James F. Jakobsen Graduate Conference Abstracts, 2016

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Jhon Rojas
Pharmacy (PhD)
Cellulose II: Silicon dioxide material: A new multifunctional Excipient for developing Immediate release Dosage forms

A novel cellulose II:SiO2 (98:2, 95:5, 90:10 and 80:20 ratios) coprocessed excipient was introduced by wet granulation, spheronization and spray-dried techniques. The cellulose II:SiO2 composites (95:5 w/w) produced by spray-drying exhibited spherical/oblongate shape, narrow distribution and median size of ~50 µm; whereas the composites produced by wet granulation had larger distribution, granular shape and a median size of ~100 µm. Independent of the process used granules exhibited better flowability, higher tap and bulk densities than the parent cellulose II and commercial cellulose I products. Likewise, irrespective of the compression pressures used, its compacts showed a fast disintegration time (<300 sec). The novel composite excipient overcomes the drawbacks and reinforced the tableting properties of cellulose II alone. The spray-dried and wet granulated materials could be an effective multifunctional direct compression excipients, while the spheronized product has potential applications in the formulation of capsules especially for immediate release of high and low dose drugs such as griseofulvin and diphenyldramine hydrochloride, respectively.

Adam C Bradford
English-Literary Studies
Re-collecting Soldiers: Walt Whitman and the Appreciation of Human Value


Tiara G. Pérez
Understanding the Dual Functions of SdpI in Cell Signaling and Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)

Bacillus subtilis is a gram positive bacterium commonly found in soil and marine environments. Under nutrient limiting conditions, B. subtilis enters the pathway of sporulation. Studies have shown that B. subtilis can delay sporulation via cannibalism. Sporulating cells kill nearby siblings and feed on the nutrients released. This process involves three proteins: a toxin, an immunity protein and a repressor. The toxin (SdpC) induces expression of the immunity operon which includes an autorepressor (SdpR) and an immunity protein (SdpI) which acts both as a signal transduction protein and confers resistance to SdpC. SdpI appears to be the founding member of a new family of proteins which may confer resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Since SdpI is a dual fuction protein our goal was to isolate mutants of SdpI which separate the two functions. Using both site-directed and random mutagenesis we uncovered two classes of mutants which map to a putative cytoplasmic loop which is highly conserved among family members. Class I mutants confer resistance to SdpC but fail in signal transduction. Conversely, class II mutants act as signal transduction proteins but fail to confer resistance to SdpC.

Achilleas Tsakiris
Civil and Environmental Engineering
A Fractal-Based Approach for the Characterization of Roughness in Gravel Bed Streams

Pattern recognition in gravel mountainous streams is of paramount importance for engineering applications, such as numerical modelling and sediment transport, ecohydraulics and geomorphological studies. The most prevalent patterns on the bed of mountainous streams arise due to clusters, which are patches of organized sediment particles superimposed on the stream bed. These clusters have been documented to attain shapes such as pebble and in-line, depending on the prevailing flow and sediment availability conditions. To date, however, cluster shape characterization has relied on visual observation. The objective of this study is to introduce a method for objective characterization of cluster shape. The fractal dimension, D, of clusters was estimated, because of its proven potential to characterize the shape of natural patterns. D, was first calibrated against a series of artificial clusters of known shape and then applied to clusters developed in an experimental channel. The results showed that D can successfully characterize the different cluster shapes and yield valuable insight into the degree of expression of the dominant processes, responsible for cluster shape. This finding could be very beneficial for aerial surveys and pattern recognition in gravel streams and goes hand in hand with modern mapping methods such as lidar systems and digital photogrammetry.

Blake W. Buchan
Identification and Phenotypic Characterization of a New Regulator of Virulence Gene Expression in <em>Francisella tularensis</em>.

F. tularensis causes a severe, lethal disease in humans. These bacteria are capable of infecting many cell types, though the primary target seems to be macrophages. F. tularensis averts the toxic arsenal of the macrophage by escaping to the host cell cytosol where it can safely replicate. This is dependent upon genes in the iglABCD operon. We used a strain harboring a reporter of igl expression as the basis for a mutagenesis screen to identify new regulators of this virulence-associated operon. One mutant, migR (macrophage intracellular growth regulator), showed reduced expression of genes in the iglABCD operon and was impaired in its ability to grow in macrophages but not epithelial cells. qRT-PCR data using a site-directed migR mutant strain confirmed the reduction of igl gene expression and also revealed a reduction in expression of fevR, a known regulator of the iglABCD operon. We compared the intracellular growth phenotype of migR and fevR mutants in macrophages and epithelial cells. Results demonstrate a reduced ability of each mutant to grow in macrophages, while only the fevR mutant was also impaired in its ability to replicate in epithelial cells. Examination of the migR mutant in macrophages revealed co-localization of the mutant with phagolysosomal markers LAMP1 and cathepsinD, reflecting an inability to escape from the phagosome to the host cell cytosol.

Jonathan Rattner
ICSCTV's "Linn Street Intergenerational Collective" - Collaborative Television with University of Iowa Students and Iowa City Senior Citizens

An extension of my artistic practice is civic engagement.  Since 2005, I have been the creative director of Iowa City Senior Center Television (ICSCTV) where a dozen crewmembers, ranging from sixty-five to eighty years in age, create six hours of television each month for the Internet and three public access channels. In 2006, I launched the "Linn Street Intergenerational Collective," a series of short and long term collaborative video projects with the Senior Center video crew and students from the University of Iowa.  For these collaborations, which have resulted in programs about race, gender, sexuality and politics, I act as a facilitator, producer and teacher rather than a filmmaker.  The ultimate goal of the "Linn Street Collective" lies not only in the videos that the intergenerational producers create, but also in the conversations that occur and the personal reflections that result while making the videos.  This collective has offered an opportunity to individuals who have traditionally been socially segregated by age to share their personal stories and, in doing so, gain a renewed sense of who they are and the society in which they live. Since it’s launch, this project has produced over forty videos with graduate and undergraduate students from five different departments.

Brandon J. Patterson
Pharmacy (PhD)
Comparison of Extraversion and Openness Dimensions of Personality between Innovative and General Pharmacist Populations

This study compares extraversion and openness personality factors in two pharmacist samples: innovative and general pharmacist. The sample of innovative pharmacists included 321 innovative pharmacists from across the nation. The general pharmacist sample included 567 pharmacists from Iowa. Self-administered questionnaires were used. Questions to assess extraversion and openness personality factors were the same. Averages were computed for both extraversion and openness summed scores and compared using t-tests. There were 341 usable surveys (60.1%) were returned in the general pharmacists sample and 166 (58.2%) in the innovative pharmacists sample. Average extraversion and openness scores for the general pharmacists were 3.40 (±0.700) and 3.46 (±0.527), respectively. Average extraversion and openness scores for the innovative pharmacist sample were 3.86 (±0.648) and 3.76 (±0.492), respectively. The differences between the means for both factors were statistically significant (p<0.01). Differences in personality factors, such as extraversion and openness, between innovative and general pharmacists could help explain pharmacist behavior in the adoption of patient-centered practice such as Medication Therapy Management. Further research is necessary to elucidate the significance of pharmacist personality differences as the profession continues expansion into care services.

Megan Schwalm-Bell
Social Foundations of Education
Public Health Education as Social Activism: Hull House Woman’s Club During the Turn-of-the-Century

Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House, Chicago’s first settlement house, in 1889 as a means of confronting poverty, poor housing conditions, disease, discouragement and other ills that flourished in the predominately immigrant Halstead neighborhood. The aim was to be neighbors with the poor and to share in their plight, while working with them to improve the neighborhood. The Hull House offered numerous educational activities to the surrounding neighborhoods, as well as social events, reading parties, and classes in the arts. One of the most utilized programs at the Hull House was the Woman’s Club. The goal of the Woman’s Club was to partake in "genuine helpful work", or activism. Historians have examined the social activism that took place at the Hull House during the turn-of-the-century but most have focused on political organizing and occupational safety efforts. Although these are arguably the two most well known activism efforts put forth at the Hull House, it is evident that activism took other forms including the use of public health education. It is clear from examining the work of the Hull House Woman’s Club during the turn-of-the-century that public health education was an important form of social activism both for the Woman’s Club and the Hull House as a whole.

Amy L. Jones
Social Studies Education
Desktop Documentary Making: Connecting the History Classroom and Community Through Visual Learning

Desktop documentary making provides an opportunity for history to come alive for both history students and their communities.  Students become civically engaged by interviewing community members and visually documenting local areas of historic relevance in order to produce a visual narrative that may then be given back to the community through public presentation and preservation in community institutions.

Christina Freisinger
Interaction Between Rgs3 and the Wnt Signaling Network During Zebrafish Organogenesis

Activated G proteins function in a large variety of signaling pathways and physiological processes, including Wnt signaling networks which impact cell polarity, calcium dynamics and organogenesis. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins have the ability to bind specific G alpha subunits and function as GTPase activating proteins thereby playing essential roles in the duration of G-protein signaling. We have isolated rgs2, 3, 4, 5, and 16 and characterized their embryonic expression patterns in the zebrafish (danio rerio). The developmental requirements for Rgs3, 4, and 5 were determined by gene knockdown. We find that RGS proteins are required for normal somite formation and vascular outgrowth. We also determine a critical requirement for a functional RGS domain by site-directed mutagenesis of rgs3 coupled with phenotype rescue of embryonic defects. Additionally, we identify overlapping phenotypes and genetic interaction between Rgs3 and Wnt5. We also demonstrate that Rgs3 activity impacts Wnt-mediated calcium release dynamics, suggesting a role for RGS in modulating the Wnt signaling network.

Colleen Ferguson
Tuning Preferences of Violinists

Although a vast amount of research has been done on the topic of musicians’ perceptions and performance of intonation, few studies have investigated how musicians tune an instrument like the violin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tuning preferences or tendencies of violinists. Subjects were tested for speed and accuracy tuning the open strings of instruments that were pre-tuned either high, low, or already in tune. Although no statistically significant data was discovered, a case can be made for the conclusion that violinists prefer tuning from below a pitch, and the more flat the pitch the better. Subjects were both fastest and most accurate at tuning the lowest pitched string. This conclusion is supported by other research.

