical Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas

Beta-Blocker Loaded Nanoparticles for Topical Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas
 
M.N.Kelchen1, K.L. Stange1, H. Ciliberto2, and N.K. Brogden1
 
1University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242, USA
2University of Iowa Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242, USA
 
 
Introduction: Infantile hemangiomas are vascular tumors frequently treated with beta receptor antagonists, known as “beta-blockers”. Beta-blockers have variable physicochemical properties, requiring different formulation techniques. Topical nanoparticle formulations of beta-blockers would ideally provide highly localized drug concentrations in the skin.
 
Methods: Blank, propranolol-loaded, and timolol-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using two formulation methods. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)) nanoparticles were constructed using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Lecithin/chitosan (LC) nanoparticles were formulated using a nanoprecipitation method. The particles were characterized for size, zeta potential, and loading efficiency. A Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison was completed to determine size and zeta potential differences. A Student’s t-test was performed to determine loading efficiency differences. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.
 
Results: Blank, propranolol-loaded, and timolol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were not significantly different in size. Timolol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles had a significantly lower zeta potential than propranolol-loaded nanoparticles (p≤0.01). Propranolol-loaded LC particles were significantly smaller than timolol-loaded LC particles (p≤ 0.05). Propranolol-loaded particles had a significantly higher loading efficiency than timolol-loaded particles for PLGA (p=0.016) and LC (p=0.007) formulations.
 
Conclusions: Drug-loaded PLGA and LC nanoparticles were appropriate for topical delivery of propranolol and timolol. In the future, atenolol-loaded PLGA and LC particles will be prepared and characterized.

sumaira khan
Educational Policy and Leadership
Challenges to Female Educational Managers in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan

Challenges associated with female educational management have been receiving attention from researchers for almost four decades. However, in the context of Pakistan it is rarely discussed. This study looks into the challenges that female educational managers face in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. This is a qualitative case study in which interview, observations, and reflective journals were employed to collect data from ten educational managers in the three districts of KPK. Using critical feminine theory as lens, this study found that research participants face challenges in management, which tend to limit their efficiency and effectiveness in their jobs. This study recommends proper professional licensure for prospective managers and policy level changes to support and safeguard educational managers in the public sector. 

Joshua Kierstead
Film Studies
A Tale of Death and Life: Comfort, Guilt, and Cinephilia in Edgar G. Ulmer’s "The Strange Woman"

In its hostility towards Susan Sontag's claim that cinema--and by extension, cinephilia--is dead, the field of film studies finds itself plagued by a need to discredit her hypothesis rather than examine the epistemological parameters of cinephilia itself. Moreover, these debates have an unfortunate side effect: they elide the far more salient tension between death and life that undergirds the cinephilic debate, and, as I will argue, the filmgoing experience itself.
This dynamic between death/life is inherent to cinephilia and, unlike a large contigent of cinephilia scholars, I see no need to tether the discourse specifically to the realms of love and sexual deviancy. In order to work through this new approach to cinephilia, I will examine my deep connection to Edgar G. Ulmer's "The Strange Woman" (1946) and how my unique cinephilic experience directly relates to the feelings of comfort and/or guilt the film conjured through its regular meditation on the fragility of life and the finality of death.

Cindy Ann, & Jessica K. Ezell Sheets Kilgo
Educational Policy and Leadership
Do High-Impact Practices Actually Have High Impact on Learning for All Students?

This study sought to determine the ways in which high-impact educational practices affect varying subpopulations of undergraduate students. Data was drawn from the Wabash National Study for Liberal Arts Education – a longitudinal, pretest/posttest design – to examine the interaction/conditional effects of participation in high-impact practices – first-year seminars and experiences, common intellectual experiences, learning communities, writing-intensive courses, collaborative assignments and projects, undergraduate research, diversity/global learning, service learning and community based learning, internships, and capstone courses and projects – on liberal arts learning outcomes by gender, race, and outcome pretest score. Findings suggested that high-impact practices do have varying effects for different subpopulations of students.  In particular, findings suggested compensatory effects for students entering college with lower outcome pretest scores, negative effects for students of color and for women, and positive effects for white students and for men.

Murat Kilinc
Educational Measurement and Statistics
Generalizability theory approach for test-retest reliability

Generalizability theory is a statistical method for evaluating reliability of measurement. (Cronbach,Gleser, Nanda, & Rajaratnam, 1972). Moreover, the theory of generalizability makes it possible to assess multiple source of measurement error (Brennan, 1997).  Classical test theory provides useful but limited information for practice in terms of reliability. As opposed to classical test theory, G theory differentiate the sources of error. The current study investigate G theory approach to calculate test-retest reliability for Self Perception Surveys. The conventional test-retest reliability coefficients are compared to the test-retest coefficients obtained using G theory approach and the result is discussed. 

Kelsey Klein
Communication Sciences and Disorders
Use of LENA to Quantify Hearing Aid Outcomes

Understanding users’ experiences with hearing aids is key to optimizing hearing aid outcomes. The present study used the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system as a novel approach to measuring the effect of hearing aids on older adults’ real-world auditory environments. Eighteen adults (11 males, seven females) aged 64 to 82 wore a LENA digital language processor for six to eight days while not wearing hearing aids and six to eight days after several weeks of hearing aid use. Variables examined included average number of adult words per hour and percentage of overall time spent around meaningful speech, distant speech, TV and electronic sounds, noise, and silence. Paired two-tailed t-tests revealed no significant differences between the unaided and aided conditions in any auditory categories. Wide individual variation existed within certain categories, such as time spent around TV and electronic sound (unaided M=25.6%, SD=16.0, aided M=24.7%, SD=17.9) and average adult word count per hour (unaided M=1699, SD=698, aided M=1514, SD=713). These variable results indicate the need for clinicians to consider the auditory needs and experiences of clients on an individualized basis. This study supports the feasibility of using LENA as a measure of hearing aid outcomes with older adults.

Jacquelynn Kleist
Women's Studies
A Chinese Woman's Self-Representation in Sui Sin Far’s _Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings_

Nineteenth-century Chinese immigrants were frequently viewed with fear and suspicion by the United States government and its citizens. As the first female Eurasian author to publish in the United States, Sui Sin Far was in a unique position to combat negative stereotypes.  Using examples from the short story collection Mrs. Spring Fragrance and Other Writings, I will demonstrate how Far not only deconstructs and problematizes negative, stereotypical representations of the Chinese, but also creates positive stereotypes in order to portray the Chinese as an asset to the community and nation.  In each of her short stories, Far highlights the humanity and kindness of Chinese people, portraying individual Chinese and Chinese-American citizens, specifically women and children, as self-sacrificing and courageous.  She also presents Chinatown in an admiring light, describing peaceful neighborhoods far different from the mysterious and dangerous place white Americans imagined.  Although Far also employs stereotypes, she is able to shape them to her own purposes, carefully replacing negative portrayals of the Chinese with positive ones.  Thus, through her stories Far both specifically counteracts negative stereotypes of the Chinese and appropriates these stereotypes, utilizing them to advocate the preservation and appreciation of Chinese ancestry and culture in the United States. 
 

Katharina Kley
Second Language Acquisition
Interactional Competence in Paired Speaking Tests: Role of Paired Task and Test-Taker Speaking Ability in Co-constructed Discourse

This paper centers on the under-researched construct of interactional competence, which refers to features of jointly constructed discourse. When applied to the testing of speaking skills in a second language, interactional competence refers to features of the discourse that the two students produce together; rather than the speaking ability of each person individually. The purpose of this paper is to describe the construct of interactional competence in detail in a low-stakes, classroom setting targeted at students in their second year of German instruction at the college level. Within this classroom-based test setting, I investigate the variation in co-constructed discourse that arises from different tasks and from the different combinations of ability levels in the test-taker pairs (same ability vs. weak/strong combination).

Andrew Knight
Chemistry
Inferred Pa(V) complex formation via selective extraction by aliphatic alcohols

Protactinium (Pa) is a member of the lighter actinide series (Z = 91; [Rn]5f26d17s2) with chemical properties that  diverge from adjacent elements, thorium (Th) and uranium (U). While solid-phase and solution speciation of U and Th have been studied extensively, Pa chemistry is relatively unexplored. One reason for the lack of information is the low natural abundance of Pa (<300 fg/g) in the earths crust – dramatically increasing investigation costs for current spectroscopic technologies.1 Thus, speciation of Pa has been described as the only “natural chemical species whose aquo-ions have not really been experimentally identified”.2
Understanding the speciation of Pa is vital to developing advanced separations techniques that are utilized by nuclear forensics, reprocessing, and radiometric dating applications. In the 1950s, the selective extraction of Pa from other actinides was achieved by aliphatic alcohols and ketones in high acid concentration, but the identification of the extracted species remains unknown to this day.3 While numerous radiochemical separation approaches have been developed that assert formation of Pa fluoride complexes (e.g., PaF72-) as a mechanism for isolation of Pa from other actinides, empirical evidence of precise species formation of Pa solution phase complexes is scarce. 

David Koser
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Modeling Flooding in Kalona using the Storm Water Management Model

An advanced version of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is utilized to model storm drainage and flooding in the town of Kalona, IA. The town has three local creeks that flow to the English River, a storm drainage network, and an array of detention ponds to reduce the impact of rainfall events. An integrated 1D/2D model measures and presents water depth and flow patterns in each of the streams, the floodplain and the storm drainage network. Concurrently, lump sum parameters represent runoff from upstream catchments. This approach provides the flow parameters needed to determine flooding extent and property damage for the 10 year, 50 year, 100 year, and 500 year storm within the 2 square mile model. The 2D model will use a grid size of 5 meters and represented land use categories such as streets, buildings, and row crops. With these inputs, terrain effects on flows can be analyzed both within the town and the downstream cropland area. Local basin-scale flood mitigation strategies will be modeled upstream of the town to determine how much reduction in flooding is possible. This model will have the capability to show officials in Kalona how they can improve their drainage network and where flood damage is likely to occur.

DENISON KURUVILLA
Pharmacy (PhD)
Evaluation of in-utero Erythropoiesis in preterm infants

Purpose: Determination of red blood cell (RBC) lifespan is important in order to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of erythropoietin in the stimulation of RBC production aimed at reducing or eliminating the need for RBC transfusions to treat neonatal anemia. We have developed a method for multi-density biotin labeling of RBCs that can be used to determine the RBC lifespan of both the adult donor RBCs and neonatal RBCs concurrently. The current investigation is aimed developing a mathematical model to describe the in-utero RBC production under non steady state conditions in critically ill, very low birth weight infants.Methods: Separate populations of neonatal autologous and adult allogeneic donor RBCs were labeled at two discrete biotin densities. The two biotin labeled RBC (BioRBC) populations were transfused into seven premature infants (mean±SD: birth weight: 784±164 g, gestational age: 25.9±0.7 weeks, and study age: 4.1±4.5 days). A pharmacodynamic hemoglobin mass balance model was used to account for the dynamic changes due to laboratory phlebotomies, RBC transfusions and growth. Post birth elimination of the transfused BioRBCs was assumed to be due to senescence. All modeling and simulation were conducted using WINFUNFIT/FORTRAN, using ordinary least squares fit to each individual subject’s Hb amount-time data.Results: General agreement between the model fit and enrichment data was observed. The in vivo lifespan of neonatal and adult RBCs were similar 63±12 and 75±19 days, respectively, P=0.10. The model was able to simulate the survival curve of the in-utero produced cells under non-steady state in-utero RBC production.Conclusions: This study demonstrates the utility of concurrent multi-density BioRBC method in determining in vivo RBC lifespan. Contrary to previous published infant studies, in vivo RBC lifespan of neonatal and adult RBC were not statistically different. In addition, the model developed can be used to estimate the rate of in-utero production under non-steady state conditions.

Jaehwan Kwon
Marketing
A big fish in a little pond: the influence of Implicit Self-Theory on Statistical Inference

This research finds that when individuals believe in fixed traits of personality (entity theorists), they are likely to expect a world of “uniformity.” As such, they easily infer a population statistic from a small sample of data with confidence. In contrast, individuals who believe in malleable traits of personality (incremental theorists) are likely to presume a world of “diversity,” such that they “hesitate” to infer a population statistic from a small sample. In this article, we found that compared to incremental theorists, entity theorists estimated a population mean from a sample with a greater level of confidence (Study 1), expected more homogeneity among the entities within a population (Study 2), and perceived an extreme value to be more indicative of an outlier (Study 3). Study 4 confirmed that these effects were not only found in the domain of statistical judgments, but were also applicable in more common judgment situations in daily life.

Erin Lane
Counselor Education and Supervision
The Career Development of Gifted Students: Current Trends in Research and Publication

This presentation provides an opportunity to review and understand the trends and key issues of research regarding the career development of gifted students. Understanding how personal, social, familial, and cultural factors affect the employment-related decisions and career path of gifted populations can assist professionals when guiding these students. In addition, by helping gifted students appreciate the full effect of these internal and external influences, they will be better to able to understand how to reach their full career potential. This presentation provides the results found after analyzing current publications, research studies, and key contents of this topic. Presenters will focus on major themes and research trends in the literature regarding gifted students’ career trajectories and how others can assist them. The content will benefit students, educators and counselors in understanding how career issues influence this unique population in order to provide more effective career counseling.

Ashabha Lansakara
Chemistry
Benzylic Cyclizations of Alkylpyridines via Brønsted Acid Catalysis

Substituted pyridines are well established for the construction of more complex synthetic targets in heterocyclic and natural product chemistry. Nonetheless, many reaction manifolds available to pyridine derivatives remain significantly underexplored. We have recently discovered that aldehyde and ketone electrophiles incorporated into the side chains of 2- and 4-alkylpyridines participate in intramolecular aldol-like condensations with pyridine benzylic carbons in the presence of Brønsted acid catalysts. Pyridines featuring β-ketoamide side chains undergo cyclization with 10 mol% TfOH to deliver pyridyl-substituted hydroxy lactams in good yield. Transformation of this type appear particularly well suited for construction of bis(piperidine) ring systems encountered in several bioactive marine alkaloids.

Benjamin Lawson
History
Did Solid-Waste Legislation Work? The Noncompliance of NYC's Fresh Kills

In theory, comprehensive solid-waste legislation, like Section D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), passed in 1976 and enforced since 1979, should have ended U.S. municipalities’ reliance on open garbage dumps. States passed their own interpretations of RCRA, in order to retain regulatory control.
Establishing a new, compliant site was significantly more expensive than using existing dumps. Therefore, regulatory legislation gave cities like New York City a clear economic incentive to use their old, noncompliant dumps for as long as possible. Since NY State was half-hearted in enforcement, the City mostly ignored its laws. During this period New York City’s Fresh Kills landfill (est. 1948) became the world’s largest dump—although it had no post-RCRA State permit to operate. Fresh Kills was still New York City’s primary waste-disposal site when the decision to close it (in 2001) was announced in 1996.
Based on my research, I argue that Federal/State legislation such as RCRA actually increased New York City’s use of Fresh Kills. The prohibitive cost of establishing a new landfill was a major reason the City kept it open for so long. NY State could have forced Fresh Kills' closure but those policymakers were loath to do so for political and economic reasons.  Legislation like RCRA led to vastly increased costs of waste disposal--and sparked a 'waste crisis' for New York City in the late 1980s (symbolized by the Mobro barge).   
Environmental standards were a motivating factor of legislation like RCRA, but cost considerations were the true bottom line of municipal waste-disposal policy.  
(Fresh Kills is one of the 3 case studies of my dissertation)

Gunsung Lee
School Psychology
Functional Communication Training with Demand Fading to Reduce Self-Injurious Behavior

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional communication training (FCT) with demand fading for treating self-injurious behavior in a 22-month old child with developmental delays and disruptive behavior disorder. A functional analysis was conducted initially, with results indicating that access to tangible items and escape from demands were motivating and maintaining self-injurious behavior. An FCT treatment program was implemented using picture cards to request access to preferred items and activities and resulted in near-zero levels of self-injury and relatively high levels of communication. Then, a work and play routine with an FCT component was also implemented to increase compliance with task demands and reduce self-injury in demand contexts. Results from the treatment evaluation revealed strong compliance to demands, high rates of communication, and near zero levels of self-injury in demand contexts. Overall, these results indicated that FCT with demand fading was an effective treatment procedure for increasing communication and compliance to demands, while decreasing self-injury motivated by access to tangibles and escape from demands. 

Nattawut Leelakanok
Pharmacy (PhD)
Diclofenac-loaded PLGA particles for improved topical treatment of actinic keratosis

   
Introduction: Actinic keratosis is a common premalignant skin lesion occurring in skin areas exposed to sunlight. Topical diclofenac prevents progression to malignant lesions but must be applied twice daily for 60-90 days. Skin pretreatment with microneedles before diclofenac application would provide higher local drug concentrations and prolonged delivery. Diclofenac-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) particles could provide a more preferable dosing schedule (e.g. once a week) and higher treatment efficacy.
Methods: An emulsion-solvent evaporation method was used to formulate diclofenac-loaded PLGA particles, using a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion or oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. One batch of each type of particles was measured for size (nm), Zeta-potential (millivolts), and loading efficiency (n=3 measurements per batch). Loading efficiency of diclofenac was determined by HPLC.
Results: Blank, diclofenac-loaded O/W, and diclofenac-loaded W/O/W PLGA particles had mean (±SD) diameters of 969.3±145.7, 1070.4±169.0 and 845.4±312.5 nm, respectively. Zeta-potentials were -32.7±6.6, -30.1±0.3 and -31.9±0.7 millivolts, respectively. Diclofenac loaded into O/W and W/O/W particles was 38.55 ng and 546.8 ng per 1 mg of particles, respectively.
Conclusion: Diclofenac loading into O/W PLGA particles was superior to W/O/W PLGA particles. In vitro diffusion studies will determine diclofenac release and local skin concentrations following application of the drug-loaded PLGA particles to microneedle-treated skin.

Andrew Lewis
Linguistics
Bosnian Voicing Assimilation

Slavic languages have two series of stop consonants: /ptk/ & /bdg/. These two series are realized phonetically as voiceless (with no vibration of the vocal folds during closure) and voiced (with vibration of the vocal folds during closure), respectively. Slavic languages also have a process of voicing assimilation, whereby consonant clusters agree in voicing. If all consonants in a cluster do not agree in voicing, the final consonant determines the voicing of the cluster; the preceding consonants change voicing.
 
Ex:       klub ‘club’ + -ski ‘(adj.)’ = klupski ‘club (adj.)’
            b (voiced) + s (voiceless) = ps (both voiceless)
 
Most authorities hold that voicing assimilation in Serbo-Croatian varieties is phonological (where voicing of pre-voiceless d/b is the same as a voiceless stop). However, other authorities and anecdotal evidence from speakers of the Bosnian variety suggest that assimilation is phonetic (where the amount of voicing of pre-voiceless d/b is lower than expected for a voiced stop, but not as low as that of a voiceless stop). This study attempts to determine whether voicing assimilation in Bosnian is phonetic or phonological, adding to the scarce phonetic literature on assimilation. Voicing during closure of voiced stops in all clusters (71.3% of closure is voiced in pre-voiceless voiced stops) indicates that any voicing assimilation in Bosnian is purely phonetic in nature.