Margaret MacInnis
English-Nonfiction Writing
Of Hearts

&quot;Of Hearts&quot; is a short piece of literary nonfiction that walks the line between memoir and personal essay, exploring the narrator's memory of her acting debut as the Queen of Hearts, her father's manic depression, and a neighbor's suicide.

Colleen Trantow
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Mutation of Lyst in Mice Recapitulates Aspects of Human Exfoliation Syndrome

PURPOSE.  Human eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) exhibit a distinctive pattern of iris transillumination defects that are recapitulated in Lyst mutant mice carrying the beige allele. Here, we determine the anatomical basis for the Lyst-mediated transillumination defects, test whether Lyst mutant mice develop other features of XFS, and describe the molecular basis of the beige mutation. METHODS.  Lyst mutant mice and strain-matched controls were compared by clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic analyses. RESULTS.  Slit-lamp examination shows that Lyst mutant mice uniformly exhibit XFS-like transillumination defects. Histological analysis shows that these defects correlate with a “saw-tooth” morphology of the iris pigment epithelium. Lyst mutant mice also produce an exfoliative-like material, and exhibit pronounced pigment dispersion.  Sequence analysis identifies that the beige mutation is predicted to delete a single isoleucine from the WD40 domain of the LYST protein, suggesting that this mutation is likely to disrupt a protein-protein interaction. CONCLUSIONS.  Lyst mutant eyes exhibit multiple features of XFS. Our results demonstrate that mutation of the Lyst gene can produce ocular features of human XFS and suggests that LYST or LYST-interacting genes may contribute to XFS.

Karna Barquist
synthesis and applications of magnetic fuctionalized zeolite composits.

Magnetic, functionalized zeolite composites were made and tested for chromate adsorption capacity.   The results showed that despite a decrease in surface area from 120 m2/g to 50 m2/g the adsorption was unchanged.   The materials were able to be collected by magnetism, a simpler solution than previous nanoscale functionalized zeolites.

Kelly C. Rowe
Self-paced Timing Task Shows Sensitivity to Subtle Dysfunction in Pre-diagnosed Huntington's Disease

Cognitive outcome measures remain unknown for pre-diagnosed Huntington's disease (people with the genetic mutation who do not yet show diagnosable motor symptoms) (preHD), though efforts are underway to conduct clinical trials in these participants. This study compared performance on a self-paced timing task between preHD and healthy normal participants, and evaluated the relationship of timing performance with proximity to diagnosis. 747 preHD and 188 healthy participants listened to tones presented at 550ms intervals, matched that pace by tapping response keys using alternating thumbs, and continued tapping at that pace for 31 taps after the tone had stopped. Linear modeling examined the relationships between timing precision and age, gender, education, musical experience, typing experience, and proximity to diagnosis. Proximity to diagnosis was strongly related to timing precision (t=-11.32, df=918, p<.0001), even considering demographic and experience variables. Additionally, the task detected impairment in individuals far from HD onset (as low as 4.3% 5-year diagnostic probability). The self-paced timing paradigm has potential for use as a screening tool or outcome measure in preHD trials, given that it is sensitive to subtle changes in function and could be used to gauge therapeutically-mediated improvement or maintenance in function early in the disease.

Elisabeth Erickson
Health and Sport Studies
Disabling Discourses: Breast Cancer, Komen for the Cure, and Critical Disability Theory

Each year, 1.3 million people participate in the Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure series in more than one hundred events across the world, raising funds for breast cancer research and advocacy. Komen for the Cure has redefined our culture's response to cancer through mobilization of government, the private sector, and grassroots efforts. To some extent, the very presence of a woman with a mastectomy or a bald head from chemotherapy treatments participating in a Race for the Cure upends the binary of able-bodied and disabled that is constructed in our social discourse, and challenges the idea of breast cancer as a disabling disease. However, the grounding of Komen for the Cure's hope for solutions to breast cancer in medicine, as well as its emphasis on personal responsibility, perpetuates a medical model of disability, rather than a social model, and despite a breast cancer survivor's participation in Race for the Cure, still lays the label of "disabled" upon the body with breast cancer. This paper applies critical disability theory to our notions of "sick" and "well" as they relate to breast cancer patients and survivors, their participation in the Race for the Cure series, and Susan G. Komen Foundation.

José A. Vélez-Marulanda
A Combinatorial Approach to the Description of Endomorphism Rings and Ext Groups

Quivers, which are directed graphs, play an important role in the representation theory of finite dimensional algebras. If k is an algebraically closed field, then every finite dimensional k-algebra can be realized as a quotient algebra of the path algebra kQ of a certain quiver Q. We concentrate on a specific quiver Q in which each vertex is the starting point (respectively the end point) of exactly two arrows. We consider a particular quotient Λ = kQ/I of the path algebra kQ such that all finitely generated Λ-modules can be described combinatorially by using certain words in Λ, called strings and bands. We use this description to visualize the indecomposable Λ-modules in another graph, called the Auslander-Reiten quiver of Λ. We describe the components of this Auslander-Reiten quiver which contain Λ-modules whose endomorphism ring is isomorphic to k. We determine the Ext groups of the modules in these components whose stable endomorphism ring is isomorphic to k. The significance of this work is that this will lead to the determination of the universal deformation rings of these modules.

Adam J. Case
Free Radical and Radiation Biology
Aberrant thymic development in a T-lymphocyte specific MnSOD knock-out mouse

The SOD2 gene encodes the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Down regulation of MnSOD has been reported in many cancer cells of diverse tissue origins, and forced over expression of this enzyme in carcinoma cells decreases their tumorigenicity. These findings suggest that MnSOD functions as a tumor suppressor; however, it remains to be determined whether loss of MnSOD is sufficient for tumor formation. Using Cre-lox genetics, we now have the capability to generate mice in which SOD2 may be knocked out in a cell type-specific manner. We focused initially on T-lymphocytes because of previous studies in heterozygous SOD2+/- mice that suggested a role for decreased MnSOD in lymphomagenesis. We established and genotyped the T-cell specific SOD2 knockouts and confirmed the lack of MnSOD as determined by RT-PCR and western blotting.  Using flow cytometric analysis, we detected indicators of altered T-lymphocyte development including an ~8-fold decrease in total thymic T-cells, the absence of CD8+ cells, and an increase in CD4, CD8, and CD3 triple-negative immature lymphocytes. Cohorts of mice have been placed on a long-term tumor evaluation study. Future studies will examine parameters indicative of oxidative stress in SOD2 null T-lymphocytes that may contribute to the observed phenotype.

Amber L. Jannusch
Communication Studies
An Encomium of Helen and Nixon: tempering praise and blame in controversial historical moments

Two well-known classical Greek rhetoricians attempted to write an encomium of Helen of Troy. While Isocrates argued that an encomium is categorically different from a defense of conduct, Gorgias focused on tempering the negative conduct of Helen of Troy by combining forensic and epidictic appeals and thereby acknowledging, rather than excusing, her sordid history. Gorgias' technique can be seen in the rhetoric surrounding the impeachment and subsequent pardoning of President Richard Nixon. Members of Congress, President Nixon, and President Ford all followed a similar combination of forensic defense and epidictic praise regarding the Watergate scandal and the actions of President Nixon. Helen of Troy and President Nixon are figures enmeshed with a negative history. Praising these figures outright, without acknowledging the public disparagement or condemnation, would alienate the audience, and the rhetorician's assertions of the subject's good qualities would be rejected. Thus it is necessary to temper the praise of the encomium with acknowledgment of the subject's actions, adding an element of forensic defense to the epidictic encomium, as originally done by Gorgias in his Encomium of Helen.

Stephanie M. Blalock
English-Literary Studies
Whitman Sober?: Signing the Pledge and (Re)forming the Reader, or Walt Whitman's Washingtonian Experience

Last year, the Philadelphia Brewing Company introduced "Walt Wit" a White Beer that features its white-bearded namesake, the poet Walt Whitman on the label. In a sobering twist of irony, Walt Whitman's early fiction writings as well as his later poetry actually mobilize nineteenth century temperance discourses to win over American readers. Indeed his vision of being affectionately absorbed by his readership emerges from his interest in a specific brand of temperance reform, that of the Washington Temperance Societies, or the Washingtonians. In this paper, I show that Whitman appropriated even as he modified the Washingtonians' approach to reform in order to implement a unique social change:  a reformation of readers and the experience of reading. Far from regarding temperance discourse solely as a form of entertainment, Walt Whitman's fascination with the Washingtonian movement not only shaped his aesthetic philosophy regarding the relationship between poet and reader, but also became the very root of his Calamus poems-the best expression of his vision of democracy and homoeroticism.

Nidhi Sahni
A Candida albicans-Specific Region of the alpha-Pheromone Receptor Plays a Selective Role in the White Cell Pheromone Response.

Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen. It exists as a commensal in healthy human hosts but is highly opportunistic and capable of causing severe systemic infections in individuals with a weakened immune system.  To become mating competent, C albicans must also undergo a unique switch from the white to opaque phenotype. Opaque cells release pheromones that elicit opaque mating responses. Opaque cells of the opposite mating type through the release of pheromone enhance the thickness of majority white cell biofilms and white cells in turn facilitate opaque cell chemotropism in the mating process. Furthermore the signal transduction pathways controlling the opaque and white pheromone responses share the same upstream components, including the α pheromone receptor gene, STE2, heterotrimeric G-protein , STE4, the MAP kinases, CEK1 and CEK2 and the gene for the downstream transcription factor CPH1. Here we demonstrate that a C albicans-specific region of the first intracellular loop, IC1, of the α-pheromone receptor Ste2p, is required for the α-pheromone response of white cells, but not that of opaque cells. This regulatory configuration, while common in higher eukaryotes is extremely rare in fungi lending support to the idea that the interactions>between opaque and white cells may represent an antecedent to higher eukaryotic multicellularity.

Mohammad A.Basir
Science Education
Fostering student engagement in science inquiry

Although body of research in science learning theoretically emphasizes the important role of disciplinary engagement in learning science, practically creating an educational environment engaging students in science inquiry is one of the challenges in science education. The focus of this presentation is on the case of an elementary teacher in rural area of Iowa who has developed inquiry-based approach of teaching over five years. The first part of the presentation shows how students' authorship and accountability, as a sign of engagement and learning, in science inquiry have been improved in the classroom of that teacher. We conjectured that this improvement maybe related to some changes in the position of the teacher from teacher as "source of power and knowledge" to teacher as "learner and facilitator." In the second part of the presentation, the rational and advantages of further study on this case has been explained.