Miao Li
Human Toxicology
Protein Adducts and Crosslinking Caused by PCB Quinoid Metabolites

In 2013 IARC classified Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).  Though the production of PCBs was prohibited since 1970s, PCBs are still persistent in the environment, and also found as unintentional byproducts of the pigment manufacturing. The finding of airborne PCBs above the limitations in New York City school buildings raised the concerns for toxicity of airborne PCBs. The main components of airborne PCBs are the PCBs with lower number (1-4) of chlorines. Lower chlorinated congeners are prone to be bioactivated to electrophiles which may bind covalently to macromolecules. We hypothesized that the reactive metabolites of PCBs, PCB quinones, covalently bind to proteins and lead to protein dysfunction. Cytochrome c was used as the model protein to study protein adducts formed by PCB quinones. MALDI-TOF was used to detect adducts of cytochrome c with selected PCB quinones in vitro.  Trypsin digestion and LC-tandem MS were applied to identify the binding sites on cytochrome c.  We also established the alkaline permethylation method to identify and quantify PCB quinone protein adducts. The results from alkaline permethylation method indicated one PCB quinone molecule can bind to more than one protein molecule. We found PCB quinones formed adducts on cytochrome c, and caused crosslinking of proteins. The adducted cytochrome c lost the function as electron acceptor. The data provide evidence that covalent binding of PCB quinone metabolites to proteins may be included among the toxic effects of PCBs.  (Supported by NIEHS Superfund Program P42 ES013661)

Qi Ling
Mass Communication
Consuming castrated masculinity Studying fandom of Korean pretty boy pop groups among young Chinese female fans

The pretty boy pop group is a typical as well as successful way of star creation in entertaining industry in Korea. This type of boy idols demonstrates a series of characteristics that vary from the conventional patriarchal masculinity. Recent years, this type of boy pop group has gained tremendous popularity among young female fans across nations, particularly in Asian areas such as China. This study investigates into what kind of pleasure that the fans obtain from consuming this type of masculinity and what is the gender politics behind such fandom.
 
By analyzing online fan club postings and doing interviews with fans, this study argues that the pleasure of the female fans is associated with the consumption of “castrated” masculinity that complicates, if not challenges, existing gender power dynamic. More fluid perception of gender and sexuality boundaries, a component of so-called postmodern mentality, is found in the fandom of pretty boy stars. Six recurrent and inter-related themes including image centrality, storyline imagination, pretty masculinity, imperfect performance, homosexual intimacy and nurturing expressions yielded from online fan club observation. Interviews with fans resonated with these online expressions, while at the same time demonstrated variance in their interpretation of different gender issues and in the way they incorporated the pretty boy idols into their everyday life.  

Kathrina Litchfield
Library and Information Science
Encounters with Empathy: Restorative Justice and the Transformed Reader

  Some Iowa correctional facilities welcome engagement with community volunteers that provide intellectual and artistic stimulation through such programs as writing workshops, choirs, and book groups. They recognize that these programs provide safe and secure diversion, but the benefits of outreach experience are not valued as contributing to the overall goal of lowering recidivism.   In over two years of book group facilitation at the Iowa Medical & Classification Center, I have observed that not only do participants enjoy the opportunity to engage in pro-social discussion, but their developing skills in perspective-taking have encouraged self-esteem, personal agency, and greater cultural understanding.   A program of Restorative Justice influences much of the treatment aims of the Iowa Department of Corrections. Among many goals, Restorative Justice provides the offender with the opportunity to gain the victim’s perspective of the incident, building skills in empathy and perspective-taking. It is exactly those skills -- in identifying with fictional characters, the author’s voice, and with fellow book group participants -- that are practiced repeatedly in the process of reading and discussing literature. A literacy program that embraces perspective-taking supports the Restorative Justice aims across the institution, while developing skills that contribute to success upon release.

Jacob Litman
Biochemistry
Generation of Protein Ensemble Crystal Structures by Rotamer Optimization

X-ray crystallography is the most commonly used experimental method for determination of protein structures at atomic resolution, allowing insights about protein function and the molecular causes of disease. While proteins naturally exist as an ensemble of structures, current crystallography techniques represent a single structure. Prior attempts at ensemble generation had major problems with overfitting, where some structures were fit to noise in the crystal data. Rotamer optimization improves single-structure models by optimizing side-chain packing, and can generate ensembles of structures within an energy cutoff of the optimal structure. When combined with a hybrid target function incorporating both crystal data and a polarizable force field, the resultant ensemble members are reasonable both in isolation and in the context of the crystal data. The ensemble is clustered into microstates and local minimizations are performed on random representative structures from each cluster to generate a final ensemble. This is fed into a weighting algorithm to generate hybrid R/Rfree and electron density maps. This approach gives us significantly better R/Rfree than our best single-structure refinement. We validated the approach on an insulin crystal structure using the MolProbity structural metrics. Insulin and calmodulin structures were chosen as small (and thus computationally inexpensive) proteins of significant biological interest. Utilizing a protocol that minimizes overfitting, we substantially improve our representation of the protein crystal and reveal distinct structures with altered side chain conformations and hydrogen bonding networks. This protocol can be generalized and applied to naturally heterogeneous proteins such as enzymes to find the functional differences between protein conformations.

XIANGDONG LIU
Educational Policy and Leadership
Dewey, Educative Experience and Mathematics Education

In this article, I contend that experience education is rarely interpreted in a meaningful way, especially in mathematics class. I argue Dewey’s concept of educative experience and educational process do provide foundation for Dewey’s philosophy of mathematics education. This purpose of this article seeks to provide a theoretical framework for mathematics education in order to face contemporary challenge in mathematics education.

Fan Liu
Economics
The Effects of Microfinance on Economic Development: The U.S. Case

Microfinance is a form of financial service directed at small businesses that lack access to traditional banking and related services. The U.S. Small Business Administration defines microenterprises as businesses with less than five employees. Microfinance borrowers tend to be minorities, recent immigrants, women, or others with limited access to traditional credit. This paper uses data and practices from the U.S. Microenterprise Census and Accion U.S., the largest nonprofit microfinance institution in the U.S., to build a model of the U.S. microfinance sector. The model is used to assess the quantitative effects of alternative microfinance programs and financial frictions on occupational choice, firm size, wages, output, income inequality and welfare. The main finding is that microfinance has a positive effect on economic development that is significant for some groups. Computational experiments show that the following policies improve welfare: appropriately structured government loan subsidies; minimum loan size requirements; and requirements that microfinance institutions jointly funded through private sector donations and government subsidies use loan interest repayments to partially cover operation costs. The paper finds that the welfare gains associated with providing microenterprises with access to financial services can be substantial, ranging from zero to 12 percent of an individual’s consumption. 

XIANGDONG LIU
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Problem of Value-Added Measure: A Multidiscipline Perspective

This presentation represents cross-disciplinary dialogue between measurement and educational foundations in understanding value-added measure. This presentation propose different critique on value added measure from the unique perspective of educational measurement, educational philosophy, educational sociology and educational history.  This presentation will  also propose a framework which could better understand value-added measurement from a multidiscipline perspective.

Nicole Loew
Nursing
Define Yourself

The Define Yourself project is based on research that asked 35 college women how they defined responsible sexual behavior (RSB).  Although women discussed reducing risks such as pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections by using birth control or condoms, women situated RSB within their own goals, beliefs, and experiences. Consideration of this personal context is often not included within discussions found in the health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to identify what sexual responsibility means to UI college students. In partnership with UI Student Health, definitions will be collected at various events and then published in a zine format that will be distributed across campus in an effort to promote RSB. Zines are short, informal, and anonymous publications that provide a format for collecting individual expressions about a particular topic. Student perceptions will also inform future health promotion efforts that include developing an interactive presentation that promotes RSB, includes student voices, considers meaningful personal contexts, and results in a safe and sex-positive environment at UI.

Jershon Lopez
Physics
Diagnostics of Magnetization in the Solar Wind

The violation of CGL's equation of state is often used as a proxy test for non-conservation of the first adiabatic invariant (mu) in the solar wind. This is widely accepted as evidence for wave heating in the solar wind. Using a kinetic model that includes coherent forces, and enforcing conservation of mu, we show a counter-example where the particles remain magnetized, but still violate CGL's condition. 

Grace Lu
Chemistry
Developing a Practical Users Guide for Detecting Uranium in Environmental Samples using Raman Spectroscopy

Uranium is naturally-occurring radioactive and mobile in the environment thus represents significant risks to human and ecosystem health. Monitoring uranium in the environment is a critical step in risk reduction and remediation. In general, uranium reacts with other species; however, exact uranium speciation depends on pH and the presence of other coordinating ions in solution. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a label-free and real-time method for identifying uranium speciation in situ; however, no straight forward protocol for identifying uranium species using this approach has been developed. Herein, uranium samples are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy. Speciation is monitored at various solution pH values and anion composition. Spectral quality, a parameter required for positively identifying uranyl speciation, is evaluated as a function of Raman excitation wavelength. Excitation wavelength is critical for maximizing signal to noise and minimizing background from fluorescent species. Uranyl dioxide shifts according to coordinate ions on the equatorial plane and/or the solution pH; therefore, rigorous peak fitting methods are developed, which allows accurate and routine uranium species identification. Overall, this user’s guide is expected to provide a straight-forward approach for uranium species identified using Raman spectroscopy.

Dominic Ludovici
Astronomy
VLA Observations of Galactic Center Radio Source N3

Near the Galactic center, the presence of the supermassive black hole, high dust temperatures, and large densities produce an unique environment within our galaxy.  Unfortunately, optical light in this region is obscured by dust, making optical observations difficult or impossible. By utilizing radio telescopes, we can peer through the dust to examine the inner workings of this fascinating region.  Using the Very Large Array, we examined the Galactic center radio source N3, a point source located within the Radio Arc. Our observations were carried out at several radio frequencies ranging from 2 GHz to 49 GHz. We present a spectral index, physical size limits, molecular line analysis, and possible interactions between N3 and the Radio Arc. Using these properties, we examine the physical nature of N3 and outline further work needed to complete the analysis of this interesting source.

Nikolaos Maggos
Philosophy
Addressing the Problem of Moral Luck

The problem of moral luck is the problem of evaluating an agent’s moral responsibility with regard to actions that involve some element of luck, something out of the agent’s control. There are many situations in which an actor is causally responsible for an action though that action doesn't come from the actor's agency, the circumstances requiring the action are out of the actor's control, or the consequences of the action are out of the actor's control. Should the actor be morally responsible for that action?
In addressing this question of responsibility we will examine the four types of moral luck Thomas Nagel outlines in his groundbreaking piece, "Moral Luck." Moral luck at first appears to undermine any hope of assigning moral responsibility to an agent, but by dissociating the evaluation of an agent’s moral character from the evaluation of an agent’s moral responsibility for particular actions, we can make sense of moral responsibility in a world filled with luck.

Amani Makkouk
Immunology
Biodegradable Nanoparticles for In Situ Immunization against Lymphoma

 In 2013, it was estimated that there would be over 69,000 new cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and that over 19,000 people would die of this cancer. Innovative immunotherapeutic approaches aimed at harnessing the patient’s immune system against their cancer are thus being tested at a fierce pace.

In situ immunization aims at generating anti-lymphoma immune responses through manipulating the tumor microenvironment. Nanoparticles (NPs) made of PLGA (a biodegradable polymer) and injected intratumorally can allow controlled release of loaded agents. We designed a 3-step approach to in situ immunization: (1) Enhancing immunogenic tumor cell death by loading NPs with the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Dox). Dox enhances the expression of "eat-me" signals by dying tumor cells, facilitating their phagocytosis by dendritic cells (DCs); (2) Enhancing antigen presentation and T cell activation by administering systemic anti-OX40 (α-OX40). α-OX40 is an immunostimulatory antibody that enhances the function and survival of T cells; (3) Sustaining T cell responses by blocking immune checkpoints using systemic anti-CTLA-4 (α-CTLA-4). CTLA-4 is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells and regulatory T cells that regulates T cell activation. α-CTLA-4 blocks its action and can lead to long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. Both systemic antibodies are used at half their conventional doses to limit toxicity.
Using the A20 B-lymphoma cell line and bone marrow derived DCs, we show that Dox NPs are less cytotoxic to DCs than to A20 tumor cells and do not require internalization for their activity. Furthermore, Dox NPs significantly enhanced phagocytosis of A20 tumor cells by DCs. Using mice inoculated with two A20 tumors, our 3-step therapy (Dox NPs injected into one tumor combined with systemic α-OX40 and α-CTLA-4) induced potent systemic immune responses that eradicated distant tumors and significantly improved survival. Finally, all three members of the designed approach were found to be crucial for maximum immunological efficacy. Our findings demonstrate that antitumor immune responses elicited by the 3-step therapy can eradicate distant tumors and merit further investigation into its use as an immunotherpy for lymphoma patients. 

Gohar Manzar
Biomedical Engineering
Generation of Functional Pancreatic β-cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from a Type I Diabetic Patient’s Skin Cells

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Islet transplantation is the most effective way to treat T1D. Unfortunately, the shortage of cadaveric organs is a major obstacle. An alternative source of insulin producing cells (IPCs) could therefore significantly improve patient treatment. Our lab seeks to establish skin cell-derived human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells as a novel source of IPCs that are patient-tailored. If successful, such an alternative could provide for an unlimited source of IPCs.
 
Here, we demonstrate for the first time a highly effective 3D culture platform for generating functional IPCs from a T1D patient’s human iPS cells. Initially, T1D iPS cells were differentiated into IPCs. However, the yield was very poor relative to a nondiabetic patient’s iPS cells. We hypothesized that epigenetic roadblocks were prevalent in T1D iPS cells that were limiting their differentiation into IPCs. To address this, we treated T1D iPS cells with a demethylating agent, which allowed for their differentiation under our 3D culture platform into >95% Pdx1+ pancreatic cells and ~55% insulin+ IPCs. These cells are fully functional and respond to high glucose with insulin secretion. Our data for the first time show a very high yield of IPCs derived from human iPS cells, presenting a novel source of IPCs that could be used to treat T1D.

Ashley Mason
Art History
Sarah Lucas' Beyond The Pleasure Principle: Unveiling Women's "Impenetrable Darkness"

In 2000, artist Sarah Lucas constructed a number of works for an installation called Beyond the Pleasure Principle at the Freud Museum in London, which was on view March 9 to April 12. This museum was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family after the Nazi annexation of Austria in 1938. Freud's study and couch remain preserved from his lifetime, in addition to other furniture and art objects. Lucas' installation in such a loaded setting is the extreme opposite to the neutral museum interior put forth as the ideal of modernism. Instead of viewing her installation as autonomous entities separate from their environment, the location of the Freud Museum is integral to Lucas' layering of meanings. Although frequently labeled a feminist artist, Lucas has a problematic relationship with both feminism and critical theory. Many contemporary artists deal with this tension between feminism and critical theory. Some gravitate towards one extreme or the other, but others attempt to engage with both in their work. Sarah Lucas is an example of the latter and examining her work illustrates that although reconciling feminism and critical theory is impossible, alluding to both can allow the viewer to construct their own interpretation. By exploring the complicated relationship between Lucas, Freud, and feminism, this paper will reveal that Lucas seeks a level of ambiguity that allows the viewer to use their experience to generate their desired meaning. 

James McGrath
Anthropology
Archaeology in 3-D: A GIS based approach to understanding the prehistory of Woodpecker Cave

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a powerful analytic tool for archaeologists at varying scales. In addition to more traditional regional-scale GIS analyses, archaeologists use GIS for intra-site mapping and modeling. Here we present a 3-dimensional digital model of the Woodland period archaeological site known as Woodpecker Cave. This model integrates data collected during excavations of the 2012 – 2014 field schools with LiDAR scanning, and allows for the spatial contextualization of human behavior during the prehistoric occupations at Woodpecker Cave. Future use of this model will consider the identification of living floors, the prediction of sub-surface stratigraphy, and continued modeling of various human behaviors.

Gabrielle McNally
At the Shores of the Great Silence

Biomythography, a term coined by Audre Lourde, describes a creative work that is made up of myth, history, and biography. Ted Warburton gives the term a simple definition: a means to create identity within the structure of personal, social, cultural and historical life. The piece At the Shores of the Great Silence is the documentation of a process of biomythography examining the lives of my female ancestors. Of the hundreds of women’s names I have discovered in my family tree, the work focuses on seven women, privileged because they birthed famous men. The scope of their possible experiences is astounding. However, these women all have one common attribute as my direct ancestors; they are also mothers to my son.
Myth, more so than history, tells us what we are and from where we come. This work explores both the similarities and differences of these women and myself by examining their lives through lenses both realistic and mythological. I recover their stories as my own in order to share them with my viewer. This allows for an interesting play between dreams and reality and fiction and nonfiction. Utilizing less of a factual approach and more of a poetic approach allows me to explore the fluidity of history as both fact and fabrication.

Willi Mendelsohn
Art History
Rocking the Boat: The Tilted Arc Controversy

     Public art, artworks that exists in the open and engages the everyday public, often walks a fine line between individualistic expression and public property.  Because public art is an individual or group’s personal work that can be bought and sold, the rights to this art object maintained by certain parties becomes blurry. For purposes of clarification in this matter we look to Richard Serra’s Tilted ArcThe circumstances surrounding the Tilted Arc demonstrate that for public art to maintain its integrity and to keep it from becoming pure commodity, the old system of operations needed to be modified.  

 

Ruth Mercado-Cruz
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Challenges Related to Retirement Transition in Female with Disability: Implications for Career Counseling Practice

This study explored the transition issues, experiences and decision-making process of older women employees with mobility disabilities who will retire within the next three years. The requirements to participate in the study were be female that must work at the University of Iowa and be within three years of retirement and have a mobility disability. The researcher collected of data through four interviews, literature review, web documents from Benefits Office at University of Iowa, videos review from Benefits Office at University of Iowa. In order to guarantee adequate triangulation a co-researcher re-evaluated the data collected. The researcher used coding for categorizing the data.  This study found four challenges into retirement process that include severity of the disability, financial concerns, activity level and healthcare concerns. Particularly, the factor of severity of condition may influence the subsequent factors. Another obstacles expressed by the participants were feelings of incompetence in their personal and work life and employer assistance. In conclusion, it is necessary to understand the needs of this population and of physiological, psychological, social, and financial problems in later life. As the aging population continues to grow, counselors should be at the forefront of service delivery in their retirement process.

Spenser Mestel
Creative Writing
Unlocking the Secrets of Tarot

Artist Statement: Jakobsen Conference
Spenser Mestel
 
            When the Persian king Cambyses invaded ancient Egypt millennia ago, Egyptian priests encoded their secrets on gold and ivory wall panels.  Gypsies later discovered the symbols and inscribed them on playing cards, which they disseminated in Europe around the time of the Inquisition.  From there, the cards, now called tarot, stagnated in the hands of philistines until the 19th century, when English occultists finally divined their true origins and decoded the prophetic symbols.  
While untrue, this narrative is what countless people believe about the origin and nature of tarot.  Using my fieldwork at a tarot card reader conference (Tarosophy 2013: Dallas, TX), I will explain the true beginnings and personality of not just the deck itself, but of those who read cards professionally.  

Andrew Metzger
Biomedical Engineering
Generation of Atlases for the Segmentation of Pediatric Brains from Magnetic Resonance Images

Quantifying tissue volumes and surface areas of the brain from magnetic resonance (MR) images during early development can provide valuable insight into genetic and environmental influences on brain maturation. Population studies often require large samples to be studied thus the tools for the analysis of the images needs to be automated. Many of the tissue classification and segmentation tools used to analyze neuroimaging data utilize anatomical priors based on normal adult populations. The goal of this project is to develop age appropriate atlases (neonate, 1 year, 2 year) that account for developmental changes that occur during this time of rapid brain growth. Atlas creation began with an adult atlas that was registered using a high-dimensional image registration to the pediatric brain scans to generate an initial segmentation using an expectation maximization algorithm. Correction of the initial segmentation was performed manually to correct errors. The resulting images and segmentations were then mapped to an age specific coordinate system and used to generate age specific anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to segment the initial training set as well as a testing set of images. The resulting segmentation provided a superior result as compared to the adult atlas. 

Anna Mikhaylova
Second Language Acquisition
A Study of Americans’ Acceptability of English Apologies by French Speakers

The study investigated the speech act of apology in French and American English (Blum-Kulka & Olshtain, 1984; Kasper, 2006; Meier, 1992, 1998; Olshtain & Cohen, 1983) and analyzed the results of the pilot study on the acceptability of French speakers’ apology behavior by American English native speakers.
The study compared the American English and French native speakers’ apology behavior and established similarities (a strong focus on the expression of regret) and differences in the use of such strategies as excuse, self-criticism, refusal to acknowledge, and offer of repair. The pilot study confirmed that second language speakers might commit potential pragmatic failure, even when they have an excellent command of the target language (Cohen, Olshtain & Rosenstein, 1986).
The analysis of the apology behavior was conducted on the basis of seven dimensions of culture (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2012). The opposing value orientations of the U.S. (universalist, specific, sequentially organized, inner directed) and French (particularist, diffuse, synchronic, outer directed) societies were considered revealing in order to account for the differences in the American and French apology behavior.
The study of the speech act of apology can therefore increase our understanding of cultural values and beliefs and provide useful insights for language teaching and learning.