Erin Thatcher
Pharmacy (PhD)
Effectiveness of Medication Dispensing Machine


Rengin Firat
Human Values and Social Capital

In the last decade, research on social capital mainly pointed that there is an increasing decline in the social capital levels of the Western societies. I propose a study analyzing European Social Survey (2004, Round 2) to predict the key determinants of social capital and understand how these predictors determine the rise or decline of social capital cross-culturally. More particularly, this study's purpose is to predict the key determinants of social capital including media, urbanization and socio-economic development of a country and understand how these predictors determine the rise, decline or change in the form of social capital mediation of value orientations of people. My main focuses as dimensions of social capital in this paper are social trust and political engagement. My central hypothesis is that socio-structural and cultural changes including media, urbanization and socio-economic development of a country predict changes in social capital through a mediation of value orientations of people. My rationale for this study is that understanding key predictors of the change in social capital will provide a clarification to the question if social capital is declining or changing form.

Craig Webster
Film and Video Production
The Iowa City Film Project

The Iowa City Film Project is a proposed collaboration between community- and university-based filmmakers and poets who attend the International Writing Program (IWP). The project would invite one of the visiting poets in the IWP to work on creating a short film while with the help of a production team. The poet would be challenged to form and describe in images his or her vision and the filmmakers would transform these imaginings into film/video images. The resulting film or video would be submitted to festivals in the US and abroad to expand the reach of this cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural dialogue.

Seon Lee
Actor Observer Asymmetry

In the actor-observer asymmetry literature, actors attribute their behavior to situations while observers attribute the actors' behavior to dispositions ( Malle, 2006). However, there are only a few studies that have investigated the presence of the observer as a potential cause of actor behavior in the actor-observer dyad. This experiment investigated how actor and observer perceive the impact of the observer's presence on the actor's task performance. In one study, pairs of college students ( n=84) were randomly assigned either to the role of speaker or listener. Speakers delivered impromptu speech in front of listeners. Afterwards, both were asked how the listener's presence had affected the speaker's speech. Also, participants who did not serve as speakers or listeners watched one of the video-recorded sessions to rate the impact of the listener's presence on the speaker's speech. We found that listeners and videotape-viewers overestimated the role of their presence: they assumed listeners' presence had caused the speaker to perform worse on the speech, made the speaker feel nervous, more so than the speaker believed. Results indicated that there are social situations that observers may exaggerate their own causal role in producing the actor's behaviors and thoughts.

Ozan Abaci
Civil and Environmental Engineering
A Verification Methodology for the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model for Larger Watersheds

A major water quality impairment in the Midwest United States is sediment eroded from agricultural lands. Yet, few understand the spatiotemporal variability of erosion, or soil erosion dynamics, in relation to precipitation, topography, land management and severe events (e.g., flood). Long-term measurement of erosion is expensive and not practical. Utilizing process-based, distributed models such as WEPP allows an inexpensive and quicker way of predicting spatial and temporal variation in erosion. One key limitation of the WEPP model is the maximum “field” size that the model is applicable to. This study questions the performance of WEPP model for a 26 km2 watershed, which is 10 times larger than the recommended maximum size (2.6 km2), by comparing WEPP-predicted sediment delivery ratio (SDR) values as a function of the drainage area and also as a function of the runoff coefficient (defined as the runoff/rainfall ratio) with the values reported in the literature. Both drainage area and runoff coefficient seemed to be good predictors of the SDR and the model overall performed well, indicating that WEPP might be applicable to larger sized watersheds.

Alice Miller Phillips
Art History
Max Ernst: Printmaking and Surrealist Automatism

German Dada and Surrealist artist Max Ernst employed chance methods of creation and a variety of experimental techniques throughout his prolific career.  Ernst attempted to channel the “pure psychic automatism” proposed by Andrè Breton in the Surrealist Manifesto (1924) by allowing imagery to surface from chance-created designs and techniques such as frottage.  However, Ernst’s printmaking methods and his collage novels such as La femme 100 têtes (1929) create a unique and paradoxical episode of Surrealist automatism.  Ernst’s collages create a seamless fusion of images gathered from nineteenth-century wood-engraving illustrations, which he recombined into startling, dreamlike compositions.  Although he intended his work to represent dream states and transcend conscious control, the collage prints imply meticulous craftsmanship and source image selection.  Studying the combination of irrational and symbolic elements in collages from La femme 100 têtes and researching how Ernst constructed such images reveal highly original concepts of automatism and personal iconography.

Amber Goedken
Pharmacy (PharmD)
Comparison of Financial Incentives to Use Generics and Generic Use among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries before and after Medicare Part D

The Medicare drug benefit that began in 2006 offers prescription drug coverage for U.S. seniors. Seniors may elect to obtain drug coverage through this benefit, or they may receive coverage from former employers or other sources. Regardless of the source of coverage chosen, nearly all insurers are encouraging seniors to use generic drugs rather than brand name products due to rising drug costs. One tool employed by insurers to promote generics is the use of financial incentives whereby seniors pay more for brand drugs than generics. It is not clear how financial incentives and use of generics have changed since initiation of the Medicare drug benefit. Thus, we undertook this study to examine the use of financial incentives in seniors’ drug plans and seniors’ use of generic drugs. We surveyed 1220 beneficiaries shortly before the Medicare drug benefit began, and we surveyed 1024 beneficiaries nearly two years after the benefit started. We collected information on their health status, insurance coverage, drug costs, and prescription use using online surveys. We observed an increase in the percentage of beneficiaries who paid more for brand drugs than generics, and we found the difference in price between generics and brands grew. We also discovered a larger proportion of beneficiaries’ medications were filled as generics after the benefit.

Evan Meaney
Film and Video Production
Shannon's Entropy

Claude Shannon was the father of modern data compression. To him, information was a series of signals, marginalized in their presence and lamented in their absence; being the electronic values which carry what we know away from us, in the hopes that it will, one day return unscathed. The source footage for this piece was altered through Shannon's own equations, becoming what we might call corrupted - as the end point no longer matched the expectations of the receiver. Through these images and sounds we are left to excavate a site comprised of Shannon's own allusions:  emotive schematics, a multitude of voices, and a quiet love story.

Pradeep Mandapaka
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Statistical Structure of Peak Flows: Role of Rainfall Variability

This study examines the role of rainfall variability on the spatial scaling structure of peak flows using the Whitewater River basin in Kansas as illustration. Specifically, it investigates the effect of rainfall intensity, duration and intermittency on the scatter, the scale break and the regression exponent of the power law fitted to the peak flows vs. upstream areas. It also illustrates why considering individual hydrographs at the outlet of a basin can lead to misleading interpretations of the effects of rainfall variability. A recent formulation of flow velocity for a network of channels is employed to calculate peak flow scaling exponents. The results show that for a fixed intensity, the scaling exponent increases with an increase in the rainfall duration. For a fixed duration, the scaling exponent does not change with intensity for linear channel routing and decreases with intensity for nonlinear channel routing. The main effect of intermittency in the rainfall field is to increase the scatter in the scaling structure of the peak flows. The results obtained from simple scenarios in this study can be used to make rigorous interpretations of the peak flow scaling structure obtained from actual space-time rainfall.

Amy L. Jones
Social Studies Education
Desktop Documentary Making: A 21st Century Medium for Historical Narrative

Desktop documentary making combines emerging technology with the classroom pursuit of historical engagement and understanding.  Students actively collect, analyze and interpret a variety of primary source documents in the interest of constructing their own historical narratives.  Through the addition of audio and juxtapositioning, students can communicate their understanding of an historical topic to a broad audience, while confronting the persuasive capabilities of mass media.

Nathan Titman
American Studies
Spectacular Little War Plays: Theater and the Masculine Ideal During the Spanish-American War

This paper analyzes various New York productions from 1898 and 1899 to examine how theater performance allowed the figure of the male soldier to emerge as the symbol for national unity. While other popular media privileged the figure of the white Rough Rider, the presence of actual soldiers in late-nineteenth-century theaters, both in the audience and onstage, allowed spectators to imagine themselves as participants in a unified nation, led by virile white men. At the same time, enthusiasm for patriotic war melodramas largely relied on the social status of the audience member(s) in question, and messages of racial inclusion were not always greeted with kind applause. The reception of Spanish-American War representations in the theater held the potential to disrupt the image of America as a masculine, yet benevolent, nation. While scholars often view popular culture in this period as a contributing factor to imperial legitimization, Spanish-American War representations occasionally made social, cultural, and political contestations visible in theaters.

Ozge Girit
Communication Studies
All Things Turkish: Representing Turkey in Chicago

In my paper I will critically analyze and evaluate how the Turkish nation and culture is ‘performed’ and ‘constructed’ in the Turkish Festivals in Chicago. I will explain how today nations like Turkey utilize their culture for political as well as economic reasons, and how nation states as well as a number of different private and civil organization take part in promoting and even ‘branding’ nations and national cultures. I will be using qualitative methods to examine the interactions between the Turkish State and its institutions; the Turkish Diaspora in the U.S.; and a number of Turkish-American and Cultural Organizations who help in the organization and performance of the nationality festivals and/or parades in the United States, and in Chicago in specific. I will be able to observe first hand the decision-making processes behind the promotion or ‘branding’ of a nation by participating in the Turkish Festivals in Chicago that takes place once every year (usually in the months of May), taking part in the festival committee’s private meetings, and by interviewing the organizations and individuals who have helped in organizing and/or sponsoring this festival.

Bridget Draxler
English-Literary Studies
Performance and Morality in the Eighteenth Century Novel: Richardson’s Heroines and the Divided Dramatic “Character”

If you spend much time wandering the Library of Congress PR 3600s, you may have noticed that Samuel Richardson is fated for all foreseeable eternity to share his shelf with Lord Rochester.  A bawdy aristocratic poet and an uptight bourgeois novelist have become permanent inmates due to the similarity of their surnames.  But how little does Richardson have in common with a writer reputed for impropriety?  Critics in this debate fall into two camps: either Richardson is a anti-theatrical moralist, or he is a hypocritical stage-addict.  Relying heavily on McKeon’s dialectical method, this paper suggests that theatricality and morality are not necessarily mutually exclusive categories for Richardson.  In particular, by tracing Richardson’s use of the term “character” throughout <em>Pamela</em> and <em>Clarissa</em>—a term that embodies this dialectical relationship between theater and morality, defined as both a fictitious role and an essential quality—we discover that Richardson was far from ignorant of Pamela and Clarissa’s “performative” qualities, but that he did not necessarily undermine their morality as a result.  Richardson’s novels are not so much a rejection of theatricality, then, as an appropriation of the eighteenth-century stage as offering a system—and a vocabulary—to explore the tension between performed and essential character.  