Holly Morris
Chemistry
Studying Sea Spray Aerosol with Atomic Force Microscopy

Holly Morris, Olga Laskina, Josh Grandquist, Elizabeth Stone*, Alexei Tivanksi*, Vicki H. Grassian*
Sea spay aerosols (SSA) are a complex micro-structured mixture of inorganic and organic components, where organics can represent more than 50% of the aerosol mass depending on size. Understanding and predicting SSA climate effects requires quantitative knowledge of their size-dependent hygroscopic and chemical properties.  While greenhouse gases have been widely studied, aerosol effects are still associated with a large amount of uncertainty.   Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging and force sensing technique, often used to study nanoparticles. This work employs AFM to assess size, morphology, hygroscopicity, and surface tension of SSA and relevant model systems, all of which are important in understanding the effect on incoming and outgoing radiation in the atmosphere.  Model systems being studied include substrate deposited salts, organic acids, and mixtures. Complex samples collected from a marine reference tank are also being explored. In addition, a novel method of measuring the surface tension of nano-sized droplets using AFM is being developed.

Paul Mueller
Chemistry
Efficient Synthesis of Iron Oxide/Mesoporous Silica Core/Shell Nanoparticles

Mesoporous silica has been combined with iron oxide nanoparticles such as Fe3O4 to form core-shell nanocomposites with potential applications in catalysis, environmental remediation, biomedical imaging, and drug delivery.  To be viable for these applications, core-shell nanocomposites need possess high surface areas, display a high degree of magnetic susceptibility, and have a size less than 100 nm.  Ideally, materials with these properties could be synthesized in high yields with less expensive and harmful materials in an overall greener synthetic method.  To achieve these goals, efficient co-precipitation methods employing centrimethylammonium chloride and bromide as templating surfactants and triethanolamine and Tris buffer as mineralizing agents were used.  Core-shell Fe3O4@mesoporous silica nanocomposites with well-defined core-shell structure and sizes between 80-100 nm were formed. The nanocomposites had high surface areas and magnetic susceptibility.

Nick Murray
Medicine (MD)
Sleep Disruption caused by Serotonin Depletion is due to Hypothermia

There has been a 40 year debate whether serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) promotes sleep or wakefulness. Studies that blocked 5-HT synthesis with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) observed mice with profound insomnia, implying 5-HT promotes sleep.  We showed that insomnia results only at room temperature, in mice with 5-HT neurons genetically deleted (Lmx1bf/f/p mice).  These mice also have impaired thermoregulation. Given 5-HT’s role in both thermoregulation and sleep-wake regulation, we hypothesized that controlling for ambient temperature in PCPA treated mice would prevent the associated changes in sleep architecture and demonstrate that previous results were due to a thermoregulatory deficit induced by 5-HT depletion and not a direct effect on sleep-wake regulation.
 
Twenty-four hour EEG, EMG, temperature and activity data were collected and scored as wake, NREM, or REM from saline and PCPA treated mice at 20°C and 33°C (thermoneutral rodent temperature) (n = 5 per condition). HPLC was used to verify 5-HT reduction.  At 20°C, PCPA treated mice spent more time awake (p = 0.003) and less time in NREM sleep (p = 0.03) and REM sleep (p = 0.002) compared to saline controls.  At 33°C, there was no difference in body temperature between groups nor percentage of time in any vigilance state. 
 
Here we demonstrate that 5-HT depletion with PCPA leads to insomnia, but only at a room temperature or colder. This suggests that the insomnia is due to thermoregulatory dysfunction and a need to move around to stay warm.  Thus, 5-HT is not a sleep promoter.  Previous data suggesting 5-HT promotes sleep was confounded by 5-HT’s role in thermoregulation.  

Marlis Muschal
Anthropology
Sedentism and Expedient Technology at Scott County Pueblo (14SC1)

It is commonly held that sedentism correlates with a rise in the use of expedient lithic technology.  This project tests that assumption and seeks to explore how expedient tool use fits within the technological organization of the sedentary group(s) at Scott County Pueblo.
The results of this study show that, while informal tools outnumber formal tools, they are characterized by a wide range of variables. A simple distinction between formal and informal tools does not accurately reflect the range of strategies employed to manufacture and utilize informal tools.

Mohanad Nada
Immunology
Optimizing Adoptive Cancer Immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 T Cells through Zoledronate Pulse Stimulation and IL-15

Human γδ T cells expressing Vγ2Vδ2 TCRs monitor foreign- and self-prenyl pyrophosphate metabolites in isoprenoid biosynthesis to mediate immunity to microbes and tumors. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells have been used for adoptive cancer immunotherapy with some partial and complete remissions. Also, because Vγ2Vδ2 T cells exhibit no autoimmunity or alloreactivity, they are potential recipients for the expression of chimeric antigen receptors. Most clinical trials have used continuous zoledronate exposure to expand Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Zoledronate inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase causing isopentenyl pyrophosphate to accumulate that then stimulates Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Because zoledronate exposure is toxic, we hypothesized that a short period of zoledronate exposure would reduce T cell toxicity but still be sufficient for monocytes to function as APC because they would preferentially take up zoledronate. In support of this hypothesis, pulse exposure of PBMC to zoledronate with IL-2 ex vivo resulted in more uniform expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells with higher purity and cell numbers as compared with continuous exposure. Early (central) memory subsets that are the most effective for cancer immunotherapy were better preserved. IL-15 further preserved early memory subsets as compared with IL-2. The Vγ2Vδ2 T cells expanded by zoledronate pulse stimulation exhibited increased tumor cytotoxicity compared with Vγ2Vδ2 T cell expanded by continuous stimulation. Thus, zoledronate pulse stimulation in the presence of IL-15 maximizes the purity, quantity, and quality of expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells and could potentially increase the effectiveness of adoptively transferred Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in cancer immunotherapy.
 

Charith Nanayakkara
Chemistry
Surface Photochemistry of Adsorbed Nitrate on α-Fe2O3 Particle Surfaces

The surface photochemistry of nitric acid (HNO3) adsorbed on hematite (α-Fe2O3) particle surfaces under various environmental conditions is investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorbed nitrate resulted from gas phase nitric acid adsorption showed a N1s peak at 407.4 eV. When irradiated with light (l > 300 nm) besides the XPS peak at 407.4 eV associated with adsorbed nitrate two lower binding energy peaks at 401.7 eV and 400.3 eV appeared when the reaction is done in the presence of adsorbed water. Stability of these reduced N species, identified as NO– and N–, studied as a function of relative humidity. Additionally, irradiation of adsorbed nitrate on α-Fe2O3 generates three nitrogen gas-phase products including NO2, NO, and N2O. As shown here, different environmental conditions of water vapor pressure and the presence of molecular oxygen greatly influence the relative photoproduct distribution from nitrate surface photochemistry.

Ari Natarina
Linguistics
The Lexical and Pragmatic Effects of the Morpheme –ang in Balinese Applicative Constructions

This paper addresses the morphology (word structure) of the language spoken in Bali, Indonesia. The morpheme –ang, one of the robustly used morphemes in Balinese, is found in different types of sentence constructions, but this paper mainly discusses the morpheme –ang in applicative constructions: the constructions in which a peripheral participant or an indirect object becomes a direct object. An example of non-applicative constructions (without –ang) and applicative constructions (with –ang) are shown in examples (1a) and (1b) respectively.

  1. a. I     mémé   ngidih      tulang (baanga kuluk).

            DET mother AV.ask for bone     for       dog
            “Mother asked for bones (for a dog).”
         b. I     mémé  ngidih-ang        kuluk-é  tulang.
            DET mother AV.ask for-APPL dog.DEF  bone
            “Mother asked for bones for the dog.”
Although they have different structure, both constructions are similar in meaning. It raises the question: when do Balinese speakers prefer applicative constructions over non-applicative constructions? The aim of this paper is to explain the motivation for the occurrence of the morpheme –ang in the discourse. The difference between these two sentences is the definite marker attached to the direct object (i.e. kuluk ‘dog’) in (1b). I propose that the object introduced by –ang has a specificity requirement, which is true of discourse prominent element and which thus explains the motivation behind the coding of the applicative morpheme in Balinese.

Matthew Nattinger
Health Management and Policy
Why Are Some States’ Dementia-Specific Direct-Care Staff Regulations More Stringent Than Others?

Background: In 2011, nearly 5.2 million elderly Americans suffered from dementia. By 2050, this number is expected to reach 16 million. In recent years, assisted living and residential care has emerged as a popular alternative to nursing homes for persons with dementia.  Unlike nursing homes, which are regulated by the federal government, assisted living and residential care is regulated at the state level. Consequently, there is a high degree of variation in the stringency of dementia-specific regulatory policies for assisted living and residential care facilities.  
Objective: This study will assess how socioeconomic, political system, program and policy and environmental characteristics affect the stringency of dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulations for assisted living and residential care facilities across states.
Methods: Using legal search engines (i.e., LexisNexis and WestLaw) and official state websites, we identified state statutes and regulations, up until 2013, that determined the dementia-specific staff training and staffing requirements for assisted living and residential care facilities. The statutes and regulations were coded using two scales (measured from 0 to 5), that were developed to measure the stringency of the states’ dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulations. Two researchers coded the statutes and regulations to ensure the reliability of the constructs. Correlations were performed between the two constructs to assess their relative independence. We performed multiple regressions to determine how the socioeconomic, political system, program and policy, and environmental characteristics of the states are associated with the stringencies of the two dementia-specific staff constructs.
Results: There is a high degree of variation in the stringency of dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulatory requirements across the states. Currently, there are 12 states that do not require that the staff in their assisted living and residential care facilities receive some form of dementia-specific training.  Furthermore, 14 states do not require assisted living or residential care facilities to meet dementia-specific staffing standards, including the use of criminal background checks for direct-care staff. The correlations between the dementia-specific staff training and staffing regulatory requirements (0.37 p<0.01) indicate two distinct constructs that measure different aspects of dementia-specific staff requirements across the states.  Since the study is still in progress, no multiple regression results are available at this time.
Conclusions: Since this study is still in progress, conclusions will be available by the conference date.     

Andrew Nelson
Human Toxicology
Alpha-Emitting Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Water

The application of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, so-called “unconventional drilling,” is rapidly expanding to meet the global demand for natural gas. The rapid proliferation of these technologies has many scientists, citizens and other stakeholders concerned about potential and uncharacterized environmental contamination. One specific concern that has recently gained media attention is the high level of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) present in many wastes originating from the Marcellus Shale region (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York). For example, several groups have documented high levels of radium (Ra) isotopes (potent, bone-seeking carcinogens) in flowback and produced fluids from horizontally-fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale. Little is known about the concentrations of the long-lived, alpha-emitting Ra decay products, Th-228 and Po-210. Work performed at the University of Iowa and the University of Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory suggests that these potent carcinogens may be present at high levels.

Hyungrae Noh
Philosophy
Ascription of Consciousness and the Vegetative State: a New Methodology

How to ascribe consciousness to vegetative state patients?  Empirical researches of Owen et al. (2006) and Cruse et al (2011) attempt to find a way for the ascription of consciousness in question.  By “asking” VS patients to imagine something that involves motional actions, they exam whether the VS patients’ brain states exhibit a volitional “action.”  Given that activities in certain brain areas (that are known to be related to motor imagery) are observed in some VS patients, they conclude that some VS patients are conscious.  Nonetheless I claim that the volition test only renders weak evidence for the ascription of consciousness.  As an alternative, I suggest the misrepresentation test which can be performed as follows: tell a VS patient that the instructor will put a small ice-cube in her hand, and instead put a glass-cube in her hand; if we can identify activities in certain brain areas (that are known to be related to temperature-tactile-stimuli) that confirm that the patient misrepresents (i.e., the patient “feels” coldness), then the patient passes the misrepresentation test.  I claim that, unlike the volition test, the misrepresentation test renders strong empirical evidence for the ascriptions in question.

Nicole Oehmen
Sociology
A Woman's Place: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment Complaints by State

Sexual harassment is an insidious and pervasive, though under-reported, obstacle for women in the workplace. Deleterious consequences for those who experience it range from lost wages to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.  Prior research has connected threats to masculinity at the individual level to increased sexual aggression, including sexual harassment.  Additional research has indicated a link between state-level unemployment and reported sexual aggression.  More recent work has also turned to the state as a source of discrepant outcomes in sexual harassment complaints. The present study combines these strands in the literature to help fill the gap between micro and macro-level research on workplace sexual harassment.  Negative binomial regression is used to explore the relationship between state-level employment characteristics and sex charges filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.  The gender composition of the state labor force is found to have a significant effect on EEOC complaints, net of controls.  

Hasan Ogul
Physics
R&D for Electromagnetic Calorimetry: Secondary Emission Ionization Calorimeter

"Co-Authors: Emrah Tiras"
Secondary Emission (SE) Calorimetry is a new promising technique to measure the electromagnetic showers in extreme radiation environment and very high rate. In this detector type, SE dynode planes are used as the active medium where the SE electrons are generated from these SE surfaces when charged particles penetrate an SE sampling module. Here we report on the response of a dedicated SE sampling module in electromagnetic showers. Projections for a full-scale calorimeter will also be discussed.

Jason Palamara
Music
Cognition Eye for the Composer Guy

Abstract: Cognition Eye for the Composer Guy

Historically, music theory has been a subservient discipline to music composition, owing to the rich tradition of composer-theorists. Having gained autonomy only in the last half-century or so, theory has grown to fulfill many new functions. Is there still a part of theory that serves composition, and a part of composition that can benefit from theory?

In this paper, a theorist and a composer collaborate to answer this question. With a focus on principles of music cognition, the theorist reviews existing literature to identify potential opportunities for maximal listener engagement with the music, then commissions a new work from the composer. The composer interprets these findings by crafting a new piece of electronic music, then both reflect on efficacy of the process. The deliverables consist of an approximately six-minute electronic piece and a paper written as a dialogue between the two parties. Our hope is to identify more areas in which we might attain mutual benefit by finding common ground between the two estranged disciplines.

Lori Palamara, Theorist

lori-palamara@uiowa.edu

Jason Palamara, Composer

jason-palamara@uiowa.edu

Monica Paliwal
Biomedical Engineering
Development of a Novel Tool for Assessment of Standing Balance Using a Wii Balance Board

Balance is the ability of human body to maintain center of gravity within the base of support. Aging, obesity, vestibular deficits, neurologic conditions, abnormal spinal curvatures, peripheral neuropathies etc. are known to affect balance.
Assessment of balance by functional evaluation is commonly practiced because of its simplicity and inexpensive nature but it is not accurate & don’t provide objective information. Force plates are gold- standard for assessment of balance. But force plate technology requires expensive instrumentation and thus is rarely used outside research environments.
The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive, portable balance assessment tool using a Wii Balance board (WBB) and compare its performance against lab-grade force plates.
Calibration of the WBB was done by applying a full cycle of loading and unloading of known weight values to the WBB and hysteresis and linearity characteristics of the board were studied.
Linearity error in %FSO was found to be <1.75. Hysteresis error in % FSO was found to be <1. Calibration equation was given by y = 0.0219 x+ 0.0155.
These results show that the non- linearity and hysteresis error are higher in WBB but it compares well in consideration to the cost, instrumentation, operational complexity, portability and availability. Thus WBB can be used as an inexpensive consumer level force plate in study of standing balance.

David Pantaleoni
Religious Studies
The Mother and the Way: Gyno-Focal Aspects of the Daodejing

This paper examines presentations of gender within the Daoist

Classic, Daodejing. With over 2,000 years worth of history and translations

numbering in the hundreds, it is hard to calculate the influence of DDJ both

in and outside of China. While the text cannot be read a feminist one as it

continue to produce highly problematic notions of female bodies and their

submissive nature, it might be thought of as a gyno-focal text. This is best

seen through careful inspection of several chapters through multiple

translators, seeing how various interpretations might shed light on the core

itself. Rather than attempt to read contemporary feminism onto the DDJ

then, we might see how the text elevates the feminine and motherly

archetype in order to shock the reader into new ways of thinking and forging

their own relationship with the Dao. 

David Pantaleoni
Religious Studies
Spirit, Superstition, & Religion: Presentations of Zhuang Belief & Religion

Tensions between the dominant ethnic group and minority populations exist in many countries. These tensions manifest in many different forms, but are especially visible in popular media created by the dominant ethnic group. Examples include articles in news sources, travel logs, and may even be found in the academy of study. This is true in both the European/American and the Sino-sphere. This paper aims to examine the presentations of Zhuang religious beliefs and practices from Chinese sources written in the English language. By focusing on web-sources in English, the hope is to examine how Han Chinese are disseminating their biases against Zhuang religious practices and beliefs to the widest possible international audience. The emphasis on what is readily available through the internet will be contrasted with scholarly sources to highlight how mass marketed presentations show the continually held biases of the Han.  The use of the internet will show how widely spread Han biases against Zhuang religious practices and beliefs have been spread, even to the point where Western authors may be reproducing Han biases without their full knowledge. Sources will include news sources closely associated with the Chinese Communist Party, several travel websites that have focused on ethnic tourism within China, and my own experiences from working in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous region during the academic 2011-2012 year. Of special significance will be a web source affiliated with Chinese and Taiwanese sources that shows how attitudes towards the Zhuang and thus their religion have been digested to the point where the authors who are supposedly sympathetic are instead patronizing.

Renu Pariyadath
Women's Studies
Unsettling Homes: Engaging the Dis/Comfort of “Home” for a Transnational Civil Society

A central concern for transnational feminists has been to re-imagine coalitional politics that is not predicated on identity. Writing on the question of women communing across borders, Martin and Mohanty have meditated on the constructed unities of home as a place of safety and comfort in feminist inquiry and suggest that the key to building solidarity is the continual contesting of the unity of the discourse of “home”. Within diaspora studies, many have theorized the Indian diaspora’s obsession with reproducing home as a material and metaphorical space, whether as the patriarchal home, community or the nation, often to the detriment of subordinated and feminized groups in India. While on the one hand, this scholarship understands diaspora as a space where home is idealized, articulating it to a discourse of loss and longing, many postcolonial scholars also celebrate diaspora as a carnivalesque, liminal space, where the hierarchy of the empire is upturned. My work suggests that activities of the diasporic activist group Association for India’s Development (AID) embody Martin and Mohanty’s theoretical call to remember home as space of discomfort in order to enable a politics of solidarity. I argue that AID’s practices of continually questioning middle and upper class constructions of “India” and “Development” loosen or destabilize but do not unravel the narratives of home or nation-state.  The group engages both the loss and privilege of being diasporic to enable a politics of solidarity grounded in the everyday lives and practices of marginalized groups in India “that cannot become diasporic”.
 

sangmin park
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
A Qualitative Study of International Counselor Trainees in Practicum and Internship

This qualitative study explores the practica/internship experiences of international students in counseling. Based on the foundation of phenomenological research, this study uses a consensual qualitative research method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten participants about their fears, challenges, and support from training program regarding their experiences of practica/internship training. Results revealed that various fears and challenges that international students face in the practicum and/or internship training mainly came from their language barrier and lack of understanding of the system. Providing practical information, such as information about sites, American counseling system, insurance, and cultures would help international students prepare their practica and internship, as well as ensuring supervisors’ and faculty members’ multicultural understanding and sensitivity about international students. 

Metrah Pashaee
Film and Video Production
Human Body Battleground Organ Organism

For me, the moving image is a complex process in structure-making and concept-building. My moving image constructions are composed of fragments that are attempting to fit together through a conceptual foundation. I often think of my process as a form of collage. Instead of photographing my images, I appropriate them. Images, which belong to a previous context, are uprooted and re-illuminated on my screen. They are rewritten with a new context and repurposed to translate my ideas. My work is about questioning authority: who or what is seen, heard, and visible, and who or what is undervalued, rejected, and invisible. I am exploring the moving image as a language which communicates voice as a body of image and sound structures. Ultimately, my constructions attempt to uncover new potentialities that derive from alternative ways of perceiving.
Synopsis of work: Human Body Battleground Organ Organism is an appropriated moving image collage investigating the penis and vagina as disembodied vessels. By utilizing a digital voice to enact this estrangement, a narration of declaration generates a questioning of definitions, where sound and image structures dismantle and reveal a deconstruction of audio-visual form and subject's signification.

Kira, Cindy Ann Pasquesi, Kilgo
Higher Education
The Conditional Relationship between Work and Service Learning on Political and Social Involvement

This study used data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) – a pretest, posttest, longitudinal data set – to examine the conditional effects of employment and participation in service learning on students’ political and social involvement at the end of four years of college.  While controlling for numerous precollege and college-level variables, results suggest that students who reported participating in service learning and working in college had significantly lower levels of political and social involvement than their peers.  Results also indicate that students who reported working between 2.5 and less than 20 hours per week while participating in service learning were able to reap greater benefits on political and social involvement than peers not employed or working more than 20 hours per week.  

Catherine Patterson
Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences
A PDE Model of Multiple Myeloma Bone Disease

Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell cancer characterized by abnormal levels of plasma cells in the blood supply.  The disease affects the bones, immune system, kidneys, and red blood cell count.  Here we focus on the impact on the bone.  In multiple myeloma patients, the bone remodeling process is out of balance.  Bone destruction outpaces bone replacement, leaving patients with bone lesions.  In this presentation, we discuss a mathematical model of the bone remodeling process with the presence of myeloma tumor cells.  The model uses partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe the effect of myeloma on the bone biology.  It expands on work in the literature by including new cell populations, stromal cells and osteoclast precursors.

Kara Prior
Geoscience
In-stream Nitrogen Processing and Dilution in an Agricultural Stream Network

The interaction of agricultural fertilizer use and extremes in drought and flood conditions in 2012-2013 set up conditions for a natural experiment on watershed-scale nutrient dynamics. The region-wide drought in 2012 left surface soils disconnected from stream networks and restricted nutrient use by crops, resulting in an unusually large nitrogen pool in soil columns through the winter. When wet conditions returned to the Midwest in 2013, the unused fertilizer was mobilized, resulting in a six-week period of extremely high in-stream nutrient concentrations. This study analyses three synoptic samples from the Iowa-Cedar River Basin in 2013 to quantify patterns in nitrogen dynamics. We use multiple conservative ions as tracers to estimate dilution by lateral inflows. We also estimate nutrient spiraling metrics by treating the fertilizer pulse as a constant rate nutrient addition across the watershed—a scale on which these processes are increasingly modeled numerically, but on which standard nutrient addition experiments are simply not feasible. Results of this study compare patterns in dilution and uptake across spatial and temporal scales, and bound feasible explanations for each reach of the network.

Sarah Raine
Anthropology
Authenticity, Interpretation and the Tour Dongba

Questions of authenticity often dominate discussions of ethnic tourism, and the presentation of Dongba pictographic writing in Lijiang, China, provides a context where language barriers play a central role in the negotiation of meaning and authenticity.  The Naxi people, one of China's officially recognized minority ethnic groups, have become known internationally for a system of pictographic writing used in religious ceremonies by an elite priesthood of shamans known as the Dongba.  In Lijiang, this outside interest has been cultivated by the developing tourist industry, transforming the Dongba writing into a salable tourist artifact and creating a new economic niche for the Dongba priest.  My paper focuses on ethnographic research conducted at a municipal museum which featured Dongba pictographic writing and its role in traditional Naxi culture.  The government shop attached to the museum hired a Dongba priest who dressed in the priestly costume and demonstrated his writing ability for tourists.  The tours provided for foreign visitors included an introduction to the Dongba and an interpretive explanation of the writing that he produced.  However, this interpretive explanation provided by the tour guide does not mediate the Dongba's own interpretation of his work.  The languages used and the structure of the performance suppress the Dongba's communicative agency, resulting in misrecognition of the iconic reference of some of the characters.  Although final translation of characters remained constant, the explanation which connects the pictographs to their semantic value differed.  For example, the character for "peace" depicts a woman weaving, but is described by the tour guide as a hunter with a bow.  Ultimately, these misinterpretations make little difference to the performance which functions to ideologically position the Dongba pictographs as an index of Naxi culture and allows a commodification of Naxi ethnicity.  Because the language barrier prevents direct communication between the Dongba and the tourists, other measures of authenticity must be used to determine the credibility these performances have for the tourist as consumer of culture.

Joel Ramirez
Occupational and Environmental Health
The Effect of Air Environmental Conditions on N95 Respirator Performance

 

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In many situations, workers perform tasks in a high relative humidity (RH) environment which makes wearing an filtering face-piece respirators (FFR) uncomfortable. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of different air environmental conditions on the resistance to flow and the efficiency of N95 FFRs.
Method: The penetration curve and resistance to flow (Rf) of two models of N95 filtering face-piece respirator (FFR) were evaluated in a test system developed to mimic inhalation and exhalation, and provide changes to RH and temperature (T). Penetration was tested before and after a 2-hr Rf test using a sodium chloride aerosol measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The Rf test was performed under three T and RH conditions while either exhaling room T and low RH or when mimicking human breath with 95 ⁰F and 95% RH.  Rf was measured using a pressure transducer. A second round of tests included the addition of an inorganic dust during to determine the effect of dust loading on Rf.
Results: Model A inhalation Rf increased from 11.01 mm H2O to 14.30 mm H2O for environmental condition 3. Model B inhalation Rf increased from 13.76 mm H2O to 17.07 mm H2O for environmental condition 3. Significant increase was observed for the Rf slope over 2-hr time for environmental condition 2 and 3 for the two models of N95 FFR. Most penetrating particle size (MPPS) for Model A was 41.8 nm before Rf test and 44.3 nm after Rf test. MPPS for Model B was 50.7 nm before Rf test and 49.1 nm after Rf test.
Conclusions: Results of this study shows that environmental conditions that involve high RH increase FFR Rf.

Sanjeewa Rasika Karunathilaka Ranasinghe Pathirajage
Chemistry
In Vivo Studies for the Development of a Nocturnal Hypoglycemic Alarm Algorithm using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Noninvasive glucose monitoring has been the subject of considerable research because of the high number of diabetes patients who must monitor their glucose levels daily by taking blood samples. Among methods being evaluated for possible use in this application, near-infrared spectroscopy has received significant attention because of available glucose absorption bands that can be observed in the presence of the large aqueous background found in tissue spectra. The objective of the research presented here is to evaluate the potential for implementing a noninvasive nocturnal hypoglycemic alarm with near-infrared spectroscopy. Such an alarm would be used by a diabetic to detect potentially dangerous occurrences of hypoglycemia during sleep. The approach used is to collect spectra continuously from the patient during the sleep period, followed by the application of pattern recognition methods to determine if a spectrum represents a blood glucose level that exceeds a hypoglycemic threshold. A reference spectrum is collected and a conventional finger-stick glucose concentration measurement is made at the start of the sleep period. The ratio is then taken of each subsequent spectrum to the collected reference, forming a differential spectrum corresponding to the signed difference in concentration relative to the reference. The identification of these differential spectra as “alarm” or “non-alarm” is performed with a classification model computed with piecewise linear discriminant analysis (PLDA).
 
This methodology was tested with in vivo data that simulate the glucose excursions that occur during sleep. The performance of this methodology was tested with data collected from a non-survival single day experiment with an anesthetized rat. The prediction data for the rat clearly demonstrates that the alarm methodology works well with the in vivo data collected in a single day. Ongoing work is focusing on expanding testing of the methodology to multiple-day experiments with a single rat.

Chathurika Rathnayake
Chemistry
Meteorological Impacts on Coarse and Fine Bioaerosols in Iowa

Rathnayake C. M., Kettler J., Jayarathne T., Stone E. A.
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
 
Abstract
Biological aerosol particles (bioaerosols) are categorized as viruses, bacteria, fungal spores and plant pollen, which may act as seasonal aeroallergens triggering asthma attacks and rhinitis. Meteorological factors are associated with bioaerosol active and passive releasing mechanisms thus influence the daily bioaerosol concentrations. The size distribution of bioaerosols is important with respect to health outcomes as allergic signs depend on the site of allergen deposition. This study in Iowa focused on analyzing daily coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) air samples for bioaerosol tracers from April 17 – May 9, 2013. We assessed mannitol as a marker of fungal spores and detected it mainly in coarse mode (83%). Mannitol peaked (77 ng m-3) on post-rain due to active release of fungal spores as a result of completion of maturation cycle.  In addition, saccharides were studied as tracers of pollens and were associated with rain- and post- rain events. Specifically, high concentrations of PM2.5 saccharides were detected at the on-set of rain on May 2, during a day of heavy rainfall. The increase in PM2.5 ­pollen particles was attributed to osmotic rupture of pollen grains. Further, the chemical analysis of local tree pollens indicates that pin oak as the major pollen type on this day. In contrast, high concentrations of PM10-2.5 saccharides were detected in post-rain (May 5) due to freshly released active biota. Our work for the first time analyzes tracers of bioaerosols in Midwest, with the scope of linking meteorological events with ambient measurements and developing chemical profiles of pollen for the purpose of identifying and quantifying pollen contributions to PM mass.

Chathurika Rathnayake
Chemistry
Analysis f Carbohydrates and Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers in Iowa

Analysis of Carbohydrates and Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers in Iowa
 
Rathnayake C. M., Stone E. A.
Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
 
Bioaerosols are generated by the suspension of biological particles in air and have negative effects on human health via allergenicity and infectivity.   These particles can be fungal spores, pollen, vegetative and animal detritus, viruses, and bacteria. Bioaerosols contain characteristic organic molecules, particularly saccharides, which can be used to identify and quantify bioaerosols in ambient environments. In this study, field samples of fine (PM2.5)and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate matter were collected during August and September, 2011 in Kalona, Iowa. Collected samples were extracted into water and saccharides were measured by ion chromatography with electrochemical detection. A mass balance approach was used to estimate contributions of bioaerosols to particles in both size modes. Fungal spore tracers, arabitol and mannitol were strongly correlated (0.9) and ranged from 12.6-89.2 ng m-3 and 8.93-116 ng m-3, respectively, accounting for 4.3% of PM10-2.5.  The average fungal spore count was estimated to be 2600 spores m-3 in PM2.5 and 37,000 spores m-3 in PM10-2.5. Levoglucosan, indicated that biomass burning, accounted for 3.4% of PM2.5.  Methyltetrols, which serve as tracers of isoprene secondary organic aerosol, were indicated that this source contributed to approximately 2% of PM2.5. Overall, adopted values from the literature were successfully used in this study to estimate biogenic contributions to PM in Iowa for the first time.

Alycia Reed
Art History
Ready to Blow Your Mind: Andy Warhol’s Exploding Plastic Inevitable and Psychedelic Underground Spectacle

In April of 1966, Andy Warhol’s Exploding Plastic Inevitable (EPI) found a home in New York City’s Polish National Home, a rundown community space that Warhol and his posse transformed into a magical, drug-fueled rock concert-cum-multimedia art event where layers of mediation mixed with immediate experience: The Velvet Underground performed their innovative music in front of films of themselves performing, Factory Superstars danced and performed poetry, various Warhol films projected on the walls, flashing lights flickered on mirrored surfaces, and a crowd of 750 spectators packed in every night to see and be seen, to dance and trip into the early hours of the morning.
The EPI was a promotional vehicle for Warhol, his Factory crew, and the Velvet Underground, but is also a complex example of spectacle that has been under-analyzed in recent scholarship. The experience of the EPI (well documented in photographs, film, firsthand accounts, and contemporary articles, but existing in scholarship in bits and pieces across dozens of books and articles) was a potent combination of alienation, mediation, and commercialization. The EPI’s unabashed emphasis on marketing, packaging, consumer goods, and empty celebrity are all manifestations of fears of late capitalist excess, but beneath the veneer of vapidity was an undercurrent of counterculture political activism and social awareness.

Xuchun Ren
Mechanical Engineering
Novel Computational Methods for High-Dimensional Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis

This work presents three new computational methods for calculating design sensitivities of statistical moments and reliability of high-dimensional complex systems subject to random input. The first method represents a novel integration of polynomial dimensional decomposition (PDD) of a multivariate stochastic response function and score functions. Applied to the statistical moments, the method provides mean-square convergent analytical expressions of design sensitivities of the first two moments of a stochastic response. The second and third methods, relevant to probability distribution or reliability analysis, exploit two distinct combinations built on PDD: the PDD-SPA method, entailing the saddlepoint approximation (SPA) and score functions; and the PDD-MCS method, utilizing the embedded Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) of the PDD approximation and score functions. For all three methods developed, the statistical moments or failure probabilities and their design sensitivities are both determined concurrently from a single stochastic analysis or simulation. Numerical examples, including a 100-dimensional mathematical problem, indicate that the new methods developed provide not only theoretically convergent or accurate design sensitivities, but also computationally efficient solutions. A practical example involving robust design optimization of a three-hole bracket illustrates the usefulness of the proposed methods.

Nathaniel Richmond
Applied Mathematical and Computational Sciences
An Introduction to the Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem

Networks that grow over time, called incremental networks, are ubiquitous in our lives. New roadways are constantly being built, power grids augmented, and cell phone networks expanded. The growth over time of networks such as these is often accompanied by uncertain, or stochastic, parameters. For example, the completion time of constructing a new road may be unknown, the day-to-day influx of renewable energy may be unpredictable, and the user demand in a cell phone network may be uncertain. When uncertainties like these are not considered, we witness suboptimal system operation. Traffic jams, loss of power, and dropped calls are all undesirable aspects of our day-to-day lives. By modeling and solving the “Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem,” we account for uncertainties found in incremental networks, thereby reducing the expected cost of operation in any setting. In this talk, I will introduce the Stochastic Incremental Network Design Problem and discuss several applications and solution methods. The talk will focus on a stochastic multistage programming approach to this problem with shortest paths and uncertain arc build times.

Nathaniel Richmond
Mathematics
Network Robustness: How to Plan for an Attack from Weapons of Mass Destruction

Telecommunications and power networks in the USA, though seemingly reliable, have been shown to be vulnerable to targeted attacks by weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). This is due in large part to the redistribution of loads that occurs when one part of a network is disabled, leading to cascading failures in the entire network. In this presentation, we discuss modeling aspects of power and telecommunications network infrastructure, both static and dynamic. We examine the effects of cascading failures on networks, exploring ways to improve robustness.

Russell Ricker
Physics
Dual Color Light-Emitting Diode Arrays for Infrared Scene Projectors

Infrared optoelectronic devices based on InAs/GaSb superlattices have become increasingly important for applications such as communications, biomedical spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Cascaded structures offer high efficiency utilization of InAs/GaSb superlattices by recycling carriers in multiple active regions. By stacking two distinct superlattices separated by a p-GaSb contact layer, two type II InAs/GaSb cascaded superlattice light emitting diodes were grown on 3 inch GaSb (100) substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. The two superlattice LEDs were grown to emit in two distinct wavelength regions – one below and one above the atmospheric CO2 absorption line at 4.2μm. The short-wave emitter had 12 cascaded regions, while the long-wave emitter had 16 cascaded regions. Using standard photolithography techniques, samples were processed into 8x8 48μm-pitch arrays.  Much larger 512x512 arrays based on these pixel designs are being developed for two-color infrared scene projectors. The small arrays were flip-chip bonded to a silicon fanout header, packaged and wirebonded into a leadless chip carrier, and cooled to 77K for characterization.  Electroluminescent measurements show the peak wavelengths occurred at 3.9 and 4.7μm, with negligible overlap. Light, current, and voltage data are also presented for quasi-continuous operation at 77K.

Phillip Ricks
Philosophy
Questions in Environmental Ethics

I argue that environmental ethics must be concerned with future possibility, and that any satisfactory environmental ethic should provide answers to the following four questions: [1] What sorts of things have obligation-generating value? [2] What is required for the future possibility of that which is identified as valuable? [3] For how long should that which is valuable be preserved, maintained, or generated? [4] What can be done now to ensure the future possibility of that which is valuable? After discussing common answers to [1], I highlight the lacuna in answers to [2]-[4], and offer my own preliminary answers to these four questions.

Michael Ridlen
Art History
Abstract: Visions of the Human Body: Antique Ideals in 1780s Rome

My study will engage with a much larger understanding of artistic displays, and at the same time examine how the visual culture of the period was inclusive of both male and female depictions within the graceful style as theorized by the famous German historian and theorist of classical art, Winckelmann. In his vision antique art embodies aesthetics ideals in order to create a new moral art that would use antique forms to express modern ideas. Thus artists’ cultural meditations on the moral, intellectual, and symbolic value of these perfected youthful figures are the staple of Prud’hon and Canova among many other artists of this period. Thus the visual culture of this period should not be understood as reactive to a psychological anxiety, but as a continuum of Enlightenment historical and philosophic meditations begun in and explored in Rome in the 1780s.

Michael Ritter
Political Science
The Culture of Convenience Voting: How State Election Laws and Political Context Shapes Turnout of Disadvantaged Voters

State convenience voting laws enacted over the past three decades have significantly altered the process by which Americans vote. Convenience voting refers to election laws enacted at the state-level that theoretically make the process of voting easier for individuals, thereby enhancing an individual’s likelihood of voting. This study explores early voting, mail or absentee voting, and Election Day Registration [EDR] voting. A large body of research has improved our understanding of the demographic and attitudinal characteristics that typify voters (see Campbell at al. 1960; Wolfinger and Rosenstone 1980; Verba, Schlozman, and Brady 1995; Rosenstone and Hansen 2003). Updating this traditional literature with recent studies on election reform, this research demonstrates that individuals from different demographic groups are differentially affected by their state’s electoral rules and culture of voting (measured by overall turnout rates in a state). This study examines which state convenience voting laws (early, mail/absentee or EDR) are most likely to increase turnout rates for individuals from disadvantaged groups, such as citizens of lower socio-economic status [SES]. Using the more than 50,000 respondents in the nationwide 2012 Cooperative Congressional Election Survey [CCES] and an innovative integrated empirical model that employs multinomial regression, the statistical analysis in this study simultaneously examines the probability of an individual casting a ballot using these three convenience voting methods. The unique findings of this study are that low SES voters are substantially more likely to engage in early voting in low voter turnout states, and are substantively more likely to engage in mail and absentee as well as EDR voting in high voter turnout states.

Reid Ronnander
Statistics
Exploratory Prediction: The Midwest and Marijuana

Prediction is often the desired follow-through of conducting a statistical analysis; however, due to physical, economic, or logistic constraints researchers may not be able to obtain a model appropriate for conducting prediction.  A solution to this problem is using the obtained model in an exploratory way, as a means to understand the variable relations in a general sense or as a means to focus further analysis.  Using Colorado’s 2012 vote on the legalization of marijuana as an illustrated example we will create a predictive model on whether a similar vote would pass in the states of Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, discussing how this prediction could then be used as a means for further research.

Heather Roy
Communication Studies
Rosie the Riveters and The Living Wall of Honor: The Remembering and Forgetting of Women in U.S. War Commemoration

In this essay, I merge critical rhetorical theory and criticism, feminist theory, and public memory studies in order to examine the gendered implications of public war commemoration. My case study is the Living Wall of Honor Memorial and dedication for post-9/11 veterans. The organic memorial honors post-9/11 veterans, in particular the 160 fallen female soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. I argue that women are symbolically and materially given access to public spheres for remembrance, like Rosies from WWII and female veterans of post-9/11 wars, but only temporarily and when their contributions align with nationalistic ideals. We as a society are called to remember how women assisted men’s war efforts and were patriotic citizens, but compelled to forget the ways in which women have fought to transform the U.S. military, workforce, and women’s roles in society. The cultural work being done in this process of remembering and forgetting positions women’s social contributions as secondary to men’s. I trace the act of remembering and forgetting women’s war efforts in public commemoration by focusing on notions of private and public, space and place, and civic lessons of nationalism (not feminism) through ephemeral acts of war commemoration. My argument illuminates how women’s access to the public and private is still being negotiated and fought for and how war commemoration reminds women of their expected roles in society. 