Rebecca Church
Between God’s Peace and the King’s: eleventh and twelfth century violence and its effects

The turn of the eleventh century in France saw a growth in prosperity and violence, pious reflection and aggressive state-building. In addition to millennial anxiety, the phenomenon of the Peace of God movement expressed the growing concern of non military groups for the level of violence and injustice to which they were subjected by armed men, ending with an oath to keep the peace by protecting the property and persons of the unarmed, namely, women, the peasantry, and the clergy was taken. While Peace and Truce of God gatherings ended in the eleventh century, the language used continued into the twelfth. In addition, violence in the form of duels or trials by ordeal was often sanctioned in disputes. After the popular spectacle of eleventh century peace movements had dissipated, the violence addressed by it lived on. Not until the thirteenth century is “the peace of god” transformed into “the king’s peace.” This paper will look at monastic documents of practice in the region of southern France, the birthplace of the peace movement and a hotbed of continuing conflict, in order to see how violence, sanctioned and unsanctioned, affected the actions of the theoretically unarmed, namely women and religious.

Kathryn Cavanaugh
Synthsis and Kinetic Evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among Americans over the age of 65. Our current research in potential therapeutics is with chimeric moieties with either silicon or nitrogen based connectors. To this end several meta-substituted aryl trifluoromethyl ketone multifunctional inhibitors have been synthesized for evaluation as inhibitors of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase (FBAChE). Of these evaluated a select number have also been tested with human recombinant AChE. All compounds tested show time-dependent inhibition with IC50 values ranging from micromolar to sub-nanomolar for inhibition of FBAChE, and nanomolar to sub-nanomolar for the human enzyme variant. For a select number of compounds further kinetic parameters including KI, kon, koff, and t1/2 were determined. It was found that the KI value depended on the identity of the moiety targeting the peripheral site, and the length of the spacer chain.

Emily Ralph
Social Work
Training Iowa Foster Parents to Improve the Educational Achievements of Special Needs Children

This exploratory study examines the impact of a foster parent educational advocacy training program.  Conducted in collaboration with University of Iowa graduate schools of social work and education, the study involves providing intensive training of eleven self-selected foster parents. Participants will complete pre and post tests related to their level of knowledge and comfort in the area of educational advocacy needs.  Paired t-tests will detect differences before and after the intervention with participants reporting improved knowledge and understanding.  While the sample is small and voluntary, the results of this pilot may merit further attention for future research.

Kelli M. O'Neil
Health and Sport Studies
Chasing the Kids: Does it Count? An Examination of Physical Activity in Middle Aged Mothers with Young Children with Respect to National Physical Activity Guidelines

Purpose: To examine the amount and pattern of physical activity obtained by middle aged mothers with young children, and compare those patterns to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American College of Sports Medicine and Institute of Medicine guidelines for physical activity.  Methods: Fifty eight women (36.9 ± 4.1 years) wore the Actigraph accelerometer for 7d and completed a self-report that consisted of the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) and the physical activity questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.  Results: According to Actigraph data, the women averaged 28.6 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity.  Age, number of children, and level of education were shown to increase physical activity levels, while women working full-time were more sedentary than homemakers.  KPAS sports/exercise participation was the highest in women who meet physical activity guidelines, regardless of how activity was measured.  KPAS household/care giving index scores were not predictive of meeting physical activity guidelines.  Conclusion: In middle aged mothers with young children, sports/exercise participation enhances the likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines, while "chasing the kids" does not.

Katie Grace McGowan
The Smell of Eddie Griggs’ Dad Lying Next to the Xmas Tree After Pouring Concrete

What did your first love's hair smell like? Your favorite toy? How do your nightmares smell?  The relationship between the olfactory and aural is complicated and little discussed. A society so deeply invested in the visual, we often undermine the power of the other senses--including scent. Artists and critics constantly engage in the process of verbalizing what they see, but talking about scent is a task often left to perfume makers and sommeliers.   In this experimental audio documentary I explore my subject's relationships to scent and scent memory and their ability to verbally articulate said perspective.

Asabi Afi Dean
Counselor Education and Supervision
Acedia: There’s Nothing New Under the Sun

Acedia literally means the inability to care for much of anything and to be unaware that you possess this in-ability. Acedia is a phenomenon that denies one the simple joys of life. Acedia comes across, in our present society, as boredom, hectic, full schedules and a lack of concern for our neighbor. Historically, school and community counselors didn't have to deal with the type of client concerns that they are faced with today. Could this be a result of a lack of acedia? Acedia and the lack of knowledge about this phenomenon may be responsible for the heightened violence in our society and academic institutions. As most of the world is searching for answers to increased violence and decreased love let us not overlook this possible link to what we see happening in the world around us and to how our clients are reacting to these happenings. This program will look at counseling concerns several decades ago and counseling concerns today. We will unpack this mysterious phenomenon and discuss how acedia, depression, and God are all interconnected. Implications for Counselors, Counselor Educators and Counseling supervisors.

Kristin Naragon
Anxiety Disorders and Suicidal Ideation: Does the Association Remain Beyond Overlap with Personality Traits?

Suicidal ideation is part of a spectrum of suicidality, wherein thoughts about suicide may progress to plans and attempts. Previous research has shown that suicidal ideation is greatly elevated among those with depression and anxiety disorders. However, it is unclear whether individual anxiety disorders are uniquely related to suicidal ideation, or if the relation is due to comorbidity (or co-occurrence) with depression and other anxiety disorders. The current study uses structural equation modeling to examine the association of suicidal ideation with depression and several anxiety disorders, after controlling for overlap with personality traits (i.e. neuroticism/negative emotionality (N/NE) and extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE)) that are known to contribute to comorbidity among these disorders. Multiple self-report and interview measures of depression and anxiety disorders, as well as personality traits, were administered to 327 psychiatric outpatients. Results indicated that depression was correlated with suicidal ideation, beyond shared variance with N/NE and E/PE. However, of the anxiety disorders, only post-traumatic stress disorder was significantly related to suicidal ideation after controlling for personality traits. Implications for the mood and anxiety disorders, clinical treatment and assessment, and the etiology of suicidality are discussed.

Tania Carrasquillo Hernández
The House of the Lagoon: Battle against Silence

The purpose of this research is to establish a critical analysis of the novel The House of the Lagoon. I would exhibit the subversive discourse of the Puerto Rican writer Rosario Ferré with the intention to transform the models of oppression against women within the patriarchal society of the Island. Furthermore, I would focus on the feminine character of Isabel Monfort since she reveals the renascent of a rebellious woman who is in power of her own destiny. Finally, I would examine the problematic of domestic violence since the female characters are constantly confronting the scars of a silenced battle within the confines of the house. This investigation would follow the guidelines of the current documentation style of the Modern Language Association and would convey a comprehensive exploration of Ferré’s novel based on the feminist ideologies of María Sóla, Norma Valle, Lenore Walter and Suzzane Hintz with the intention to fragment and transform the literary canon of Puerto Rico. As such, this project would offer a unique review of The House of the Lagoon and bring to fore the exceptional value of Rosario Ferré’s work, as an instrument for an egalitarian consciousness far away of oppression, violence and subjugation.

Ranelle Lueth
Art History
An Association of Irrelevancies: Charles Sheeler's The Artist Looks at Nature

Charles Sheeler's 1943 self-portrait, The Artist Looks at Nature, has been called one of his most baffling works. In 1944, the Art Institute of Chicago obtained the work as a gift from the Society for Contemporary American Art. In the institution's January 1945 Bulletin, Sheeler was quoted as saying it "was not painted at a specific spot but is rather an assembly of elements...I was interested in the association of irrelevancies." Far from irrelevant, however, the assembly of elements found in The Artist Looks at Nature proves very telling of Sheeler's own identity, his travels and life experiences, and his previous artistic works. This highly unusual painting of Sheeler's features a vivid but surreal landscape with lush green prairies, thick bushes and shrubs, wooden fences, stone cut walls, steep staircases, and precisionist buildings. Meanwhile, a monochrome-colored Sheeler depicts himself at his easel painting an interior scene:  that of one of his most famous works, Doylestown House-The Stove (1917). Sheeler has intrigued many viewers with The Artist Looks at Nature, but now it can be regarded as a summation of his artistic life, a true construction of his identity.

Lindsey Pingel
Dentistry (DDS)
HBD3 inhibits binding of Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (rHagB) to human keratinocytes and dendritic cells.

Porphyromonas gingivalis hemagglutinin B (rHagB) induces a significant pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The cytokine response can be attenuated by preincubation of rHagB with human beta defensin 3 (HBD3). The objective of this study was to determine if rHagB can be detected on the surface of oral keratinocytes and human myeloid dendritic cells using confocal microscopy and assessing whether prior incubation of rHagB with HBD3 blocks rHagB binding. Human hTert-immortalized oral keratinocytes and myeloid dendritic cells were exposed to rHagB, rHagB+ HBD3, HBD3, or PBS. After 5 minutes at 37oC, test solutions were removed and cells fixed in paraformaldehyde. Fixed cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody to rHagB and then fluorescence anti-mouse antibody. Nuclear staining with topro3 was also included. Slides were examined in the confocal microscope. Keratinocytes and dendritic cells incubated with rHagB had surface fluorescence suggesting that rHagB was binding to cell membranes. Fluorescence was diminished cells incubated with rHagB + HBD3 and absent in cells incubated with only HBD3 or PBS. These results suggest that partial inhibition of rHagB binding to human myeloid dendritic cells may be involved in the attenuated proinflammatory cytokine response induced by these mixtures. Supported by NIH/NIDCR T32 DE014678 and R01 DE014390.