Helen Rubinstein
English-Nonfiction Writing
On Not Eating the Marshmallow

This creative essay considers the psychologist Walter Mischel’s famous marshmallow experiment through a personal lens. What are the consequences of exquisite self-control? Presenting and re-presenting the “marshmallow test” from sociocultural, pop-cultural, and intimately personal angles, the essay criticizes common interpretations of Mischel’s experiment, and attempts to complicate the reader’s view of a character trait often regarded as unequivocally positive. 

Alexander Ruch
Sociology
Perceived Organizational Risks and Reputations Are Related to Individuals’ Decisions to Eat Genetically Modified Foods

Recent sociological approaches to risk research have focused on organizations and their reactivity to risk perceptions. Unasked, however, is how individuals’ beliefs, attitudes, and risk perceptions concerning organizations relate to individuals’ own risk-related behaviors. More importantly, do social judgments of organizations continue to influence individuals’ risk-related behaviors even after controlling for perceived organizational risks? This article assesses these questions by testing how individuals’ decisions to engage in risk aversion, operationalized as refusing to eat genetically modified foods (GMOs), are influenced by their perceptions of organizational risks and reputations of the businesses, medical researchers, and elected officials involved with producing, evaluating, and regulating GMOs. Using data from the 2006 GSS module on science and technology, the author demonstrates how explaining individuals’ decisions to reject GMOs cannot be reduced do a single concept such as perceived uncertainty about GMOs’ harms. Instead, social psychological concepts related to legitimacy, reputation, and social influence persist in influencing risk aversion even after organizational risks are controlled.

Philip Rudd
Music
Lady Radnor and the Amateur Women's Orchestra in Late-Victorian England

In the past one hundred years of musicological study, the description of the role of women musicians in 19th Century British musical culture has been largely skewed towards musical activities that were typically gendered female, such as domestic singing and piano-playing.
However, some notable exceptions begin to emerge after the mid-century, and an influx of highly skilled female string players set the stage for pioneering activities for women musicians in the public sphere. These efforts did not yet cross the boundary of true professionalism, but the existence of women’s orchestras in the 1880s and 1890s was an important step towards full inclusion of women in professional musical culture in the 20th century. Nevertheless, these important ensembles remain scarcely a footnote in current scholarly literature.
This research project collects and analyzes contemporary documentation of the life and career of Helen Pleydell-Bouverie, the Countess of Radnor. Lady Radnor’s remarkable career as the conductor of a large string orchestra comprised solely of young female musicians stands as an important early representative of the emergence of female musicianship from the domestic setting into the public sphere, and provides important insight into the status of female musicians in the late-Victorian era.

Thilini Rupasinghe
Chemistry
Mechanical properties of organic nanocrystalline materials prepared via different synthetic routes

Nanocrystalline materials have been shown to exhibit electrical, mechanical, thermal and magnetic properties that differ from their bulk counterparts. As a consequence these solids have been utilized in technological applications as well as in basic scientific research, which aim to provide insight into the structure-property relationship at the nanoscale. In recent years, organic nanocrystalline materials have attracted significant attention owing to their applications in the fields of pharmaceutics, materials science, electronics and medicine. Several approaches have been utilized to prepare organic nanocrystalline solids including chemical methods, sonochemical synthesis, grinding, mechanochemistry etc. Moreover, it can be claimed that the physical properties of nanocrystalline materials are heavily dependent on the synthetic method. Thus, choosing the appropriate synthetic method for the preparation of nano-dimensional crystalline materials has been key for the successful design of novel materials with preferable properties. To test this hypothesis, here in we have studied the mechanical properties of a nanocrystalline organic multi component system, (4,6-di-Cl-res)·(4,4’-bpe) formed through four different preparation methods, sonochemistry, sonofragmentation, grinding and mechanochemistry. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation technique we have shown that mechanical properties (Young’s modulus) are independent of the synthetic route. This observation is further supported by polarizability measurements performed using time domain spectroscopy over terahertz frequencies (THz-TDS).

Thilini Rupasinghe
Chemistry
Mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging technique which uniquely offers spatially resolved (~nm scale) measurements with outstanding control of applied forces (pN). Recently, AFM has extensively been used for the mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials such as molecular crystals, cocrystals, biological systems and thin films using AFM-based nanoindentation technique. This approach offers quantitative determination of the mechanical behavior of small-volume materials with a high precision, which provides an opportunity to obtain structure-property relationships. Establishing such relationship of materials is essential for potential design of novel materials with desirable and tunable mechanical, electronic, optical and chemical properties for the molecular level device fabrication. Current study involves the mechanical characterization of a series of multi-component systems (cocrystals), involving 4,6-di-halo-resocinol, as the template (where halo=Cl, Br and I) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (4,4’-bpe), where force versus distance measurements on individual nanometer- and millimeter-sized cocrystals were used to determine the Young’s moduli. A steady decrease in the Young’s modulus was observed with increasing size of the side chain halogen group (from Cl to I), which can be attributed to the differences in polarizability and strength of intermolecular interactions between systems. Overall, trends obtained herein open a new door to investigate the structure – property relationship of multicomponent systems by establishing a reliable relationship between chemical properties such as polarizability and mechanical properties of materials

Thilini Rupasinghe
Chemistry
Mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a high resolution imaging technique which uniquely offers spatially resolved (~nm scale) measurements with outstanding control of applied forces (pN). Recently, AFM has extensively been used for the mechanical characterization of nanoscale materials such as molecular crystals, cocrystals, biological systems and thin films using AFM-based nanoindentation technique. This approach offers quantitative determination of the mechanical behavior of small-volume materials with a high precision, which provides an opportunity to obtain structure-property relationships. Establishing such relationship of materials is essential for potential design of novel materials with desirable and tunable mechanical, electronic, optical and chemical properties for the molecular level device fabrication. Current study involves the mechanical characterization of a series of multi-component systems (cocrystals), involving 4,6-di-halo-resocinol, as the template (where halo=Cl, Br and I) and trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (4,4’-bpe), where force versus distance measurements on individual nanometer- and millimeter-sized cocrystals were used to determine the Young’s moduli. A steady decrease in the Young’s modulus was observed with increasing size of the side chain halogen group (from Cl to I), which can be attributed to the differences in polarizability and strength of intermolecular interactions between systems. Overall, trends obtained herein open a new door to investigate the structure – property relationship of multicomponent systems by establishing a reliable relationship between chemical properties such as polarizability and mechanical properties of materials.

Kevser Sahin Tiras
Physics
Efficiency improvement of organic photovoltaic cells by harvesting triplet excitons

There has been a great effort to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. A solar cell produces electrical current from absorbed sunlight. In OPV, the absorbed sunlight generates an excited energy state called an exciton. There exist two kinds of excitons, singlet and triplet ones. Usually, OPV use only the singlets. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic devices is limited by the short lifetime of singlet excitons, as they de-excite quickly and cannot be efficiently converted to electricity. To overcome this problem it is desirable to work with triplet excitons instead. These have a much longer lifetime, and can be converted to electrical current more easily. However, for this to work, a way must be found to produce triplets efficiently. For this purpose, we use the spin ½ radical galvinoxyl blended into the bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device. Our devices show a roughly 30% enhancement in power-conversion efficiency compared to the device without galvinoxyl. Magneto-photocurrent (MPC) measurements were performed on galvinoxyl doped devices to unravel the underlying mechanism for the increase in PCE. 

Kevser Sahin Tiras
Physics
Magnetic Field Effects of Photo-Induced Absorption and Photo-Luminescence in Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

In organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells, the absorbed sunlight generates an excited energy state called an exciton. There exist two kinds of excitons, singlet and triplet ones. In OPV the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is limited by the short lifetime of singlet excitons since they recombine quickly. To overcome this problem we have previously introduced the spin ½ radical galvinoxyl into the MEH-PPV/PCBM bulk heterojunction to harvest triplets efficiently. The photovoltaic device shows a roughly 30% enhancement in PCE compared to the device without galvinoxyl. To reveal the underlying mechanism for the increase in PCE, magnetic field effects (MFE) of photo-induced absorption and photo-luminescence have been performed in π-conjugated polymer films.

Samuel Saltzman
Geoscience
Disentangling High Frequency Climate Oscillations in a Volcanic Setting Laguna Lejia, Chile

Laguna Lejia (23°30'0" S 67°42'0" E  ~4,300m asl), Chile is a small alkaline paleolake located in the central Altiplano.  The volcanoes Lascar, Chiliques, Aguas Calientes and Acamarachi surround it. 1-3 mm laminations in calcareous sediments deposited on the southern terrace of the lake record annual chemical variability in the lake.  Preliminary U-Th ages range from 19,567 +739/- 734 yr to 4208 +431/-429 yr, indicating that the Lejia terrace deposits span periods of rapid climate change.  Changes in the major and trace element composition, stable isotopic ratios, and the amount of Li, Mg, Ca, and Sr that can be readily leached from clays provide a direct proxy for hydrologic fluctuations.  A climate signal can be detected through reoccurring trends in the chemical variability of these sediments; however, the detection of this signal is complicated by interaction with surrounding volcanic edifices.  Statistical methods such as PCA analyses using R have been implemented to separate groupings of volcanic controlled elemental fluctuations from ones under the influence of climate.

Spenser Santos
English-Literary Studies
Sufficiently Advanced: Thor as Technodivinity

Following Ben Saunders's approach in his book Do the Gods Wear Capes? I aim to read Thor for what he teaches about love. Thor's current series, Thor: God of Thunder portrays Thor in a way which encompasses Saunders's entire book: he is the space-being like Superman, the being of myth Wonder Woman is, the master of technology the way Iron Man and Spider-Man are. Yet Thor wraps these traits in magic, blending it with technology, and stands as a literal god enjoining his readers and supplicants to do one thing: love.  

Kiran Sapkota
Epidemiology
Smokeless Tobacco and Non-Tobacco Products and Risk of Oral Cancer in South-Asia: a Meta-analysis

Background
Smokeless tobacco products (STPs) and non-tobacco products (NTPs) are shown to cause oral cancer in men and women. Most of the studies on STPs use and oral cancer have been done on western populations and the literature lacks meta-analyses on south Asian populations that use unique types of STPs.
ObjectivesThe objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence related to the association between smokeless tobacco and risk of oral cavity and oropharangyeal cancer in observational epidemiological studies.
Search MethodsWe conducted a systematic electronic search from the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases and identified twelve studies relevant to our research question.
Selection CriteriaThe only studies included in the analysis were cohort and case control studies that reported smokeless tobacco as exposure and oral cancer as outcomes in Asian populations were included in the analysis. Randomized clinical trials, review articles, editorials, comments, duplicate publications, letter to editors and abstracts were excluded.
Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers independently pooled data from the selected studies and the third reviewer checked the accuracy of the data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twelve studies published between 1977 and 2012 were included in the meta-analysis.
ResultsBased on four studies of chewing habits in men and women, the pooled random effects odds ratio [OR] for smokeless tobacco and oral cancer was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 and 3.44). The OR of oral cancer for female subjects with chewing with tobacco was 16.24 (95% CI = 3.52, 75.05) and for male subjects was 6.23 (95% CI = 4.20, 9.24). Effects were attenuated when restricting analysis to chewing without tobacco products in males (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.30, 3.59).Author’s conclusion STPs use carries an increased risk of oral cancer in Asian populations. The risk, however, increases substantially when the STPs are chewed with tobacco for both males and females. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of specific ingredients in STPs in the causation of oral cancer in Asian populations.

Kiran Sapkota
Epidemiology
Smokeless Tobacco and Non-Tobacco Products and Risk of Oral Cancer in South-Asia: a Meta-analysis

Background
Smokeless tobacco products (STPs) and non-tobacco products (NTPs) are shown to cause oral cancer in men and women. Most of the studies on STPs use and oral cancer have been done on western populations and the literature lacks meta-analyses on south Asian populations that use unique types of STPs.
ObjectivesThe objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence related to the association between smokeless tobacco and risk of oral cavity and oropharangyeal cancer in observational epidemiological studies.
Search MethodsWe conducted a systematic electronic search from the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases and identified twelve studies relevant to our research question.
Selection CriteriaThe only studies included in the analysis were cohort and case control studies that reported smokeless tobacco as exposure and oral cancer as outcomes in Asian populations were included in the analysis. Randomized clinical trials, review articles, editorials, comments, duplicate publications, letter to editors and abstracts were excluded.
Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers independently pooled data from the selected studies and the third reviewer checked the accuracy of the data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twelve studies published between 1977 and 2012 were included in the meta-analysis.
ResultsBased on four studies of chewing habits in men and women, the pooled random effects odds ratio [OR] for smokeless tobacco and oral cancer was 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14 and 3.44). The OR of oral cancer for female subjects with chewing with tobacco was 16.24 (95% CI = 3.52, 75.05) and for male subjects was 6.23 (95% CI = 4.20, 9.24). Effects were attenuated when restricting analysis to chewing without tobacco products in males (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.30, 3.59).Author’s conclusion STPs use carries an increased risk of oral cancer in Asian populations. The risk, however, increases substantially when the STPs are chewed with tobacco for both males and females. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of specific ingredients in STPs in the causation of oral cancer in Asian populations.

Namita Sawant
Pharmacy (PhD)
Deposition Patterns of Nasal Sprays in Pediatric Patients

Nasal sprays available for the treatment of cold and allergy symptoms currently use identical formulations and devices for adults and children. However, it is readily apparent that the nasal airway dimensions of a child differ from those of an adult. In an effort to evaluate the deposition patterns of nasal sprays administered to children compared to adults, a nasal cast, based on MRI images of a 12 year old child’s nasal cavity, was developed using 3D printing technology. Various formulations emitting a range of spray patterns were investigated by spraying the formulation into the cast under controlled conditions. Following spray actuation, the cast was carefully disassembled and subjected to image analysis followed by quantification of formulation deposition in each section of the cast using chemical analysis. The results showed that the nasal sprays impacted entirely in the anterior region of the 12 year old child’s nasal cavity and no formulation entered the turbinate region – the effect site for most topical drugs. These findings support the hypothesis that there will be greater anterior deposition in children than in adults from the currently available spray devices, thereby resulting in altered performance of these nasal spray products in children compared to adults.

TJ Sayre
Pharmacy (PharmD)
The Human Microbiota and Pharmacotherapy

Humans have always coexisted with microbes, such as bacteria, archaea, and some fungi.  Microbes are all around us and the human microbiota consists of all the microbes that inhabit our bodies.  We are born with a microbiota and we die with a microbiota.  However, the composition of these microbes is highly variable for an individual, changing with age, body site, certain disease, geographic location, diet, and medication use.  The link between our microbiota and health has received more research as technological advances have allowed greater observation .  Some of the microbes in our microbiota are necessary and serve important functions such as protection and metabolism, and some of the microbes may be detrimental to our health.
This presentation will discuss the importance of researching the human microbiota and demonstrate how a greater understanding can be applied in the future for prevention and treatment of disease.  Drug pharmacokinetics, the use and abuse of antibiotics, and the potential for individualized pharmacotherapy will be explored in relation to the human microbiota.

Daniel Schenck
Pharmacy (PhD)
Static analysis of microparticle submersion into lung relevant viscoelastic fluids

The goal of the present study was to identify particle physicochemical properties that influence submersion into viscoelastic fluids, which have been designed to mimic the physical properties of native tracheobronchial mucus.
A poly(acrylic acid) gel model mucus was produced that emulated the viscoelastic moduli of tracheobronchial (TB) mucus. Infasurf (a model surfactant) solutions were spread onto the gel surface to achieve, with surface compression, physiologically relevant surface tensions comparable to those in the TB region (~32 mN/m). Polystyrene and ceramic microparticles were delivered to the synthetic mucus surface using a dry powder insufflator. The deposited particles at this surface were then imaged by light microscopy to determine the exposed particle diameters. Particle submersion was studied at varying surface tensions and submersion percentages were calculated.
Stable surface tensions required surfactant addition and compression, and were able to reach values as low as 20 mN/m. Particle size and hydrophobicity affected the extent of submersion into the model mucus, with smaller and more hydrophilic particles submerging to a greater extent at a given surface tension. Lower surface tensions also resulted in greater particle submersion into the model mucus, while the subphase elasticity inhibited submersion in some cases.

Daniel Schenck
Pharmacy (PhD)
Submersion and transport of deposited microparticles at a surfactant interface on model mucus hydrogels

The goal of the present study was to develop a model mucus that enables the study of transport behavior of deposited particles at a surfactant-laden mucus surface. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of mucus surface properties and particle physicochemical properties on particle submersion and diffusional transport at the air-liquid interface.
Polyacrylic acid hydrogels were developed with viscoelastic properties that mimicked those of tracheobronchial mucus. Infasurf, a calf lung surfactant extract, was then spread onto the gel surfaces and compressed to attain physiologically relevant surface tensions (~30-34 mN/m). Polystyrene, glass, & ceramic microparticles were delivered to the synthetic mucus surface using a dry powder insufflator. The deposited particles at this surface were then imaged by brightfield microscopy to determine the extent of submersion into the gel over a range of surface tensions. Lateral transport across the surfactant interface was quantified using particle tracking techniques.
A model mucus with the desired surface tensions was successfully formulated. Decreasing surface tensions resulted in greater particle submersion. Gel viscoelasticity was found to inhibit surfactant spreading, particle submersion and lateral transport. Particle hydrophobicity influenced particle submersion over a range of surface tensions on the hydrogel surface. 

Sage Schissel
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Internal Reference Validation for EB-cured Polymer Conversions Measured via Raman Spectroscopy

Advancement of EB technologies requires an increased understanding of polymerization kinetics to design targeted polymer performance properties.  However, real-time characterization of EB polymerization is challenging in the harsh EB-curing environment.  Initial conversion profiles obtained via confocal Raman microscopy were inconsistent with known cure behavior.  Although the internal reference was selected using analogous real-time-monitored UV polymerizations, the chemical bond associated with the reference was shown unstable under EB radiation.  A new reference was chosen and confirmed stable, demonstrating Raman microscopy is a valid, quantitative technique to measure conversion profiles in EB-cured samples provided the stability of the reference peak is verified.

Stefan Schöberlein
English-Literary Studies
Melting Glaciers, Rising Waters—Max Frisch’s Anthropocenic Worries in <i>Man in the Holocene</i>

From its publication in the late 1970s, Max Frisch’s Man in the Holocene  has been largely overlooked in German literary studies as well as in past and current environmental scholarship. Still, with its unique blend of personal reflections on glacial melting, short histories of the human impact on a secluded valley in Switzerland and recurring explorations of the deep tensions between individual memory and geological time, this novella not only seems to prefigure current discussions on climate change narratives but provides a deeply personal account of what it can mean to “dwell in crisis” (as ecocritic Frederick Buell has proposed). In investigating Man in the Holocene not as a self-indulgent account of aging—as past critics have done—but as a text that narrates disease as rediscovery of the world, Frisch’s literary collage of the phenomenology of a stroke opens up new pathways to not only unearthing a new perspective on Frisch’s novella and the environmental discourse of its time but to a literary imagination that, while perhaps not overtly activist, nonetheless gets to the core of what is truly entailed in bodily inhabiting a fundamentally disbalanced planet. 