Matthew R. Kelley
Exploring Monoanionic Dialkyldiarylguanidinates as Ligands for Low-valent Transition Metal Centers

While guanidinate anions are well-known to support metals in mid- and high-valent oxidation states, examples involving low-valent transition metal centers are very rare.  In this study, we have targeted a series of iridium(I) complexes of bidentate dialkyldiarylguanidinato(1-) ligands (L-). Complexes of the general formula [Ir(L-)(cod)], where cod = cyclooctadiene, were synthesized and characterized in solution by spectroscopic techniques and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of the 13C NMR chemical shifts of the alkene carbon atoms, the dialkyldiarylguanidinato ligands can be classified as stronger donors than other closely related nitrogen-donor ligands.  The complexes reacted readily with O2 under ambient conditions and the observed reactivity trends correlate with the electronic and steric influences of the substituents of the guanidinato ligands.  These results demonstrate the ability of the guanidinato(1-) platform for tuning transition-metal complex reactivity.

Tammara Thomas
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
A Supervisor’s Guide for Preparing Novice Substance Abuse Counselors for Professional Credentialing

A resource to provide guidelines for supervisor’s who are responsible for preparing novice substance abuse counselors for credentialing. As an expected part of their job, supervisors are responsible for the professional development of counselors upon entry into a clinical position, and throughout clinical practice. It is also expected that novice counselors obtain credentialing within specific time frames which vary from state to state. The guidelines are developed from theoretical models of supervision, theoretical models of counseling, ethical and legal principles and specific areas of knowledge. Specific suggestions are given for supervisors to ensure appropriate supervision.

Xiao Peng
Vinculin regulates cell surface expression of E-cadherin

E-cadherin, the major cell surface receptor present in the adherens junctions, is critical for initiating and maintaining cell adhesion. E-cadherin functions are modulated by proteins that are recruited to its cytoplasmic domain. Deletion studies in mice or cells show that vinculin, an actin binding protein, is critical for the organization of cell-cell junctions. However, gene deletion approaches inhibit vinculin expression at both sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, making it impossible to distinguish the contribution of vinculin at each site. As a result, the function of vinculin in adherens junctions has remained elusive. To define the role of vinculin at sites of cell-cell adhesion, we have generated a powerful vinculin short hairpin RNA knockdown/substitution model system that perturbs vinculin specifically at cell-cell adhesion. We found that decreased vinculin expression causes a loss of E-cadherin localization to the adherens junctions, a loss of the honeycomb-like shape characteristic to epithelial cells, and decreased adhesion to cadherin extracellular domains. Cells with decreased vinculin expression are also impaired in junctional assembly. Taken together these results suggest a novel function for vinculin in cell-cell junctions, namely that vinculin regulates cell surface expression of E-cadherin.

Timothy J. Lauth
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Application of Radio Frequency Tracers to Individual and Group Particle Displacement Within a Laboratory Flume

Multiple approaches have been developed for describing the rate of bedload entrainment. One current approach relies on the mean virtual velocity of individual sediment particles. Virtual velocity is determined by dividing the displacement length of a particle by the sum of the rest and displacement times. The focus of this research is the application of a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system as a means to monitor individual and group particle displacement and rest times necessary for calculating the virtual velocity. An RFID system consists of programmed transponders and a corresponding reader that communicate using radio waves. This communication provides the ability to track individual particles with embedded transponders. By setting customized antennas in the flume to act as gateways, communication between the antennas and particles traveling over a known distance provides the time between antennas, allowing for the calculation of the 1-D virtual velocity. Cameras and image analysis tools will be used for confirmation of results.

Norikiyo Ueno
Metacyclogenesis Alters Receptor-Mediated Uptake of Leishmania chagasi Promastigotes by Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

The protozoan parasite Leishmania chagasi is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis.  Within the gut of the sandfly vector, the non-infectious logarithmic promastigote (PM) form of the parasite develops into the highly virulent metacyclic PM, a form that is ready for inoculation into mammalian skin.  We hypothesized that logarithmic or metacyclic PMs initiate entry into human macrophages through different surface receptors that subsequently guide the parasites through discrete intracellular pathways, leading to their ultimate killing or survival, respectively.  Using confocal microscopy, we detected changes in ligation patterns of two key receptors on human macrophages: mannose receptor (MR) and the third complement receptor (CR3).  Our data suggest that avirulent logarithmic PMs are taken up by both MR and CR3, but the highly virulent metacyclic PMs fail to co-localize with MR.  Furthermore, metacyclic PMs that lacked MR enrichment clustered with caveolin-1 protein, a major component of cholesterol-rich host membrane microdomains through which several pathogens gain entry and enhance their intracellular survival.  In addition to our growing knowledge of Leishmania phagocytosis, we now see that metacyclic PMs are capable of selectively bypassing certain entry pathways.

Karen S Potter DDS
Dentistry (DDS)
Should Endodontists Place Dental Implants? A Survey of Endodontists

The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess endodontists’ opinions regarding whether implant placement is within the scope of the specialty of endodontics, and 2) to identify the predictor variables associated with endodontists who favor implant placement. A written survey was developed and mailed to 1505 practicing endodontists within the United States concerning their attitudes about endodontists placing implants. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 45.6%. 57.0% of respondents believed that endodontists should place implants. Regression analyses identified the following variables as being positively associated with endodontists placing implants: graduation from an endodontic training program ≥10 years ago; interest in personally placing implants in the future; the belief that implant placement should be incorporated into the endodontic residency curriculum; the belief that general dentists in the community would support endodontists placing implants; and the desire to continue the rapport with a referred patient by personally placing an implant if the patient’s tooth is deemed non-restorable with endodontic treatment. Governing bodies of the specialty of endodontics and endodontic training programs should consider discussing whether formal implant training should be incorporated into future curricula.

stef shuster

This manifesto provides scaffolding for my theoretical ideas, political commentary, and personal reflections on the topic of transgenderism. This term, transgenderism, is defined to encompass individuals whose gender performance, identity, and expression transcend the binaries of woman/man, female/male, and feminine/masculine. Three goals will be met in this manifesto: to explain what "transgender" means, show how the ideas and theoretical considerations of transgenderism are beneficial not only to transgendered individuals but to the feminist movement, in particular, and also for many individuals. Finally, I am trying to figure out my place within these ideas through the powerful act of writing and reclaiming my voice.

Samrat Dutta
Probing Femtosecond Enzyme Dynamics

Enzymes  are  very  efficient  biocatalyst,  which   catalyses specific reactions at  the active sites. These active sites are surrounded by peptides residues, which  can influence directly or  indirectly,  on  the  substates  involved  in  the  reaction. Probing  the  femtosecond dynamics of the active site before, during  and  after the  reaction  will give us an insight of the nature  of  active  site. We have  synthesizes  a mid-IR NAD+ analog probe, which can register the  dynamics of  the active site as a spectator. Femtosecond  pulses from a high powered laser  will  interact with  the NAD+  analog probe  to produce a  non-equilibrium,  initial  state. The  time evolution  of  this femtosecond  transient  state  will  give   us   an  window to investigate the time dependent quantum mechanical processes and  elementary  chemical dynamics of the active site. Preliminary  investigation shows promising activity of this probe for different enzymes.

Nikhil Sikka
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Explaining the Recent Shift in Travel Behavior in Response to Changes in Fuel Prices and Disposable Income Levels: A Vector Error Correction Approach

Changes in vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) with respect to changes in gasoline prices and income i.e. price and income elasticities, have been studied extensively. Given the recent economic downturn and energy crisis, reckoning the potential impacts to travel behavior (and VMT) is not as clear-cut as it initially appears since responses to these changes have changed over time. In this paper, we estimate the long-run gasoline price and income elasticity to VMT for the period 2000-2008. Most of the previous studies use the very common classes of time series methods that are the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, developed by Box and Jenkins. We advance the analytical framework to include a vector error-correction (VEC) regression technique that overcomes several limitations of ARMA models. We find that long-run gasoline price elasticity to VMT ranges from -0.31 to -0.88, and income elasticity ranges from 0.18 to 0.49. The result suggests that consumer has become more sensitive to gas price than in previous period.

Yishan Sun
Drosophila gravity sensing involves TRP channel subunits Painless and Pyrexia

The ability of animals to sense gravity allows them to determine body orientation and balance. In humans, dysfunction of gravity sensing contributes to symptoms of vertigo and dizziness. Much of gravity sensing occurs in specialized sensory organs, including the vestibular organs in vertebrates and Johnston’s organ in dipteral insects. However, the molecular basis of gravity sensing remains poorly understood. Here we investigated several Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels, because TRP channels are commonly involved in sensory signaling. We discovered that the TRP channel subunits Painless (Pain) and Pyrexia (Pyx) were expressed in two distinct subpopulations of cells in Johnston’s organ. Flies with a mutation affecting either subunit were defective in negative geotaxis, a behavior contingent on gravity sensing. The mutations also impaired the electrophysiological response of Johnston’s organ to body rotation, indicating that Pain and Pyx contribute to the sensory processing of gravity. The auditory response of Johnston’s organ remains intact in pain and pyx mutants, suggesting a dissociation between gravity sensing and hearing as occurs in mammals. Because TRP channel subunits are also expressed in the vertebrate vestibular organs, further investigations of these channels may lead to better understanding of vestibular physiology and disorders.

Si-Chi Chin
Text Normalization Selection Models for Enhanced Retrieval Accuracy

Text normalization transforms words into a base form so that terms from common equivalent classes match with each other. A traditional lexical analysis approach employs a stemmer for the removal of derivational affixes. Depluralization, the transformation of plurals into singular forms, can also be used as a low-level text normalization method. This paper proposes a hybrid text normalization approach, adopting a query-based selection model to choose between stemming, depluralization, and not doing any text normalization. Empirical research has demonstrated the ambivalent effect of stemming on text retrieval performance, and the effect of depluralization on performance has not been fully explored. This paper evaluates the performance of stemming and depluralization on the TREC 2004 Robust track collection. To address the ambiguity of queries, we use WordNet to calculate an ambiguity index based upon the number of senses for each word in the query, the sum of IDFs and the length of query (in words). We then construct regression models to predict the mean average precision (MAP) of each query from the ambiguity measures, and choose an appropriate normalization method based on these predictions. Based on our study, such a selection model holds promise in improving retrieval accuracy for "difficult" query topics.