Stefan Schöberlein
English-Literary Studies
Pale Maids, Gay Bachelors and the Paper Machine: Herman Melville's Critique of Transnational Industrialism in "Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids"

Herman Melville’s 1855 “Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids” stands out both for its unconventional form and its radical political argument. As a literary diptych, it presents us with two short narratives—one sketching a group of decadent ‘bachelors’ in London, one the suffering of female factory workers in a New England paper mill—and asks us to connect the pieces on our own. Still, in doing so, the vast majority of contemporary critics reads the story strictly psychoanalytical, denigrating Melville’s thorough examination of industrial capitalism to a mere surface phenomenon. This paper strays away from that trend by instead carefully examining the political and environmental contexts woven into the paper mill-section (“Tartarus”) that escape many 21st century readers of Melville. In doing so, we not only find a deep historical subtext of commerce, exploitation and pollution in western Massachusetts but rediscover the story as one of the first truly modern critiques of globalized capital. 

Jon Scholte
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Photocurable oligomers with specific molecular architecture and controllable thermomechanical properties via in situ nitroxide formation

As photopolymerization use relatively little energy and lack volatile organic compounds, it is a valued technique in the applications of coatings, adhesives and 3D printing.  The range of these applications requires photocurable formulations to access various properties, which are typically governed by an oligomeric, or large monomer, component. Oligomers, however, are often synthesized without control over their molecular architecture or functional/reactive group placement. Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP) is a powerful technique for overcoming these challenges, as it allows for precise targeting of oligomer molecular weights and its living nature allows for batch feeds allowing specific monomer placement. Herein, NMP was used during the synthesis of oligomer species to place functional groups in specific locations along the growing chain.  By manipulating the placement of reactive groups, control over the polymer network formation was then established and used to modify thermomechanical properties of the final material such as the glass transition temperature and overall toughness. We have demonstrated that final polymer properties can be tuned via the manipulation of molecular architecture without changing the chemical composition. This concept serves as a useful tool for designing safe and effective polymers for a multitude of applications.

James Schroeder
Physics
Study of Auroral Electron Acceleration in the Laboratory

Aurorae, shimmering lights in the extreme-latitude night sky, are one of the most visible impacts of solar weather on Earth. While known that aurorae result from collisions of accelerated electrons with neutral atoms and molecules in Earth’s upper atmosphere, the process for accelerating these electrons is not yet fully-understood. Decades of auroral study have produced several possible acceleration mechanisms related to the transfer of energy from the solar wind to the plasma (ionized gas) trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. Of these mechanisms, the acceleration of electrons by Alfven waves, a low-frequency wave mode that is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, is hypothesized to generate 30% of all auroral activity. Tests of this theory have been limited to correlations of satellite data and ground-based observations and are not well-controlled. Using techniques developed at the University of Iowa, a novel Alfven wave antenna and electron diagnostic are used in the Large Plasma Device (LaPD) in collaboration with UCLA. Data presented here shows progress towards the first controlled laboratory test of electron acceleration by Alfven waves.

Levent Sensoy
Physics
GeO‐PET : A Noverification of the experiment data with simulation results is achieved, optimizations on thevel 4Π Geometry Organ‐PET for Small Animals

Our objectives in this project are to 1) generate a Monte Carlo simulation of a prototype

PET scanner for imaging ex-vivo small animal organs and specimens, 2) develop and build a

prototype scanner, and 3) make a series of performance measurements on the prototype scanner

and compare results with our Monte Carlo simulations. Our central hypothesis is that once

verification of the experiment data with simulation results is achieved, optimizations on the

simulation will correctly reflect the planned changes in the physical prototype, allowing for

efficient design optimization downstream. Our rationale is that optimization of crystal size,

thickness, and detector material as well as optimization of data handling method/software and

detector geometry would result in an imaging system with an optimized balance between spatial

resolution and efficiency making it a reasonable option for small animal ex-vivo organ and

specimen imaging studies.

stef shuster
Sociology
Punctuating Accountability: Microaggressions as Systemic Violence Against Transgender People

Examining the everyday lives of transgender people reveals how microaggressions are linked to structural inequalities and the systemic oppression that transgender people confront. This is an inherently social phenomenon. Power relations and systems of gender shape the patterning of violence directed towards transgender people. Using in-depth interviews with forty transgender people in a Midwestern metropolitan area, I examine the interplay of structure and interaction in regulating transgender people in everyday life. I found that given our pervasive binary gender system that provides cultural rules for interactions, microaggressions serve to regulate people whose gender does not conform to hegemonic gender norms. Accountability to a strict gender binary results in transgender people having few ways for interacting with cisgender people that do not reinforce difference from dominant culture. This research suggests that change must occur at individual, interactional, and structural levels of society for transgender people to enter interactions free from violence.

Halle Siepman
Art
Architectural Potential

Inspired by the precision of linear perspective as a mental construct, I seek to explore the history of architectural thinking, from ancient sites in Greece to the pioneer Le Corbusier and the asymmetrical postmodern architecture of Frank Gehry and Zaha Hadid. My artwork embodies experiencing architectural space first-hand. Recently, I stood inside the Parthenon, ascended a medieval staircase, and was situated in the open air. This experience is what I want to share with the viewer. My architectural imaginations are therefore not only about architecture but about the viewer’s perception and memory of that mass and space created as one moves through and experiences it.
I examine the conflict between passively living in architectural space and actively forging my own space. During childhood, I questioned my physical surroundings and started drafting ideal architectural homes to “depart” from the experiences of growing up with seven siblings. Drawing lines helped me define my role within an otherwise challenging realm. I found emotional balance through the discovery of discernible patterns especially when looking through the sides of thick glass; I saw infinite parallelism and abstraction. Thus, I call on the viewer to reimagine a new world by examining architectural and geometric potential.

Jacob Simmering
Pharmacy (PhD)
Inter-Hospital Patient Sharing as a Mechanism of Disease Diffusion

Hospitals are highly interconnected via patient transfers and readmissions of previously hospitalized patients. This connectivity is a potential mechanism for the rapid and widespread dissemination of healthcare acquired infections. Using data from all inpatient events for the state of AZ, we have constructed a network of direct patient transfers between hospitals. We model the quarterly incidence of C. difficile as a function of mean length of stay and fraction of patients over age 65 for each hospital, year, season, year and a random effect for hospital. Using only these covariates, we have a network-naïve model. For a network-aware model of C. difficile incidence, we create a new variable that measures the weighted incidence of C. difficile at connected hospitals. This network-aware model results in a 5.7 unit decrease in Akaike Information Criterion compared to the naïve model. The effect of a 10% increase in incidence at connected hospitals is associated with a 0.3% (standard error: 0.1) increase in incidence at the focus hospital. These results suggest infection incidence and control has network dependence and should not be overlooked in future interventions.

Jacob Simmering
Pharmacy (PhD)
Fungal Infection Outcomes and Hospital Volume

Improved outcomes with higher hospital volume are well documented for surgical procedures, cancer, heart attack and heart failure among other conditions. However, correlation between improved outcomes and infectious disease is largely unknown. Using nationally representative claims data, we estimate the reduction in mortality associated with increased volume of coccidiomycosis and histoplasmosis. Patients with coccidiomycosis at high volume hospitals have a statistically non-significant 17% decrease in their odds of death relative to patients at typical volume hospitals. Patients with histoplasmosis had odds of death (p = 0.06) reduced by half at high volume hospitals. These findings were robust to repeating the regression but using mortality of patients without histoplasmosis as the outcome.

Priyanka Singh
Chemistry
Global and local effects on enzyme dynamics: Studies of Dihydrofolate reductase

We are using dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as a model system to study the protein dynamics because of its small size, ubiquity, well established structural, kinetics, and mechanistic characteristics. For a small and flexible enzyme like DHFR, various computational and bioinformatics studies have proposed that there is a network of coupled motion across the whole protein that is coupled to the reaction coordinate. The distal residues, which appear to be part of that network, are G121, M42W and F125M (in the E. coli DHFR). I14 is an active site residue that directly affects the catalyzed chemistry, and was also predicted to be part of the same dynamic network. Here, the findings illustrate how the remote mutants may affect chemistry at the active site and reveal the coupling between local and distal residues. We studied a local (I14A) and remote (G121V) mutations, and their double mutant via examination of the temperature dependence of their intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). We found that both single mutants have weakly temperature dependent KIEs while the double mutant I14A-G121V has steeply temperature dependent KIEs and the effect is non-additive. This finding suggests that both the active site residue that is directly affecting hydride transfer coordinate, and the distal residue are part of the same dynamic network. This finding suggests a path by which G121 could be coupled to the chemistry at the active site (20 Å away).

Astha Singhal
Oral Science
Impact of Eliminating Medicaid Adult Dental Coverage in California on Emergency Department Use for Dental Problems

Objective: To examine the impact of eliminating Medicaid adult dental coverage on emergency department (ED) use for dental problems by Medicaid adult enrollees.
Methods: Interrupted time series study was conducted using natural experiment of policy change in California, where Medicaid adult dental coverage was eliminated on July 1, 2009. State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) were acquired from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) for 2006-2011. A non-equivalent dependent variable was used as a control to minimize treats to internal validity. Segmented linear regression analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.3.
Results: Before Medicaid adult dental benefits were eliminated, an average of 42 enrollees visited an ED for dental problem/ 100,000 enrollees/ month. After the policy change, an average of 55.43 enrollees visited an ED/ 100,000 enrollees/ month. The policy change had statistically significant, immediate increase in the proportion of Medicaid adult enrollees who visited ED for dental problem (beta=4.75, p-value=0.0011). There was a significant time trend throughout the study period (beta=0.25, p-value<0.0001), but policy change did not change this time trend significantly.
Conclusion: The quasi-experimental study provides strong evidence that eliminating Medicaid adult dental benefits leads to an immediate and significant increase in ED visits for dental problems.

Veronica Smith
Art History
Old Brick: Living History, Building Community

A beautiful pre-Civil War structure, Old Brick has been on the national registry of historic places since 1973, but the focus of the building has been its usefulness as a venue for community events and as a hub of non-profit offices. Though community events and non-profit work are certainly worth celebrating, the Board of Directors has determined that the historic importance of Old Brick must be emphasized as a springboard for future conservation efforts. My project center on creating a dialogue with history through an creating an engaging and interactive tour. Ideally ever-evolving and thoroughly rooted in a public narrative, the tour of Old Brick is be a piece of living history to which any Iowa City resident can contribute. At the Jakobsen Conference, I will present my research for this tour as well as solicit suggestions on how to more thoroughly integrate public perspectives with academic scholarship.

Rebecca Smith
Art History
Contemporary Congregations: Bringing the Gothic to 2013 through Axis Mundi's Cathedral Fold

“Cathedral Fold,” created by John Beckmann’s design firm Axis Mundi in 2011, is a proposed design for a new cathedral for Strasbourg, France. The project was in response to a competition that the city sponsored for a new cathedral, although it has never been realized. While, Cathedral Fold utilizes some the most advanced structural technologies, sharing similarities with contemporary architectural trends like Blobism, Folding, and Parametric architecture, it explicitly references a number of typical Gothic characteristics. Not only does the design deliberately engage with the medieval architectural tradition, but it alludes to the extant cathedral in Strasbourg, specifically, bringing the Gothic style, and the still largely medieval city, into the twenty-first century. 

Francis Smith
Psychology
Phonotactic Probability Effects in Polysyllabic Nonwords

The effects of similarity on lexical and sub-lexical processing can provide insight about the way in which information about word forms is represented in the brain. Past research has largely manipulated the phonotactic probability of a whole one- or two-syllable word form. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of individual syllable manipulations of phonotactic probability on the repetition of five-syllable long nonwords. The results indicate that the beneficial effects of high phonotactic probability arise primarily at the place of manipulation such that a particular segment that is high in phonotactic probability is repeated more accurately then a segment that is low in phonotactic probability. These effects were not detected at non-manipulated syllable positions. This suggests that while manipulating phonotactic probability at only a single syllable within larger word forms produces detectable differences in whole-word repetition accuracy, these differences arise because of processing differences at the syllable level.

Jyungmean Son
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
An Age-associated Metabolic Shift from Glycolysis to Mitochondrial Respiration Regulates Fibroblast Oxidative Stress Response

Aging is a critical risk factor for numerous health issues and successful therapy outcome. The free radical theory of aging postulates that accumulation of endogenous free radicals generated from cellular metabolism causes macromolecular damage and that incomplete repair of these damage leads to age-associated health issues. In this study, we investigate the role of cellular metabolism in age-associated oxidative stress response of normal human fibroblast (NHF). Results showed NHF representative of older (61 year) individuals is more sensitive to oxidative stress induced by ionizing radiation compared to NHF representative of younger (3 day) individuals. An examination of cellular metabolism using Seahorse XF96 instrument revealed decreased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR measures glycolysis) and increased oxygen consumption (OCR measures mitochondrial respiration) in old compared to young NHF. Results obtained from RT2 Profiler Human Glucose Metabolism PCR Arrays and quantitative RT-PCR assays showed significance downregulation in the expression of the genes involved in the rate-limiting steps of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) : hexokinase 2 (HK2; 2-fold), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1; 4.5-fold), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; 2-fold) in old compared to young NHF. Because G6PD regulates the rate-limiting step of the PPP and PPP supports a reducing environment (increase glutathione levels), our results suggest that a decrease in G6PD expression combined with an increase in respiration contributes to the age-associated oxidative stress response of old NHF. 

Elizabeth Spear
Art History
“Our Special Artist”: Alfred R. Waud and the Construction of Authenticity

The figure of the so-called “Special Artist,” first created by the publishers of northern illustrated weekly magazines in order to provide on-the-spot pictorial reporting in the years prior to the Civil War, played a crucial role in the early development of image-based journalism in the United States. This development was accelerated by the vigorous and constant demand for news of the war by readers on the home front and soldiers themselves throughout the conflict. Alfred R. Waud, an English expatriate and trained draughtsman, was one of the most popular and prolific Special Artists of this period, a fact frequently attributed to his success in achieving a sense of “authenticity” and accuracy in his sketches. Comments by his fellow artists and journalists as well as reports from Union soldiers—not surprisingly, the most skeptical audience for printed news—confirm this. A focused consideration of Waud’s Civil War sketches for Harper's Weekly as well as various portrayals of Waud himself in text and image can enhance our understanding of the figure of the special artist generally as well as enriching our interpretations of the work of Alfred Waud and his contemporaries.

Katharyn Stange
Pharmacy (PharmD)
Timolol-Loaded Particles for Topical Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas

Timolol-Loaded Particles for Topical Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas
K.L. Stange1, M.N. Kelchen1, H. Ciliberto2, and N.K. Brogden1
 1University of Iowa College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242, USA
2University of Iowa Health Care, Department of Dermatology, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242, USA 
Introduction: Infantile hemangiomas are one of the most common vascular tumors of infancy. Regression of these tumors can be achieved through the use of extended-release beta-blocking agents. Topical preparations of these beta-blockers would allow for more localized treatment, decreasing risks associated with systemic therapy.
Methods: Blank and timolol-loaded particles were prepared using two different preparation methods. The first preparation involved the formulation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles utilizing a double emulsion technique. The second method involved the formulation of lecithin-chitosan (LC) particles utilizing a nanoprecipitation technique. These particles were characterized for size, PdI, zeta potential, and loading efficiency. A Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the data; p≤0.05 was considered significant.                                                                                                            
Results: The timolol-loaded PLGA particles had a significantly smaller PDI (p=0.0005) and zeta potential (p=0.0138) than blank PLGA particles. No significant difference in size was observed. The timolol-loaded LC particles had a significantly larger size (p=0.0024) than blank particles, but no significant difference in PdI and zeta potential. LC particles had a significantly higher loading efficiency than PLGA particles (p=0.0486).
Conclusions: Both types of timolol-loaded particles are suitable for use in topical drug delivery. Future studies will determine the flux of timolol through intact and microneedle treated skin. 

Katherine Steinbach
Film Studies
Medium, Channel, Communication: Emily Dickinson's Media Contexts and Commentaries

Emily Dickinson's resolutely "quiet" existence was, in fact, quite noisy. Her nineteenth-century context saw a radical shift in ideas about communication. Print media, the telegraph, and the photograph accounted for new discursive strategies, new modes of language, new words, new imaginations of bodies in space and time. Her poetry reflects influences of these media, a digestion of their meaning in her life, and her self-conscious engagement with modernity. But more than this, her media contexts reveal early moves toward networked thinking, a way of processing and relating objects and persons that we usually associate with the post-modern. The world of the mind was expanding, and through Dickinson's poetry, we get a glimpse into a negotiation with that expansion. This essay will begin with a new media ideal and use it as a lens to look back at the poet's style and content, revising the trope of her cloistered self. Attention to these reflections within her poetry redeems her very gendered isolation from emerging discourses of technology. Her engagements with media prove that while she often craved the quiet, she was equal to addressing the noise.

jelena stojakovic
Chemistry
Vortex grinding method that enables simultaneous grinding and UV-irradiation of crystalline samples

The recent burst of research on supramolecular syntheses using mechanochemistry calls for accompanying development of technology. A show-and-tell example, supramolecular catalysis of [2+2] photodimerization in the organic solid-state, would preferred a method that would allow simultaneous grinding and UV irradiation of solid samples. However, such method was not commercially available. I describe a method based on the use of a vortex mixer that enables automated grinding and simultaneous irradiation of a solid sample. Besides the vortex mixer, method requires only glass vial and shotgun BBs. When preformed using the vortex grinding method, the aforementioned photocatalysis proceeds four times faster than originally reported. The increased rate of reaction may occur due to the fact that sample was simultaneously to mechanical stress and to internal stress from the photoreaction. The method was applied to solvent-free synthesis of metal-organic frameworks and cocrystals, as well.  Such versatile and resourceful method will appeal to wide range of chemists, green chemists and material scientists. 

Gregory Stoutenburg
Lucky to Know?

Ever since Edmund Gettier's 1963 paper, "Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?" philosophers have argued over the correct analysis of knowledge.  Recently, many philosophers have thought that what goes wrong in so-called 'Gettier cases' is that people are merely lucky to have their beliefs turn out true, and that is why the subjects in Gettier cases lack knowledge.  In my paper, I challenge a recent attempt to say what luck is, and offer an original perspective on luck which promises to explain why luck rules out knowledge.

Gregory Stoutenburg
Philosophy
Sex, Drugs, Rock n' Roll: On Value Hedonism and the Higher Pleasures Doctrine

I argue that sensory hedonism is incompatible with the higher pleasures doctrine.  Sensory hedonism is a version of the very old hedonist thesis, according to which what makes a person’s life good is the amount of pleasure experienced by that person.  The higher pleasures doctrine claims some pleasures are in and of themselves of better than others regardless of the degree of pleasure that is taken in those pleasures.  John Stuart Mill, the famous defender of the higher pleasures doctrine, thought intellectual pleasures were higher quality than bodily pleasures.  In this paper, I challenge two attempts by contemporary philosophers to defend the consistency of sensory hedonism and the higher pleasures doctrine.  I conclude by arguing that sensory hedonists can accept that some experiences are generally preferable in the sense that for most people, if they were to have the experience in question, would enjoy it.  While the higher pleasures doctrine requires that claim, that claim does not require the higher pleasures doctrine.  So, sensory hedonism can respect some of the motivation for the higher pleasures doctrine even while rejecting the doctrine itself.

Hiromi Takayama
Foreign Language and ESL Education
Teacher Identity and Efficacy in Non-Native English Speaking Teachers’ Professional Development: A Qualitative Study

Non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) have been compared, sometimes unfavorably, with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) particularly in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom due to the increase of NNESTs in the world. As some scholars explained, NNESTs can have low confidence in teaching practices and self-perceived language proficiency.
This session presents a qualitative study of factors associated with Japanese NNESTs’ teacher efficacy, including identities, pedagogical beliefs, professional development, teacher training experiences, self-perceptions of their English proficiency, and cultural backgrounds. This study is comprised of three data sources: interview, classroom observation, and think aloud protocol. The interview and classroom observation data were derived from two Japanese English teachers at a university in Japan. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scales and additional demographic questions were collected from three Japanese English teachers using think aloud protocol.    
Participants’ identity is closely associated with their classroom practices. Also, their Japanese cultural and educational backgrounds influence teacher efficacy, which in turn correlates with teacher training and past teaching experiences. These findings are relevant to all EFL contexts for teachers and teacher trainers.

FAN TANG
Biostatistics
The Public Health Burden of Influenza: Clustering, Modeling, and Predicting Incidence for Diseases Associated with the Influenza

Investigating the associations among common diseases that follow a similar incidence pattern is of great interest in public health. Influenza has been linked with many seasonal diseases. However, diseases that follow a similar seasonal pattern to that of influenza may not necessarily be causally related. In this work, the first problem we consider is to identify empirically homogeneous diseases with influenza based on similarities in the temporal dynamics. We employ a structural time series model that characterizes each candidate disease incidence series as an additive combination of three latent processes: a long-term trend, seasonal variation, and a local anomaly. Correlation measures based on local anomaly and seasonal dynamics are applied to cluster the disease series. The second problem is to augment the state space models to evaluate the extent to which influenza can predict the incidence of those diseases to which it might be causally related. As a natural experiment, we examine the utility of influenza activity in predicting incidence during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

David Tarailo
Geoscience
Was the P-T Recovery Delayed on Land? A Comparison with the K-Pg Record

Faunas recovering from mass extinctions must overcome many challenges to recover taxonomic diversity and ecological complexity. Recovery after such events can be measured in many ways; this study examines the length of the survival intervals which followed the Permian-Triassic (P-T) and Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinctions. Three terrestrial fossil-bearing sequences were examined, the Early Triassic (~250Ma) Beaufort Group in South Africa and Cis-Ural sequence in Russia, and the Palaeocene (~65Ma) faunas of the American north-west.  A comparison of genus level diversity of tetrapods through time for these post-extinction intervals reveals a temporal disparity between durations of recovery intervals after these two mass extinctions.  Both Early Triassic sequences show a period of low taxonomic richness (4-5Myr) after the extinction event followed by an eventual rise in richness. The North American Paleocene sequence shows a different pattern, with an immediate rise in richness culminating in a plateau shortly after the extinction (1-3 Myr). Our results suggest that the onset of taxonomic recovery following the P-T extinction was delayed relative to that following the K-Pg extinction. The most likely cause of this delay is due to prolonged deleterious environmental conditions following the P-T event.

Heather Thorpe
Art History
Reconciling Caravaggio: The Artist and the Myth

The seventeenth-century Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio has been portrayed in the art historical narrative as a divisive figure – breaking from tradition with his use of extreme naturalism and dramatic chiaroscuro.  Some modern scholars, such as Michael Fried, have gone so far as to label him as the first modern artist, self-consciously breaking with tradition in pursuit of the new.  My aim is to show that Caravaggio is not as divisive a figure as modern scholarship and popular culture have made him out to be.  By locating Caravaggio within his historical context, I provide evidence suggesting that the artist was, in fact, influenced throughout his career by the Leonardesque tradition of painting, which he was introduced to during his apprenticeship in Milan, and by the artistic and literary culture of seicento Rome in which he began his career as an independent artist. 

Ashley Tickle
Saint Patrick's Purgatory and Altered States of Consciousness

Visions of and journeys to the otherworld are found across many cultures. These visions often share similar content. Using the vision literature associated with St. Patrick’s Purgatory, located in Lough Derg Ireland, I examine what may cause the similarities of these visions. I first establish the commonalities of these visions to each other and to similar vision journeys from different cultures such as Persian Zoroastrianism, late antique Greek Christianity, as well as fictional visions of the secular world. I then explore biological, psychological, social, and religious theories that could account for these similarities and explain the cause of the visions themselves. I conclude that the best explanation for the visions of Saint Patrick's Purgatory and their similarities is that they are a result of Altered States of Consciousness. This is not to say that these journeys and visions are unreal or the result of mental deficiencies. Science still has many more areas of our world and our minds to examine.  

Emrah Tiras
Physics
Same Sign Dielectron Search for Heavy Majorana Mass Neutrinos with the CMS Detector

The non-zero mass of the neutrinos has been confirmed with the discovery of neutrino oscillation and with this confirmation a search for a mechanism to explain non-zero mass of neutrinos has become popular among particle physics collision experiments such as LHC. In this presentation, we will briefly explain the current status of a search for heavy Majorana mass neutrinos (N) using an event signature defined by two same-sign electrons and two jets. This is one of the mechanisms to explain the massive nature of the known neutrinos. The data used in this analysis collected with the CMS detector during 2011 (7 TeV) and 2012(8 TeV) operation. 

Alexandre Tiriac
Psychology
Rapid Whisker Movements in Sleeping Newborn Rats

In infant rats, spontaneous activity in the retina, cochlea, and skeletal muscles of the distal limbs is thought to contribute to the development of the visual, auditory, and sensorimotor systems, respectively. Interestingly, spontaneous activity of the whiskers has not been described. We and others have shown that spontaneous motor activity in the form of limb twitching is a defining feature of active sleep; also, sensory feedback from twitching activates primary somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. Here, using high-speed videography, we investigated spontaneous whisker activity during sleep and wakefulness in unanesthetized 3- to 6-day-old rats. Motion-tracking software was used to determine the magnitude and angle of whisker deflections. We found evidence of asynchronous whisker activity during bouts of active sleep that could not be attributed to gross movements of the mystacial pad. In contrast, when the mystacial pad did move, all whiskers moved synchronously. We conclude that whiskers, like limbs, twitch during active sleep. These data, together with evidence of twitch-related activity in whisker thalamus and barrel cortex, suggest that peripheral spontaneous activity contributes to the development of the whisker sensorimotor system.

James Toomey
Astronomy
The Nature and Origin of the Galactic Center Radio Arc: A VLA Faraday Study

The center of the galaxy is a dynamic and turbulent region driven by intense gravitational, pressure, and magnetic forces. These mechanisms produce diverse structure including non-thermal filaments (NTFs). The most prominent collection of these filaments is the Galactic Center Radio Arc. Despite being discovered almost 30 years ago, their origin remains poorly understood. The Radio Arc NTFs have an unusually flat spectrum in the centimeter to millimeter spectrum with a predicted, though poorly constrained, turn-over between 30-200 GHz. The improved spectral and wide-band capabilities of the EVLA provide a fantastic opportunity to make a multi-frequency spectral and Faraday study of the Radio Arc. The Radio Arc was observed at a set of low radio frequencies (continuous coverage over 2-6 GHz & 10-12 GHz) in order to image both the total and polarized intensity distributions at high angular resolution (~1") . Presented here are the preliminary results from four observations spanning May 2013 to February 2014 using the DnC, CnB, B & BnA array configurations. Ultimately, these observations will serve as a pilot polarization study for larger, more complete polarimetric surveys of the Galactic center region.

Mai Tu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Functionalized Polymeric Particles for Targeted Delivery to the Lung Epithelium

Targeted drug delivery to the lung is challenging due to poor penetration through the mucus barrier and limited uptake into the lung epithelium. To facilitate mucoavoidance and cell attachment of drug-containing particles, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and lipooligosacharides (LOS) from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was used to coat the surface of polymeric vehicles. The goal was to develop polymeric particles with tailored surface characteristics to enhance targeted delivery to the lung epithelium.
Polystyrene particles (1 µm) were coated with either PEG or the targeting ligand LOS 3198 with high Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) content. LOS was isolated using proteinase K/hot phenol method and the ChoP expression was verified using dot immunoblot and ELISA. The particle surface was characterized by ELISA and zeta potential measurements. The fate of coated particles was investigated using the in vitro bronchial epithelial cell cultures 16HBE14o-. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to quantify particle association with cells.
The fate of surface-modified particles is dependent on the concentration and type of ligand coating. As the concentration of the particles increases, the %cells associated with these particles increases. This study provides evidence of selective uptake of LOS-coated particles on 16HBE14o- cells via the platelet activating factor receptor.

Eric Tvedte
Biology
Effects of Reproductive Strategies on Genomic Molecular Evolution in <i>Diachasma</i> Parasitoid Wasps

The success of a lineage is contingent on how its genome changes over time. Genetic variation is influenced by mutation and recombination in sexual organisms. Mutation from one base to another produces raw genetic variation which can be passed down to successive generations. Recombination can bring together new combinations of advantageous alleles and purge genomes of deleterious changes. Asexual organisms are different in the extent to which genetic variation occurs in their respective genomes. Asexuals experience mutational changes; however redistribution of beneficial and/or deleterious mutations is limited to the extent of the frequency of recombination. Ultimately, the mode of reproduction is likely to exert a strong influence on how genetic variation is created, maintained, and eliminated on a genomic scale. My research goal is to understand how rates of molecular evolution can be influenced by reproductive strategies. This project will utilize closely related asexual and sexual lineages in two complementary (one natural, one laboratory) invertebrate systems. Broadly, this study will permit a greater understanding of the evolutionary advantages of the maintenance of sex and the requirements for long-term asexual survival. 

Katherine Usik
Religious Studies
The Hunt for Ma'iingan: Ojibwe and Wolf Hunting in the Great Lakes Region

With the removal of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) from the United States Endangered Species Act in 2012, several states legalized wolf hunting as part of wildlife management programs and the protection of livestock. However, the legalization of wolf hunting has created much conflict between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, especially in the Great Lakes region. Many Anishinaabe, or Ojibwe, in the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan object to the state-sanctioned wolf hunting because of their long-standing religious and ecological relationship to wolves as relatives. In the Anishinaabe creation story, the Creator Gitchi Manitou sent Ma’iingan, or Wolf, as a brother and companion to the original human, where the lives of Anishinaabe peoples and wolves would forever become intertwined. While the wolf hunting conflict appears to be one between religion and the broader secular state, it is complex issue, involving historical religious conceptions of land and power among Anishinaabe and non-Indigenous Americans. Power and traditional ecological knowledge in Anishinaabe culture originates from non-human sources, where humans must establish relationships with other-than-human beings to survive and achieve bimaadiziwin, or “the good life.” In this view, wolves are a source of power, knowledge, and well-being for humans. In this presentation, I will explore the underlying religious roots of U.S. environmental policy, and how an Anishinaabe wolf-based epistemology is a valid ecological model for the Great Lakes region. 

Julia R. Van Liew
Psychology
Psychosocial factors in adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer: An emerging context for adherence research

Purpose: For patients with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, survivorship entails prolonged self-management of adjuvant treatment in the form of daily hormone therapy.  Although sustained daily adherence across the five-year course of therapy is associated with improved recurrence-free survival outcomes, adherence is suboptimal and many women discontinue hormone therapy prematurely.  Factors associated with breast cancer survivors’ non-adherence and non-persistence are not comprehensively understood.  Furthermore, psychosocial variables have only received limited research attention, despite their documented relationships with adherence in other chronic illness populations.  Methods: A comprehensive literature review identified fourteen studies that analyzed relationships between psychosocial factors and breast cancer survivors’ adherence and/or persistence with adjuvant hormone therapy.  Results: Although identified relationships were complex and at times inconsistent, salient conclusions emerged.  Interpersonal factors, in the form of positive social support and patient-centered interactions with medical providers, as well as intrapersonal factors, such as beliefs about the relative benefits of medication use, were reliably associated with better adherence and persistence.  Contrary to data from other medical populations, mental health factors were not consistently related to adjuvant hormone therapy adherence outcomes in the reviewed literature.  Conclusions: Adjuvant hormone therapy appears to be a unique context for medication adherence, which warrants further attention and more rigorous analysis in future research.  Individual patients’ psychosocial characteristics and health care preferences should be considered when striving to optimize medication adherence.

Benjamin VanVleet
Social Studies Education
Integrating a Transformative Multicultural Approach in Teacher Preparation

The demographic imperative facing American schools requires teacher preparation to approach multicultural education training in a more transformative way. Multicultural education training that focuses only on the heroes-and-holidays approach does not promote the rigorous equity needed in 21st century diverse classrooms. This document analysis seeks to synthesize scholarship related to making multicultural education training in teacher preparation more suited for the 21st century. Ideas analyzed are: 1) teacher preparation should address and expose privilege; 2) teacher preparation should focus on the inclusion of marginalized groups; 3) teacher preparation should work to promote ideas of global citizenship; 4) teacher preparation should produce student-centered educators who will be culturally-responsive teachers. Suggestions for implementing theory into practice will conclude this survey of literature in the field of multicultural education teacher training. 

Dan Vatterott
Psychology
Experience modulates attention to irrelevant distractors: Evidence from saccade deviation

In tasks such as visual search for a target item among distractors, the question whether attention is primarily allocated based on bottom-up or top-down factors has dominated the literature for the past twenty years.  Recent research on the role of experience in driving attentional control has created a more nuanced picture than the classic dichotomy would suggest. In the present investigation, we examined whether experience with specific distractors changes the amount of attention allocated to them, or the amount of time needed to filter them. To answer this question, observers voluntarily executed saccades to a target location across four blocks of trials; each block contained a different color distractor on 80% of the trials. Saccades deviated away from distractors more early in the blocks than late. These results show that experience with distractors does not modulate the amount of time needed to filter them; it instead indicates that experience with distractors decreases the amount of attention allocated to them. 

Miriam Verploegh
Sociology
Gender Attitudes: How Social Position and Family Background Effect The Construction of Egalitarian Gender Ideologies

In order to look at the development and transmission of gender ideologies and gender attitudes I turned to longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of women and men in the NLSY 79. By observing changes with age, family background and social capital I argue that we can better understand how society constructs gendered roles as well as how it shapes individuals to better fit into and maintain these roles. I would like to test whether we can understand ones political or intellectual worldview as a function of the socio-cultural location within which they were socialized.   The first part of the paper will focus on a literature review of gender ideology and gender attitudes, I will then explain the a small part of my data and findings from the NLSY79, and lastly I want to propose a research plan that will look at change in gender ideology over the lifecourse as well as the ways in which gender ideology is transmitted among generations
 

Stacy Voccia
Management Sciences
Same Day Delivery for Online Purchases

Same day delivery for online purchases is a trend being embraced by Amazon, Wal-Mart, eBay, Google, and a handful of recent Internet startups. Same day delivery, however, is a logistically complicated and expensive service to operate. There is a need for efficient routing strategies for large-scale operations. We introduce a dynamic pick-up and delivery problem with deadlines that incorporates key features associated with same day delivery logistics.

Leah Vonderheide
Film Studies
Intersecting Archives and Gaylene Preston's "War Stories Our Mother Never Told Us" (1995, New Zealand)

Analysis of Gaylene Preston's "War Stories Our Mother Never Told Us" (1995, New Zealand) reveals an intersection between three archival mediums: film, photographs, and oral histories. Preston's "deceptively simple" documentary is comprised of interview footage of seven elderly New Zealand women - Flo Small, Penny Quill, Tui Preston (the filmmaker's mother), Jean Andrews, Rita Graham, Neva Clarke McKenna, and Mabel Waititi - who recount, one-by-one, their experiences during World War Two. As each woman speaks, the mid-shot to close-up footage of the interviewee is crosscut with photographs and film clips from national archives in New Zealand, Great Britain, and the United States, as well as personal photographs from the women's family albums. Despite its seemingly simple formal construction, I propose that Preston's film is a new type of archival document that not only juxtaposes the public/official history of the archive with the private/personal testimony of oral traditions, but also weaves together these fractured histories into a new cultural text. Thus, created by a filmmaker who insists that the only difference between documentary and drama is "the process," "War Stories" provides a distinctly new public narrative of World War Two New Zealand.

Yu-Chi Wang
Foreign Language and ESL Education
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students’ Identity Position in an Afterschool Book Club

Scholars have found that students’ learning is reinforced if teachers incorporate students’ backgrounds into their curriculum, especially for students with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CLD) (Moll, 2013). However, research studies have shown that literacy practices at schools often benefit native-English-speaking students and do not give enough recognition to CLD students’ diverse experiences (Nieto, 2010). tt Thus, the purpose of this qualitative research is to investigate three elementary CLD students’ participation in an afterschool book club since September 2014. The study aims to answer how the CLD students position their identities and what Discourse related to their cultural and linguistic backgrounds emerge in the book club by reading various multicultural children’s books. Theories from a sociocultural perspective are used to help interpret the data. Data collection includes two interviews with the students, approximately 20 video and audio recordings in the book club, and 10 written responses from students’ journals. Gee (2011) and Fairclough’s (2001) concept of critical discourse analysis and qualitative research methods are applied to analyze the data. The findings of the study hope to help teachers gain a better understanding of CLD students literacy learning and to shed light into literacy practices in both academic and nonacademic settings. 

Wenjun Wang
Management Sciences
Topological Resilience Analysis of Multiagent-based Supply Networks under Random Disruptions and Targeted Attacks

Along with the rapid advancement of information technology, the traditional hierarchical supply chain has been quickly evolving into a variety of supply networks, which usually incorporate a large number of entities into complex graph topologies. The study of the resilience of supply networks is of great importance and interest. In this paper, we refine two network resilience metrics and develop new supply-network growth mechanisms. We integrate them with two fundamental network topologies (i.e. random-graph network and scale-free network) with attachment strategies that reflect the heterogeneous roles of different types of nodes in the supply network, and evaluate their resilience against both random disruptions and targeted attacks. This research provides preliminary but important insights into the construction and resilience analysis of complex supply networks.

Andrea Weare
Journalism
“Your Beauty Bestie”: A Discourse Analysis of Michelle Phan’s YouTube Beauty Hauls, Digital Video Production, and Transnational Feminist Theory

This paper explores the nuances of beauty and labor ideologies in YouTube beauty haul (shopping purchase) videos produced by Michelle Phan. As a YouTube success story and rising makeup entrepreneur, Phan embodies the YouTube star: hard working, digitally present, and flexible to molding her brand based on what attracts “clicks.” While feminist media studies have explored the psychological and material ramifications of beauty as a myth, fewer have considered beauty as a labor in a digital age where much production is done for free. This study aims to contribute to feminist digital media studies by questioning how global flows of beauty ideology travel on YouTube, supporting transitional feminist theories that cultural influences do not travel unidirectionally from the West and highlighting the experiences of women of color—like Phan—who increasingly use digital platforms to create community. As a study of exploratory nature on a YouTube genre that has not yet been heavily analyzed, the research questions consider: RQ1) How does Phan identify with beauty ideologies? RQ2) How does Phan identify with the labor of beauty consumption and the labor of digital video production?

Andrea Weare
Mass Communication
“The Allure of Budget-Worthy Beauty”: Women’s personal finance media and the beauty myth on LearnVest.com

Media and feminist studies have looked critically at beauty industry discourse production and the ramifications for consumers, but a gap exists in discussing beauty industry discourses within the booming genre of women’s personal finance media. This discursive juncture quite literally draws in female readership with promises of “the good life.” This study conducted a discourse analysis of LearnVest.com using Wolf’s (1991) beauty myth as its theoretical framework to explore: 1) what is the discourse on LearnVest.com surrounding the values and actions of the beauty industry, and 2) how does the website’s interwoven economic mobility discourse engage questions of intersectionality? Results show that while LearnVest indicates potential for progressive messages, the assumptions and expectations to research, perform, and maintain “beauty work” largely render its readers economically disempowered. Additionally, while LearnVest may aim to address a range of readers, its beauty discourse largely speaks to middle/upper class white females.

Allison Wells
History
Agents of Democracy or Lost in a Racial “No Man’s Land”: American Concerns about the Children of American Men and Filipinas in the 1920s

In 1898, the United States invaded the Philippine Islands with the expressed goal of reforming and training the people of the islands for American-style democratic self-government. Such efforts ran contrary to the desires of many Filipinos, and American rule required a substantial military commitment, stationing many soldiers in the islands for years. The annexation of the Philippines was also controversial in the U.S., prompting various anti-imperialist sentiments and criticisms. These domestic tensions about the responsibilities and consequences of imperialism erupted noticeably when the 1920 Census revealed 18,000 progeny of American men and Filipina women living in the islands, 4,000 of whom American officials declared were children in dire need of aid. This presentation argues that the American philanthropic campaigns to help these children and the public response to calls for aid reveal much about American assumptions about race and gender as articulated through the sometimes competing goals of imperialism and democracy. Placing this history in conversation with similar works on European colonialisms, this presentation helps minimize the distinction between the U.S. and other colonizing powers, repudiating the claim that U.S. efforts in the Philippines were more benevolent than those of their European empires. Furthermore, this case study provides a useful locus for integrating the often-separate histories of race, gender, and imperialism in the U.S. 