Tim Paschkewitz
Let's Meet at the Intersection: Science, Arts, and the Humanities in Your Context

A disparity exists between Americans’ support of scientific and technological advances and their working knowledge of the subject material. Despite growing interest, general science knowledge in the United States has not been improving. A recent study suggests nearly one-half of U.S. scientists do not participate in any form of public outreach or engaged learning practices. In addition, traditional methods of teaching science-based content often isolate the physical world from the artistic, cultural, and humanitarian aspects of our society. Here, I propose to develop a symposium series, conducted away from the UI campus, based upon topic areas identified by the local community as areas of interest and concern. The symposium will feature two seemingly distinct UI graduate student or faculty scholars: one from the lab or computational sciences and one from the Arts, Humanities, or Social Sciences. Each scholar will engage the attendees in their work relative to the chosen theme to uncover deeper and perhaps more subtle ties between the two areas. The participants will interact with the scholars, and through a healthy dialogue, seemingly non-existent connections will be drawn in a reciprocal fashion. In this way, scientific research is not presented as an isolated lecture, but instead put into more accessible contexts where the learners become the teachers and vice-versa.

Jeremy B. Jones
English-Nonfiction Writing
Of Throwing Rocks

Michele de Montaigne once wrote, “Of a hundred members and faces that each thing has, I take one, sometimes to lick it, sometimes to brush the surface, sometimes to pinch it to the bone.  I give it a stab, not as wide but as deep as I know how.”  I wrote “Of Throwing Rocks” by a similar approach.  I wanted to stew on the subject of throwing rocks, hoping to find meanings brimming beneath the surface, but not feel pressured to entirely contextualize my discussion.  Essayists can often feel constrained to address every prospective reader’s questions and concerns—often losing sight of the essay’s curiosity—but this Montaignian approach allowed me to find ideas about Central American poverty and advertising and childhood and the weight of existence simply by taking a throwing rock and stabbing it as “deep as I know how.” 

Carol G. T. Vance
Physical Rehabilitation Science
Effects of High and Low Frequency TENS on Knee Osteoarthritis Pain

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a commonly used modality for the treatment of chronic pain due to degenerative arthritis. Currently, there is a lack of true double-blinded studies addressing the effectiveness of active TENS treatments compared to placebo treatments. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of TENS on pain at rest, movement evoked pain, and primary and secondary hyperalgesia in subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee. We determined that High but not low frequency TENS decreases both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in subjects with knee osteoarthritis on the ipsilateral side. TENS effects were seen with measurements of deep tisssue hyperalgesia, but not with cutaneous mechanical or heat thresholds, heat tolerance or heat temporal summation. High frequency, low frequency and placebo TENS all reduced pain and distress during the Timed Up and Go Test suggesting a strong placebo effect of TENS for movement evoked pain.

NaJung Kim
Biomedical Engineering
Polyethylenimine (PEI), Polyethylene glycol (PEG) & Mannose Tri-Component Vehicles for siRNA Delivery

Statement of Purpose:  Gene therapy using small interfering RNA (siRNA) has potential as a treatment for genetic defects. However, due to its inherent instability, large molecular weight and polyanionic nature, naked siRNA does not easily cross the cell membrane. To overcome this challenge, we synthesized PEI-tricomponent polymers linked to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and/or mannose to prolong serum half-life in vivo and achieve target specific delivery, respectively.  Results:  The polymer/siRNA complexes were spherically shaped with porous surfaces in SEM images. Sizes ranged from 100 to 600 nm diameter. Both polymers showed effective complexation with siRNA throughout the wide range of N/P ratios. Cellular uptake was observed using Oregon Green 488 labeled PEI / Cy3 labeled siRNA complexes with DAPI stained nuclei. The polymer/siRNA complexes had been internalized and were beginning to dissociate at 2 hours post-transfection in the HEK293 cells.  Conclusions:  Both Mannose-PEI-PEG and PEI-PEG-Mannose can efficiently form nanoparticle complexes with siRNA. These nanoparticles were efficiently internalized by cells and dissociate in the cytoplasm. siRNA can be found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Future and current studies will evaluate the gene knockdown efficacy of these constructs, cell binding efficiency and toxicity.

Pragati Galhotra
Carbon Dioxide (C16O2 and C18O2) Adsorption in Zeolite Y Materials: Effect of Cation, Adsorbed Water and Particle Size

In this study, carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated in zeolite Y.  Several different zeolite Y materials were investigated including commercial NaY, commercial NaY ion-exchanged with Ba2+ and nanocrystalline NaY; herein referred to as NaY, BaY and nano-NaY, respectively.  Following heating of these zeolites to 573 K and cooling to room temperature, CO2 was adsorbed as a function of pressure.  FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these three zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation, as indicated by the intense absorption band near 2350 cm-1, assigned to the ν3 asymmetric stretch of adsorbed CO2.  Most interestingly is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano-NaY zeolites as indicated by the presence of several broad absorption bands in the 1200-1800 cm-1 region suggesting unique sites for CO2 adsorption on the surface of the nanomaterial. For the other two zeolites investigated, bicarbonate formation is only evident in BaY zeolite when adsorbed water was also present.  Adsorption of 18O-labeled CO2 and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm these assignments and conclusions.

Yu-Hsin Lin
Educational Administration
Strategic Human Resource Management: Benefits of Competency Management to Personnel Selection

This literature review aims to more fully understand the current selection of personnel in organizations and investigate whether competency-based selection would lead to employee selection on a more valid and reliable basis. This literature review synthesizes personnel selection studies in both educational and non-educational fields. The author attempts to find potential benefits of competency management to personnel selection to promote expected roles and behaviors in organizations and suggest possible future studies in personnel selection.

Steven Niemela
Library and Information Science
Facebook, Utopia, and Self

Over the past decade or so, critical web theory has uncovered contradictions about the assertions made about the liberating qualities of cyberspace. As a basis of this critical theory, in addition to questioning the utopian visions held bycyberspace enthusiasts, many authors question the neutral position technology has in society, and have extended this analysis to the computer interface. Tracing the roots of the interface from its sources in television and beyond, other authors have extended the technological neutrality criticism to show how computer mediated communication is more than just a means of transferring information. CMC does more than serve as a transfer pipeline: it shapes the messages conveyed, frames our discussions, and influences our notions of identity and self. CMC is not just a tool that we use, but a tool that uses us. In this article, I apply the arguments and approaches of critical web theory to Facebook, the social networking software that more and more observers see shaping users' relationships, though not in the way cyber-theorists would foresee.

Joseph Matson
Performance Practice for Nineteenth-Century Singers, with Special Reference to Schubert's Songs

By the early nineteenth century, several important treatises had been written describing how to perform music. The most famous of these are probably C. P. E. Bach's 1753 treatise on playing the clavier and Leopold Mozart's 1756 treatise on playing the violin. Scholars commonly use documents like these to establish rules of performance practice for particular instruments at particular times and places. Although none is as famous as the two mentioned above, there were several treatises written on singing as well.  Following the treatises of the time, nineteenth-century singers performed Schubert's songs in a way that was demonstrably and substantially different from how he wrote them. Placing these works within the context of nineteenth-century vocal practices deepens our understanding of them and of Schubert's musical style. Using the singing treatises by Anna Maria Pellegrini Celoni (c. 1780-1835), Manuel Garcia (II) (1805-1906), and Laure Cinti-Damoreau (1801-1863), this essay describes what these vocal treatises contained and how this information might be applied to historical performances of Schubert's songs.

Hsin-I Sydney Yueh
Communication Studies
Japanese Competitive Eaters in the U.S.: A Cross-Cultural Interpretation of American Popular Culture

In this paper, I study the representation of competitive eating in the media and cultural implications behind the scene. Although most famous competitive eating contests are held in the U.S., this phenomenon is not exclusively American. The popular cultural phenomenon reflects a man-made nature. While in the U.S. the media views competitive eating as a kind of sport, the representation of the "big appetite" in Japan reflects some national peculiarities of both popular and food cultures. Thus, a comparison of the American discourse and Japanese discourse of competitive eating is beneficial for understanding the formation of popular culture. There are four obvious different factors in constructing competitive eating discourses in the U.S. and in Japan: the food, the eating speed, the arena of food consumption, and the display of gender.  Despite the differences, the two countries, the U.S. and Japan, eventually "cooperate" and develop a popular eating culture together.  I argue that the participation of the Japanese eaters in the American eating contests becomes a catalyst for the American media and public to shape, to promote, and to worship the American value.

Jay M. Greenfeld, M.A.
Counseling Psychology
It’s A Small World After All: Engaging Students in Diversity Work

The current presentation is an abbreviated version of the diversity ambassadors workshops designed for students. The purpose is to help individuals from disciplines across the campus engage students in diversity work. Addressing the needs of the campus climate at the University of Iowa, the workshops emphasize six areas: personalizing the definitions of diversity, understanding individuals’ values and beliefs, characteristics that create diversity conflict, creating open direct communication, and cultural competency.  The student ambassadors represent various colleges on campus. They focus each workshop on the applicability of the content to their field of study; emphasizing how to implement diversity work within and beyond academia. The focus of the current presentation outlines methods to engage students in diversity work. Tools, tips, techniques, and exercises will be suggested as to what to include and how it is possible to engage students in diversity work. Finally, the content will emphasize bringing personal awareness to the participants’ skills, biases, and knowledge and creating an understanding of how they can engage other students in diversity work.

Tony Manuel
C–C Bond Cleavage in the Reaction of a Bis(imino)Pyridine Complex of Nickel(I) with Dioxygen

Late transition metal complexes of tridentate bis(arylimino)pyridine ligands have been shown to promote a variety of catalytic and stoichiometric bond-forming reactions. The utility of bis(arylimino)pyridine ligands can in part be ascribed to their ability to sterically protect a reaction site at the coordinated metal center and to their redox activity. To explore the feasibility of these ligands for O2 activation chemistry, a NiICl complex of 2,6-(ArN=CMe)2C5H3N (Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) was synthesized and its reaction with O2 was investigated using variable-temperature UV-Vis spectroscopy. Analysis of the reaction product by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed cleavage of a C–C bond in the ligand backbone, along with formation of the corresponding amide. These results show that further modification of the ligand framework is required in order to generate complexes that are resistant against this self-degradation pathway and can eventually be used to promote oxygen atom transfer to an exogenous substrate.

David G Anderson
Pharmacy (PhD)
Oxidation and Reactivity of the Dopaminergic Metabolite 4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde

Parkinson’s disease involves progressive neurodegeneration and loss of dopaminergic neurons and involves the inherent toxicity of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). The ability of DA to auto-oxidize to an ortho-quinone contributes to its toxicity, and results in protein reactivity, thiol depletion, and redox cycling.  In the presence of transition metals, DA-quinone formation can also trigger reactive oxygen species production. Certain metabolites of DA such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) may also be involved in PD and act as endogenous neurotoxins. However, little is known about DOPAL’s ability to undergo auto-oxidation to a reactive quinone. If confirmed, DOPAL-quinone formation could explain the high levels of toxicity associated with this aldehyde metabolite. NaIO4 and Tyrosinase, which are known to induce DA-quinone formation, were investigated for their ability to oxidize DOPAL. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric evidence indicate that DOPAL is susceptible to oxidation. Oxidized species demonstrate reactivity with free thiols, indicative of protein reactivity. Also, DOPAL was found to be sensitive to transition metal (Cu2+) catalyzed oxidation. Such experiments elucidate the potential of DOPAL to undergo auto-oxidation and participate in redox cycling, important for elucidating DOPAL’s role in Parkinson’s disease.

Yulia Skvortsova
Solubilization of Hydrophobic Nanoporous Particles

Many chemical and biological applications of nanoporous silica particles require hydrophobic modification of the particle and its pore surfaces. Hydrophobically-derivatized silica beads provide well-defined spectral domains in tissue phantoms used in the development of noninvasive methods for cancer detection. Uniform particles, 10 μm in diameter, offer features of known shapes and dimensions comparable to the eukaryotic cells. A challenge in their applications is the incompatibility of the hydrophobic surface of the particles and the aqueous environment these applications are carried out in. We are using surfactants to achieve efficient solubilization of the hydrophobic nanoporous particles. The constructs formed by the interaction between C18-modified mesoporous silica beads and surfactants were investigated with fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal imaging. Fluorescent probes that are sensitive to the environmental polarities were utilized to probe the structural details of the construct. This work offers structural understanding of pore wetting and solubilization of the nanoporous particles in the aqueous solution with the help of surfactants. This understanding opens the opportunities for using these hydrophobic particles in tissue phantoms and as drug delivery vehicles. 

Kevin D. Pinkston
Fighting Black Implicit Self-Prejudice

African Americans have negative implicit attitudes towards their own group. This study will test two competing theories that have been used to explain why this is the case. The system justification theory (Jost and Banaji 1994) argues that people believie that their society is meritocratic and that low status and high status groups have been placed in these positions by the system according to competence causing low status groups to internalize negative attitudes of their own group to protect the status quo (1994). Another explanation for the lack of in-group bias in African Americans is that they have negative implicit attitudes because of their low levels of implicit self-esteem and racal identity (Greenwald et al. 2002). My theory is that Blacks who feel that their system is just and that their group is low status will have negative implicit attitudes about their group unliess they have high implicit self-esteem  and group identity. To test this theory I examine the effects of participants' beliefs about the current status of African Americans, socioeconomic status, and faith in the societal structure as implicit self-esteem and racial identity on implicit attitudes.

Jeremy Bril
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Grand Environmental Challenge: Nutrient Cycling, Global Climate Change, and Large River Systems

Labeled by the National Academy of Engineering as one of fourteen grand challenges for engineering, the management of the nitrogen cycle has become an increasingly difficult obstacle for sustainable development.  In an effort to help overcome this challenge, University of Iowa researchers are attempting to expand on the limited scientific knowledge of how aquatic environments are affected by increasing human- and climate-induced changes. To accomplish this, researchers are using freshwater mussels as a sentinel species to indicate how natural processes within large river systems are altered by human activity.  It is known that mussels and bacteria play a major role in nutrient cycling in large river ecosystems by further cycling nutrients taken up by phytoplankton and zooplankton.  Under typical ecosystem conditions, mussels appear to process nitrogen more rapidly than denitrifying bacteria.  Substantial deposition of carbon-rich sediment resulting from extreme flooding may increase nitrogen cycling rates by bacteria and thus alter overall denitrification rates.  Therefore, researchers are investigating the hypothesis that intense deposition of particulate matter from extreme flooding alters the freshwater mussel and microbial food webs through physical and chemical means.

Daniel Bulger
Film Studies
Tati: An Art of Distributions

As a group of garden-party goers at the Arpel household parade around in one scene of Jacques Tati’s Mon Oncle, carefully tiptoeing on stones as the layout dictates, one has the impression that space—both of modern environments and in the cinema—is being sent up in a significant manner. This paper, consequently, examines Tati’s critical and comedic relation to modern urban spaces. If Michel Foucault is correct in arguing that disciplinary architecture works directly on the body, Tati’s unique "art of distributions" brings the favor back to the city, derailing its effects through the labor of physical comedy. Thus I argue that, particularly in Mon Oncle and Playtime, Tati’s antics serve to frame and resist these spaces. But this is not the only disciplinary space circled for resistance: in addition to his talent in physical comedy, Tati has a perceptive eye for precision staging and graphic punning, which combine to engender new relations between spectators and cinematic screen-space.

Dimitrios Dermisis
Civil and Environmental Engineering
The Role of Clasts in Regulating the Deposition and Infiltration of Sediment in Gravel Bed Rivers

The overarching objective of this study was to examine the twofold effect of the presence of distinguishable isolated roughness elements (i.e., clasts or boulders) on the movement of sand over and within a gravel bed river.  To meet the goal of this study detailed laboratory experiments were conducted in an artificial channel, with and without the presence of clasts.  Results illustrated that the presence of the clasts regulated the depositional patterns of the incoming sand particles over the gravel bed.  In particular, characteristic sand patches were formed in the stoss region of the clasts, while few particles were deposited in the wake region.  Sediment depositional patterns were not observed over the gravel bed when clasts were absent.  Further, results revealed that less sand was accumulated within the gravel substrate with the presence of the clasts.  Sand particles were mostly infiltrated within the top 8 cm of the channel bed, creating a surface seal.  The formation of the surface seal hindered the penetration of sand particles deeper into the bed.  Findings of this study provide an improved understanding of the role of the clasts on regulating the movement of sediment over and within gravel bed rivers that will result in more sophisticated science-based river restoration techniques.

Yan Feng
Solid superheating observed in two-dimensional strongly-coupled dusty plasma

It is demonstrated experimentally that strongly-coupled plasma exhibits solid superheating. A two-dimensional (2D) suspension of microspheres in dusty plasma, initially self-organized in a solid lattice, was heated and then cooled rapidly by turning laser heating on and off. Particles were tracked using video microscopy, allowing atomistic-scale observation during melting and solidification. During rapid heating, the suspension remained in a solid structure at temperatures above the melting point, demonstrating solid superheating. Hysteresis diagrams did not indicate liquid supercooling in this 2D system.

Brianne Black, RN, BSN
The Effect of Hospice Care on Pain Severity and Quality of Life

Background: Gathering information about patients in the final stages of terminal cancer is difficult for many reasons including frailty, cognitive impairment, gatekeeping by hospice providers and caregivers, excessive fatigue, and critical illness. This study was designed to determine if hospice care results in a change in pain experiences and QOL as reported by the patient or caregiver at the end of life. Methods: Data for this paper was collected from telephone interviews with 94 older adults with cancer receiving hospice services in a home setting through 16 Midwestern hospices. Instruments used to gather objective information include the Brief Pain Inventory and the Brief Hospice Inventory. Results: One-sample paired T-tests were performed to assess the changes between interviews. Pain severity ratings were found to decrease following hospice admission. Ratings on QOL indicators were also found to decrease in the weeks following admission to hospice. Discussion: From this study hospice care has been shown to impact the quality of life of elders and decrease reported pain severity. Maintaining quality of life and limiting pain experiences ensures that elders admitted to hospice receive the care that they need during the final stages of life.

Sherrie Elzey
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Agglomeration, Isolation and Dissolution of Commercially Manufactured Silver Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

The increasing use of manufactured nanoparticles ensures these materials will make their way into the environment. Silver nanoparticles in particular, due to use in a wide range of applications, have the potential to make their way into water systems. The state of these nanoparticles – isolated particles, agglomerates or dissolved ions – will dictate their fate and transport. In this study, a novel method is used for determining whether silver nanoparticles form agglomerates, behave as isolated particles, or dissolve as ions in neutral or low pH aqueous nitric acid suspensions. In particular, an electrospray atomizer coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (ES-SMPS) was used to investigate the state of silver nanoparticles over pH values in the range of 0.5 to 6.5. Silver nanoparticles with a primary particle size of 5.0 ± 7.4 nm, as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), show distinct size distributions indicating agglomeration between pH 6.5 and pH 3 and isolated nanoparticles at pH values from 2.5 to 1. At the lowest pH investigated, pH 0.5, there is no detection of distinct peaks by the SMPS, suggesting complete nanoparticle dissolution. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was used to quantify dissolution of the silver nanoparticles . Characterization and chemical analysis are presented, and environmental implications of these results are discussed.

Heidi Bean
English-Literary Studies
American Poets' Theater and "the Emergence of Something New"

This presentation offers the term "American Poets’ Theater" to conceptualize a twentieth-century practice increasingly discussed by poetry scholars but still rarely by theater scholars. Poets’ Theater’s central feature is a collaboration of textuality and embodied performance that holds us responsible, in the collective space of the theater, to the individual ways in which we make meaning—a responsibility posited here as a kind of postmodernist ethics. Gertrude Stein’s early writings serve as models for Poets’ Theater’s aural generativity, but these works turn inward, toward the closed world of the art itself.  Poets’ Theater since the 1960s, this presentation argues, takes the generative aesthetics of modernist poetic drama and turns it outward toward social and political life.  In order to show the breadth of the category, I examine two rather different examples of this engagement: Amiri Baraka’s 1968 Black Nationalist play Home on the Range and Carla Harryman’s 2008 anti-war Mirror Play.  In the end I suggest that the hybrid critical approach demanded by Poets’ Theater—drawing on both the ear of the poetry scholar and the eye of the theater critic—can productively open up a range of other works produced since the "turn to language" has (allegedly) given way to the "turn to the visual."

Samantha R Cumley
The Effects of Women's Economic Marginalization and Welfare Payments on the Gender Gap in Violent Offending

One of the most robust findings in the criminological literature is that men commit more violent crime than women. While overall crime rates in the U.S. have declined since the 1960s, data show an increase in women’s contributions to overall crime rates with the exception of homicide. Scholars suggest that increasing economic marginalization of women relative to men may explain some of the narrowing in the gender gap in violent criminal offending. The present study examines city-level trends from 1970-2000, and finds that increasing financial hardship among women and declines in welfare payments are positively associated with the narrowing gender gap in violent offending.