Timothy Weng
Psychology
Differential effects of acute exercise on distinct aspects of executive function.

An abundance of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that across many age groups regular participation in physical exercise is an effective behavioral strategy that benefits cognition, particularly executive functions. However, exactly how exercise improves cognition remains poorly understood in humans, hindering the development of evidence-based recommendations for improving cognition. Investigating the acute effects of exercise may reveal insights about the parameters that determine accumulated outcomes of long-term exercise interventions. Moreover, comparing the acute effects of exercise on functionally distinct components of executive function may illuminate specific mechanisms through which exercise affects the brain. In the current report, participants (N = 26; mean age = 25.23 years) performed cognitive testing on two different aspects of executive function (working memory and inhibitory control) before and after a thirty-minute bout of physical exercise. The results indicate that working memory processes are differentially affected by acute exercise compared to inhibitory control. This specificity suggest that brain mechanisms related to working memory are preferentially targeted by physical exercise. 

Gloria Wenman
Urban and Regional Planning
Engaging the National Guard in Recycling and Composting

This presentation will consider the combination of academic knowledge and military experience to positively influence increased recycling and initiation of composting in Iowa National Guard units. The military throws away a staggering amount of waste each year. The only recycled items are paper and cardboard—both because of federal mandates. The objective is to keep as much waste out of landfills as possible by including plastics and other recyclables, and by composting food that would otherwise be thrown away. This would decrease the need for additional raw materials to enter the production stream, thereby decreasing energy needs and reliance on resources which grow scarcer every day. The presentation looks at several factors including the civic engagement potential of the project. Society may benefit as a result of decreased energy and raw resource needs, as well as decreased need for additional landfill space. Of practical concern is buy-in from the National Guard, education for proper recycling, sustaining the project after implementation, and initial funding resources.

Katie Wetzel
English-Literary Studies
Interpreting Literature with the City of Literature

Iowa City is internationally recognized as a “City of Literature”, but so much of that identity is lost on the undergraduate population. As such, I plan to develop a curriculum for an undergraduate literature course to identify narratives related to specific places within Iowa City. This course will ask students to slow down and observe their environment, specifically Iowa City, and consider the significance of place and spatial representation within literary studies. The goal of this project is to build on to the “City of Literature” database through collaboration with citywide organizations, as well as to connect students’ literary studies with physical places and thereby ground their study of literature in the very immediate and material concerns of the community surrounding them.

Kayla Wheeler
Religious Studies
Who Speaks for Islam?: Policing Muslim Women’s Voices on YouTube

The circulation of translated Islamic texts such as the Quran, the hadith, and the works of Muslim jurists has increased access to religious knowledge and the ability and to make independent interpretations of Islam.  With their new religious knowledge, Muslims have taken to YouTube to create their own space in order to discuss their interpretations of Islam.  While this is a global phenomenon, American Muslim women contribute a large portion of the available information and opinions of Islam on YouTube.  American Muslims and western Muslims in general are no longer dependent on classically trained Muslim scholars, who are often male and located in the Middle East, for advice.  YouTube allows Muslim women to create safe, anonymous spaces in which they can discuss issues and seek guidance from other women who are experiencing the same day-to-day struggles without fear of censorship from government officials or religious leaders.
Men, or people who depict themselves as men online, have entered these digital spaces reserved for Muslim women in order to criticize and police these women, in order to challenge their right to make individual interpretations.  Responses from men opposed to female YouTube bloggers can range from submitting verses from the Quran to death threats.  This paper will explore how Muslim woman bloggers have responded to these challenges.   Through this paper, I hope to show that these women are a part of a larger movement that undermines the traditional power relations with in Islam.

Lahiru Wijenayaka
Chemistry
Improved Theoretical Prediction of Functionalized Nanoparticle Stability and Ensuing Optoelectrical Properties via Interaction Pair Potential Modeling

Prediction of the thermodynamic stability of nanoparticle dispersions is commonly achieved via the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (xDLVO) theory, and is central to most nanotechnology applications. However, this model often fails at predicting nanoparticle stability when surface coatings are present on the nanoparticles. In this study, synergistic contributions from a size-dependent Hamaker constant, surface potentials and ligand tilt angles produce a novel and empirically consistent application of the xDLVO theory, which is experimentally verified using carboxylic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles in solution. First, a size-dependent Hamaker constant for gold nanoparticles is incorporated into van der Waals contributions by assuming size-dependence of the imaginary part of dielectric permittivity of the metal. Second, surface potentials contributing to the electrostatic interactions are estimated assuming a Poisson-Boltzmann charge distribution and a uniform local dielectric constant. Finally, the effective monolayer thickness which governs the steric interactions for the three selected ligands is quantified using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity towards changes in the local dielectric environment. Interaction pair potentials between functionalized nanoparticles modelled via the inclusion of these three modifications to xDLVO theory provides an accurate description of functionalized gold nanoparticle interactions as experimentally verified using the electrical properties of these carboxylic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles.

Tyler S. Williams
Communication Studies
The Nintendo Entertainment System as Ushering in the Personal Computer Revolution – for Kids

At its U.S. debut in 1986, the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) represented an innovative, computation-driven model for how to use the family television. At a time when middle-class professionals began using computers at work, these parents could now effectively bring the personal computer revolution home in a form their young children could recognize: digital game worlds which resembled animated TV cartoons.
Nintendo’s system represented the maturation of a nascent media technology, the innovative but bare-bones Atari Video Computer System (VCS) introduced in 1977, into a highly graphical and intuitive format. Nintendo’s media appliance crossed computers with cartoons, incorporating the emotionally-expressive and dynamic formal conventions of Japanese manga comics into its game worlds, creating a format which the first-borns of Generation Y intuitively grasped.
The NES gained entrance to middle-class U.S. homes through magazine marketing as a family-friendly home toy, yet it converted kids into followers with TV and poster promotions declaring: “Now You’re Playing With Power!” Indeed, the NES’ hybrid of sophisticated graphics hardware with innovative game design offered children of the ‘80’s new powers of imagination. Through transforming child’s play at a mass-market level, Nintendo was inducting the first digital-native generation into the new computational world.

Kathleen Winn
Educational Policy and Leadership
The Intersection of Policy Implementation and the Elementary Principal as an Instructional Leader

Through the principal-agency theory (PAT) lens, this study analyzes the literature pertaining to the principal’s role as the instructional leader and the literature on professional development opportunities aimed to advance this capacity for school leaders.  Hallinger’s (2013) conceptual framework on reviewing educational leadership literature is employed to highlight the pertinent theoretical and empirical literature.  Suggestions are given for K-12 district leadership to provide effective support of their building administrators in order to facilitate an increase of self- efficacy for both building principals and their elementary teachers during the potential implementation of new educational policies such as the recent release of the Next Generation Science Standards.

Erin Witek
School Psychology
Investigation of an Individualized Sight Word Intervention for a Struggling Reader

Oral reading fluency is one of the five most important skills needed for reading, but it receives little direct instruction.  Students, who struggle with fluency, or reading rate, have lower performance in all academic areas.  Most interventions for oral reading fluency focus on skill building or repeated rehearsal, where children must first obtain basic, fundamental skills before progressing to repetition with stories and passages.  One basic intervention is sight word instruction, which teaches children to memorize high frequency words that are not wholly decodable.  Most sight word interventions require delivery of unknown words by using flashcards repeatedly or reading racetracks, which involve a game-like format to reinforce reading words quickly and to increase reading enjoyment.  The current study investigated the use of a sight word intervention with a second-grade student.  The intervention involved repeated exposure to both known and unknown sight words through the use of flashcards and a reading racetrack.  Each intervention session involved five different activities, where both an untimed and timed element was used.  Baseline assessment showed that the student knew 151 of 220 sight words.  Intervention results showed that the student gained 56 new sight words, completed four levels of a Dolch word list, and started learning third grade-level words.  Future directions and implications are also discussed.

Amaraporn Wongrakpanich
Pharmacy (PhD)
Mitochondria targeted PLGA particles that protect against myocardial cell death

Myocardial cell death in ischemic/reperfusion injury is caused by an excess of Ca2+ influx to mitochondria. These results in Ca2+ overload and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which leads to the induction of programmed cell death. The Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) enzyme is responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ entry. To address this problem, we have designed polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) particles, loaded with 21-mer peptides (a CaMKII inhibitor), that can target mitochondria within cardiomyocytes. The targeted release of the 21-mer CaMKII inhibitor in the mitochondria is expected to reduce myocardial cell death. These carefully engineered particles will also be formulated to include mitochondria localization sequences (MLS) to increase particle uptake by mitochondria. Using the double emulsion-solvent diffusion method with 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) surfactant and ethyl acetate (EA) as the organic solvent, particles in the size range of 200 nm were generated and tested for their capacity to be taken up by cells in a differentiated rat cardiomyocyte-like (H9c2) cell line in vitro.

Wusheng Xiao
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Downregulation of Mitochondrial Complex II sdhc and sdhd Expression Sensitizes Human Keratinocytes to Environmental Pollutant PCB3-quinone

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental pollutants that elicit adverse health effects. 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) has been detected in Chicago air, human blood, and paints. We have shown that 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-benzo-2,5-quinone (4-ClBQ: metabolite of PCB3) increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species correlating with toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. In this study, we hypothesize that perturbation in cellular metabolism regulates 4-ClBQ induced toxicity in HaCaT cells. Results showed 4-ClBQ increases glucose consumption, which correlated with increases in the expression of glycolytic genes (HKII and PKM2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; the rate-limiting step of the pentose phosphate pathway, PPP). The increase in G6PD expression was associated with increased cellular glutathione level and pharmacological inhibition of G6PD enhanced toxicity of 4-ClBQ, suggesting that the protective effect of the PPP is active in 4-ClBQ treated cells. Additional results showed that the 4-ClBQ significantly downregulated expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II subunits C (sdhc) and D (sdhd), which was associated with decreased complex II activity, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased oxygen consumption. These results suggest that while the PPP is functional, mitochondrial injury due to decrease in complex II activity contributes to 4-ClBQ induced toxicity in HaCaT cells. (Supported by funding from the NIEHS P42ES013661, NIH 2R01CA111365, and NIH/NCI P30CA086862)

Shuyi Yang
Second Language Acquisition
The Influence of L1 Translation Familiarity in the L2 Acquisition of Chinese Antonyms

Vocabulary learning is an important aspect of second language (L2) acquisition. One technique of vocabulary instruction is to introduce semantically related words together while it remains controversial whether it improves or interferes the learning. Another common practice of vocabulary instruction is to use learners’ L1 translation. Most L2 textbooks include a vocabulary list that consist of L2 words and their L1 translation equivalents. L1 translation equivalents are also frequently used to prompt the production of L2 words. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the features of L1equivalents such as learners' familiarity to them could influence L2 vocabulary learning, and to be more specific, the facilitating or interfering effect of teaching semantically related L2 words.
The present study examines the effect of L1translation familiarity on the learning of antonyms, which are semantically related words, among English-speaking L2 learners of Chinese. 15 intermediate level learners participated. Fifteen pairs of antonyms with different L1 translation familiarity (5 pairs of high-high, 5 pairs of high-low, 5 pairs of low-low) were used as materials. The participants first learned the thirty L2 words within 30 minutes. Then they completed a multiple-choice test of the meaning of the words. One week later, a delayed test following the same format was conducted. The results showed that: L1 familiarity effect on L2 antonym learning is a long-term rather than a short-term one; L2 pairs that have high L1 familiarity had better learning rate and lower interference level; L2 pairs that have similar and low L1 familiarity levels caused great interference effects. Pedagogical implications were provided based on the findings.

Nilanthi Yasapala
Chemistry
Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 2-PAM Analogs as Potential Resurrecting Agents for Aged Human Acetylcholinesterase

Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of 2-PAM Analogs as Potential Resurrecting Agents for Aged Human Acetylcholinesterase
Sumana N. Yasapala and Daniel M. Quin٭
 
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential enzyme in the human neuronal system. The essential role of AChE makes it a main target for the development of organophosphorus compounds (OP) such as pesticides and extremely toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs). After inhibition of AChE by OP, the inhibited enzyme can undergo two processes called spontaneous reactivation by nucleophilic attack of a water molecule in the active site, or an aging process where the enzyme is irreversibly inhibited after loss of an alkyl group of the phosphylated enzyme. The current OP poisoning treatments include the administration of a muscarinic antagonist, e.g.atropine, , an agent  to treat seizers that arise from inhibition of AChE in the central nervous system and certain oxime such as 2-pyridinium aldoxime methyl chloride, 2-PAM, which serves as an antidote by nucleophilically displacing the phosphyl moiety from the active site. There is no known oxime or other antidote that is able to displace the phosphyl moiety from the active site of aged AChE. However, if the phosphonate anion of the aged adduct is alkylated, known oximes could then be used to reactivate the OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Therefore, we synthesized several methyl analogs of 2-PAM and studied kinetic parameters to determine the ability of reactivation of aged-AChE. Some of the methyl analogs of 2-PAM may arylate the aged enzyme, thereby making the non-aged form of the enzyme. The data further revealed that known oximes can then be used to reactivate the resulted non-aged enzyme. However, from our preliminary study, none of the compounds showed reactivation of the aged-AChE adduct after incubation with the well-known oxime, 2-PAM. This might be due to steric hindrance. However, we hypothesized that a small oxime such as monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) has the potential to reactivate the arylated enzyme. This issue is currently under investigation.

Yin Yu
Biomedical Engineering
Functional Articular Cartilage Regeneration by Chondrogenic Progenitor Cells Homing

Articular cartilage damage associated with joint trauma seldom heals and often leads to osteoarthritis (OA). We previously identified a chondrogenic progenitor cell (CPC) population that migrated chemotactically and rapidly repopulated the injured cartilage matrix, which suggested their potential for articular cartilage repair. We hypothesized that increased recruitment of CPCs by rhSDF-1α would promote the formation of cartilage matrix upon chondrogenic induction using an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) comprised of fibrin and hyaluronic acid. Full-thickness bovine chondral defects were filled with IPN containing rhSDF-1α, followed by chondrogenic induction. Regenerated cartilage tissue was evaluated both biochemically, ultrastructually and biomechanically. We found that rhSDF-1α dramatically improved CPCs recruitment to defects at 12 days. After 6 weeks chondrogenesis, repair tissue cell morphology, proteoglycan density, and ultrastructure, were similar to native cartilage. Neocartilage generated in rhSDF-1α-containing defects showed significantly greater interfacial strength than controls, and acquired mechanical properties within physiological range. This study showed that stimulating local CPCs recruitment with chondrogenic factors significantly improves the mechanical properties of regenerated articular cartilage. This simple approach may be implemented in vivo as a one-step surgical procedure by staging the release of chemokine and chondrogenic factors from within the hydrogel using smart drug delivery systems.

Jia Yu
Management and Organizations
The Power of the Neglected Ones: A Configural Approach to Understanding Leader-Member Exchange in Teams

Previous research and conventional wisdom suggest that the success of organizations, units, and teams often rests in the hands of highly competent or “core” employees, who demonstrate superior performance and occupy important positions. As a result, competent employees typically receive more valuable resources from supervisors compared to their less competent or “non-core” coworkers, particularly when resources are limited. Similarly, some leadership scholars have argued that managers create the most effective teams when they develop high quality relationships with a few key employees and rely on them to accomplish important team tasks. In contrast to this prevailing conventional wisdom and previous research, and drawing on the weakness-based paradigm, we demonstrate that in interdependent teams, team effectiveness (i.e., performance and viability) is more dependent on leaders forming high quality relationships with less competent team members, compared to more competent ones. Specifically, incorporating a configural approach and using data from 88 work teams, we found that the leader member exchange (LMX) quality of less competent team members (i.e., those having lower task performance or occupying peripheral positions in team networks) is more strongly related to team processes and, ultimately, team performance and viability, compared to more competent members. 

Zhenyu Yuan
Management and Organizations
Parental Job Insecurity, Challenge and Hindrance Appraisals, and Youths’ Outcomes

Past research on parental job insecurity suggests that it can have negative influence on youths’ academic and work attitudes. In the present study, I revisit this question by looking at whether youths’ actually appraise their parents’ job insecurity as a challenge or a hindrance. Findings suggest that youths’ challenge appraisals of paternal job insecurity are related to higher levels of academic engagement and intrinsic motivation to work, thus highlighting the role of appraisals in influencing youths’ coping behaviors to parental job insecurity.

Kasra Zarei
Biomedical Engineering
Validated, Novel Computational Methods Enable Automated Phenotyping of Glaucoma in Rodent Models

Purpose: To validate and apply our publicly-available, novel, automated method (AxonJ) of optic nerve section analysis for precise phenotyping of normal and glaucomatous mouse models.
Methods: To maximize the strength of the validation, a variety of mouse strains were evaluated at several time points. PPD stained optic nerve sections were imaged at 40x and 100x magnification. Two human experts independently counted sampling regions at 100x magnification. AxonJ was used to determine whole nerve axon counts and axon density on all images. Manual and automated counts were compared using correlation coefficients. Extrapolated and automated 40x counts were also compared. AxonJ inter-section variability was assessed using a correlation.
Results: Counts from AxonJ correlated closely with counts obtained from humans at 100x, r2 = 0.95, while human-to-human correlation was r2 = 0.97. AxonJ whole nerve counts at 40x also correlated with counts extrapolated from human grading of 10% of the optic nerve area, r2 = 0.94. Inter-section repeatability was high, r2 = 0.95.
Conclusion: AxonJ counts all axons in whole optic nerve images with a performance equivalent to human experts counting a small subset of the axons. AxonJ is fully-automated, parameter-free, runs in less than a minute on a standard desktop, and does not make assumptions about the distribution of axons across the optic nerve.

Ke Anne Zhang
Psychology
Modeling the Sources of Stability and Change in Externalizing Psychopathology: A Longitudinal Meta-Analysis

Structural equation modeling techniques can be applied to longitudinal data to disentangle contributions to patterns of stability and change to a variety of phenomena. The current meta-analysis is interested in describing the course of externalizing psychopathology over the life span as well as quantifying contributions from constancy factors, transactional processes, and stochastic processes. Emphasis is placed on testing whether stability is a result of unidirectional processes conceptualized as constancy factors or whether it is a result of the emergent properties of transactional processes. Results showed long-lasting stability in externalizing behavior, such that correlations between externalizing behavior never decays to zero over longer test-restest intervals. Influence from constancy factors were more important than transactional processes in contributing to this stability. This suggests that such stability in the level of externalizing psychopathology may be determined directly by factors in and around the person, instead of emerging through dynamical interactions. Practically, this indicates a need for researchers to elucidate those sources of constancy and intervene at whatever level that constancy is found in order to disrupt ongoing externalizing psychopathology.

Hui Zu
Pharmacy (PhD)
Solubility and dissolution characteristics of an acetaminophen cocrystal

Cocrystals have been found as an approach to modify drug solubility and dissolution. The red color of acetaminophen (ACE) -2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDA) cocrystal, arising from a decreasing pi-pi* separation, indicates the color-characterized interaction of these two components.
The goal of this study is to determine the intrinsic dissolution behaviors for ACE-PDA cocrystal, and to elucidate how one component affects the dissolution and solubility of the other.
The aqueous solubilities of ACE and PDA were determined by adding excess ACE into PDA aqueous solutions at various concentrations, or vice versa, and equilibrating at 37 °C for 3 days. The solid forms of undissolved solutes were characterized by DSC. Rotating disk was utilized for intrinsic dissolution studies of cocrystal, pure ACE, PDA and their physical mixtures in water at 37 °C.
The addition of ACE or PDA did not change solubility of the other. Physical mixture dissolution and the phase solubility diagram have demonstrated the weak complexation between ACE and PDA in water. Cocrystal congruently dissolves into water at the same rate as pure PDA, but less than ACE.  Since ACE and PDA did not interacts with each other too much, the dissolution rate of cocrystal depended on PDA which dissolved more slowly than ACE.