Julie Shanahan
American Studies
"I'm not much iv an expansionist mesilf": Mr. Dooley, Irish America, and the Age of Expansion

Nearly 4.9 million Irish men, women and children immigrated to the United States between 1820 and 1920. This unprecedented surge of Irish immigrants on American shores led to the burgeoning of Irish American communities across the United States and made the Irish an integral component of a rapidly urbanizing and industrializing America. As the Irish assimilated into the American workforce, politics, and society at large, the Irish American became one of the most recognizable and celebrated characters in American popular culture. From St. Patrick’s Day parades to “Kiss me, I’m Irish,” it seems the Irish have been fully incorporated into American culture. But it hasn’t always been as such. Indeed, the Irish faced significant hurdles on their path to American assimilation, many of which sprang from their unique ethnic and cultural background. Chronicling these challenges from his perch in a Chicago bar was Mr. Martin Dooley, a popular late nineteenth century character all but lost to us now. Devised by Irish American journalist Finely Peter Dunne and made popular by national syndication, Mr. Dooley serves as a reminder of the complicated route the Irish navigated to American assimilation and the many detours they encountered along the way.

Joanna Rosenthal

Sextet (six dancers 9 minutes); Music: Studio Group and Juke Baratone; Costumes: Margaret Wenk. Sextet concentrates on the tension that is built by being denied physical contact and then actualization and realization of when touch is allowed. Sometimes this contact is wanted and  eagerly received and at other moments it is not. Sextet touches on  libidinal urges, and the fact that sometimes you're a giver and at other times you're a taker.

Kimberly J. Beck
The Influence of French Keyboard Style on the Dance Movements of Christian Flor found in Lüneburg Ratsbucherei Mus. ant. pract. 1198

The harpsichord dances of Christian Flor, an organist and composer active in Lüneburg from 1652-1697, held in the Lüneburg Ratsbucherei Mus. ant. pract. 1198 [heretofore abbreviated 1198] are primary examples of German implementation of French compositional style, as they are written by a German composer in French compositional style. The current study is an examination of the influence of the dance movements of Champion de Chambonnières and Nicolas Lebégue on those of Flor held within 1198. The common use of predominant textures, motives and variation techniques, and the style brisé within specific dance types will demonstrate the relationship between the works of Flor and these two French masters of the genre. Moreover, recent evidence has shown a connection between the music of Flor and the infamous J.S. Bach. Therefore these relationships represent an important correlation between the larger worlds of French and German composition in the seventeenth century.

Almaz Mimi Getachew
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Ethiopian Americans: What Helping Professioanls Need To Know

Ethiopians are a visible and viable community in many metropolitan and rural areas in the United States. Yet, even with their visibility, little is known about their culture, history, and unique mental health concerns. Understanding these issues is imperative since socially conscious and justice oriented counselors must find ways of navigating culturally condoned practices such as domestic violence and oppression of women with mental health goals and creating a just community. Thus, the purpose of this poster is to provide counselors with relevant background information, cultural issues related to immigration, and mental health problems related to gender role changes, exposure to substance use, and domestic violence.

Candis L. Hill
Rehabilitation Counselor Education
Articulating the Professions Identity: Implications for the Future

In the rehabilitation profession, there appears to be a lack of clarity regarding our professional identity.  This presentation will explore how we can best define rehabilitation as a profession, analyze the benefits of unification of the various professional organizations within the field, obtain feedback from students, faculty and professional organization leaders, and other relevant stakeholders in regards to professional identity for the rehabilitation profession.  The primary goal of this presentation is to suggest ways in which rehabilitation counseling can further establish its professional identity.  In addition, this presentation will provide an overview of the conflicts that threaten to deprofessionalize rehabilitation counseling as a profession (Mpofu, 2000).  As a result of attending this presentation, participants will (a) gain awareness regarding issues of fragmentation within the profession and how they may cause future negative ramifications, (b) provide feedback from selected professional organization leaders on how the various professional organizations impact professional identity, (c) offer feedback  from faculty, students and rehabilitation professionals, (d) propose how the compilation of data collected can be used to effect positive change within the profession of rehabilitation counseling.

Joseph J. Topczewski
Unprecedented Cascade Cyclization-Tandem Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and its application to the Synthesis of Chalcone 1

Reported herein is the first example of an epoxide initiated cascade cyclization terminated with tandem electrophilic aromatic substitution. This process has proven to be of synthetic utility and as a result we are also able to describe the first total synthesis of chalcone 1, which is reported to have osteogenic activity, via this process.

Sara Sheeley
Patterns of natural selection at the Alcohol dehydrogenase locus of Drosophila americana

Similar outcomes are often observed in species exposed to similar selective regimes, but it is unclear how often the same mechanism of adaptive evolution is followed. Here we present an analysis of selection affecting sequence variation in the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene of D. americana, a species endemic to a large climate range that has been colonized by D. melanogaster. Unlike D. melanogaster, there is no evidence of selection on allozymes of ADH across the sampled range. This indicates that if there has been a similar adaptive response to climate in D. americana, it is not within the coding region of Adh. Instead, analyses of a combined dataset containing 86 alleles of Adh reveal purifying selection on the Adh gene, especially within its intron sequences. Frequency spectra of derived unpreferred variants at synonymous sites indicate that these sites are affected by weak purifying selection, but the deviation from neutrality is less drastic than observed for derived variants in noncoding introns. This contrast further supports the notion that noncoding sites in Drosophila are often subject to stronger selection pressures than synonymous sites.

Josh Eklow
Red Dot Rental Grand Opening

The VHS format was phased out this year, being completely replaced by DVD for home release of media. While DVD has taken on the function of distribution of films and television,  it has not replaced another major function of VHS: home recording. The most popular home recording device in the DVD age is the digital video recorder (DVR), which convert the recorded media to a computer file. The physical existence of home recordings and the ability to preserve the recording independent of the recording device is also being phased out. We open Red Dot Rental, the world's first video rental store to offer only films recorded on VCRs connected to cable television, to honor both the age of VHS home recording and one anonymous man’s dedication to its preservation.

Benjamin John Carter
Law (JD)

A commentary, a discourse, sexual domestic violence, America and lesbian marriage.

Gaurav Kanade
Computer Science
Topology Construction for Rural Wirelss Mesh Networks - A Geometric Approach

Wireless mesh networks based on the IEEE 802.11 technology have recently been proposed and studied as an approach to bridge the digital divide. Point-to-point links are established in the nodes of such networks using high gain directional antennas. Some nodes are directly linked to the wired internet, and the others link to these using a small number of hops. Minimization of system cost is an important objective in these networks, since generally the rural populations are low-paying. The dominant cost in this setting is that of constructing the antenna towers. The cost of a tower depends upon its height, which in turn depends upon the length of its links and the physical obstacles along those links. We investigate the problem of selecting which links should be established such that all nodes are connected, while the cost of constructing the antenna towers required to achieve Line-of-Sight connectivity is minimized. We formulate this as a geometric coverage problem, and then present an efficient constant factor approximation algorithm. Through simulations we compare our approximation algorithm with a computed lower bound.

Shiv Kumar Sambasivan
Mechanical Engineering
Tree-Based Local Mesh Refinement for High-Speed Compressible Multiphase Flows

Shock waves interacting with multi-material interfaces in compressible flows result in complex shock diffraction patterns involving total or partial reflection, refraction and transmission of the impinging shock wave. To simulate such complicated interfacial dynamics problems, a fixed Cartesian grid approach in conjunction with level set interface tracking is attractive. In this regard, a unified Riemann solver based Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) was developed to accurately resolve and represent the embedded solid and fluid object(s) in high speed compressible multiphase flows. While the GFM-based Cartesian grid approach significantly alleviates the complexity associated with mesh management, the method lacks flexibility in effective and automatic grid point placement in regions with discontinuities and rich structures in the flow field. Thus for performing higher-order and highly accurate sharp interface Cartesian grid based calculations with optimal computational effort, it is imperative to supplement the solution with adaptive mesh refinement technique. Hence in this work, a simple procedure is presented to complement the Riemann solver based GFM approach with quadtree (octree in three dimensions) based Local Mesh Refinement (LMR) technique for efficient and high fidelity computations involving strong shock interactions in high-speed multiphase compressible flows.

Jinyu Liu
Social Work
Foster Care In Chinese Civil Society

Since 1978, China has reformed its policies in many social issues. Civil society has been developed because of this reform. Though it is not mature or systemized, civil society affects many public affairs, including social welfare and services. Foster care is one of the programs influenced by the developing civil society. This article explores this macro social background of foster care in China and analyzes its success and current problems. Finally, suggestions are presented to resolve the problems.

Misha Quill
Feminist Praxis: Fieldwork and Theory

In this paper I explore ways that feminist and postmodern theory inform and complicate ethnographic fieldwork. Using specific examples from my own fieldwork, I consider ways in which my own work falls short of theoretical ideals and ways that theory can be insufficiently nuanced when trying to negotiate and understand real world complexities in the field.

Chasity Brimeyer
School Psychology
Systematic Literature Review of School Re-Entry for Children with Cancer: Characteristics, Roles, Barriers, and Facilitators to Implementation

School reentry is the process of preparing a child with cancer, his/her classmates, and school staff for the child's return to school following diagnosis. The school reentry process facilitates children with cancer and their classmates' psychological adjustment to the disease in addition to ensuring the child's health is monitored at school. A systematic literature review of school reentry for children with cancer ages 6-18 was conducted using psychology and health research databases. 67 papers were identified. Subsequent references were obtained from articles yielded through the review and cancer organization websites totaling 87 articles. Aims were to identify research recommended components of the school reentry process, school staff roles, and barriers/facilitators to execution. Findings span approximately 30 years and suggest the following guidelines: multidisciplinary cooperation, considering individual and family variables that may influence school performance, and assistance with the child's unique medical, academic, cognitive, social-emotional, health, and behavioral needs. Categories of school reentry barriers/facilitators include organizational factors, multidisciplinary cooperation, and training. This systematic literature review provides the basis for a future study in which school personnel will be surveyed to examine the current school reentry practice in Iowa.