Jakobsen Conference Abstracts, 2003

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Alex Casillas
Assortative mating for personality and intelligence in newlyweds

Most research on assortative mating (i.e., similarity between spouses on a characteristic) has used relatively small samples or has examined couples who have been married for several years. To address these limitations, the Iowa Marital Assessment Project (IMAP) was designed as a longitudinal study of 291 newlywed couples on a variety of psychological variables. The aim of this study was to examine similarity across two broad domains of human functioning: cognitive ability and personality traits. Results included (a) substantial evidence of assortative mating for intelligence, and (b) a lack of similarity for personality traits. The findings are discussed in the context of the current literature on these topics.

Alina Bejan
New Scenarios in Cooperative Driving

In this paper we address database-related issues in the emerging field of ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). In this context we propose and study two cooperative driving scenarios: on-the-fly highway alert scenario and mutual driving group scenario. Vehicles cooperate and coordinate their actions by exchanging information, hence the need for database technologies such as consistency, replication, and query optimization. Technical requirements and suitability of technologies such as wireless and peer-to-peer communication and mobile ad-hoc networks are discussed. We introduce the notion of a peer-dependent query for the application environment.

Amy Aldridge
Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Dialogue in Small Group Settings

There appears to be a growing consensus that dialogue is a more desirable form of group communication when compared to more traditional notions of discussion or debate. Three conceptual features of dialogue (collaboration, multivocality, and harmonization) are introduced and guidelines for identifying these features are established.ÊPedagogical techniques for teaching discussion and dialogue in the classroom, as well as a classroom exercise, are also included.

Amy Spellacy
Spying on the Neighbors: Travel-Themed Thrillers and the Good Neighbor Policy

The Good Neighbor policy, which dominated U.S.-Latin American relations from 1928 to 1948, was designed to stimulate trade within the hemisphere and solidify a united front against European fascism. The increased interest in Latin America encouraged by the policy spurred a sudden boom in the publication of Latin American-themed histories, travel guides, non-fiction travel essays, and fiction. This presentation explores the relationship between popular literature and the policy by focusing on Francis Van Wyck Mason's The Rio Casino Intrigue (1941), one of several Latin-American themed thrillers published by U.S. authors in the 1940s. The Rio Casino Intrigue reveals several levels of continued anxiety concerning the goals of inter-American solidarity professed by the policy. The novel xhibits a pronounced reluctance to surrender control of the hemisphere to local authorities in Latin America and a continued insistence on American superiority and wisdom in matters! of international relations.

Andrew Beer
The Interpersonal Loyalty Scales

When people speak of loyalty, they usually think of it as a trait. That is, they implicitly classify some individuals as very loyal and others as less so. Despite this, however, the concept of trait loyalty has received virtually no attention from personality and social psychologists. Instead, most research has focused on loyalty in terms of products, brands, or employees, rather than the part loyalty plays in interpersonal relationships. Consequently, the basic goal of this research was to create a self-report measure of interpersonal loyalty. In the initial phase of the study, 46 loyalty items were administered to 589 undergraduates; the participants also completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI), a measure of the prominent five-factor model. Principal factor analyses revealed two factors, which were labeled Individual Loyalty (e.g., I stand by my friends, even when they make mistakes ; I am always ready to come to the aid of a friend ) and Group Loyalty (e.g., I am loyal to my country , I would describe myself as a team player ). Together, these scales comprise the Interpersonal Loyalty Scale (ILS). The ILS scales both were internally consistent and only modestly related to one another. In addition, both scales were positively correlated with the BFI Extraversion and Agreeableness scales. In a later phase of the study, 202 students completed the ILS, the BFI, and additional measures of interpersonal traits. Analyses indicated that the ILS scales were strongly stable over time, and that they are not simply a reinvention of existing measures.

Annette Flugstad
Heuristic Processing on the Web

Studying human reactions using the web is increasing in popularity due to the ease of data collection and the potential for larger, more varied sample populations. However, it remains unclear whether participants who perform cognitive tasks from remote locations without supervision process information as carefully as participants who perform the same tasks in the lab with an experimenter present. Heuristics sometimes lead to mistaken judgments and decisions and have been the topic of study for many researchers. If remote log-in leads to DIFFERENT levels of heuristic processing, this increases our knowledge of how people process information under different circumstances and sheds light on the validity of web-based data collection procedures. If instead remote log-in procedures have NO IMPACT on heuristic processing (or decrease it) then more confidence can be placed in data collected using such procedures as being good measures of people who are processing just as carefully as those being 'watched'.

Benjamin Hill
The Scientific Methods of Francis Bacon and John Locke

The thought of Francis Bacon is widely considered one of early modern science's seminal influences, especially on methodological matters. John Locke is as widely considered one of early modern science's spokesmen, the defender of the early Royal Society's Baconian philosophy. In this paper it is argued that this vision is incorrect. First Peter Anstey's recent argument for this is criticized. Then a new argument is considered and also rejected, showing in part why it is impossible to consider Locke's scientific method Baconian.

Brandy Case Haub
At the Intersection of Cultural Ideals: Giftedness, Gender, and American Culture

In a self-proclaimed egalitarian society, notions of inequality especially biologically based inequalities are often met with not only ambivalence, but sometimes outright hostility. The measurement of intelligence is no exception, and thus those bearing the label of "gifted" may be the object of discomfort or even aversion. The "gifted" label carries not only an academic significance, but social implications as well. This study explores the social and cultural dimension of the "gifted" label for adolescents in U.S. society, as well as how adolescents simultaneously take up and deny aspects of the label. It specifically focuses on how the ways in which adolescent girls and boys negotiate their relation to the "gifted" label correspond to their learning of gender and cultural values in American culture, as well as how the "gifted" label can be viewed as a sort of stigma within U.S. society.

Brenda Krueger
Single Particle Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous Reactions of Trace Atmospheric Gases with Tropospheric Particles

Laboratory studies of atmospheric processes can aid in the understanding of tropospheric particles and the chemistry that occurs on these particulates. The heterogeneous chemistry and heterogeneous kinetics of single particles of mineral dust particles, specifically calcium carbonate, with trace atmospheric gases such as HNO3 is investigated. Single particle analysis is important, as analysis of studies that employ bulk powders composed of many particles is often difficult due to diffusion of gas through the powdered sample. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis is used to elucidate morphological changes and the relative rates of reaction at atmospherically relevant relative humidities.

Christian H. Coyle
Upregulation of Superoxide Dismutase Increases Endothelial Cell Viability under Oxidative Stress

An accumulation of free radicals is inherent in the cardiac system of patients suffering from high blood pressure and diabetes. The requirement for a repair in the cardiac system in patients with high blood pressure or diabetes dictates that new approaches to artificial blood vessels (grafts) be developed. Due to the failure of current small diameter artificial blood vessels, a new approach is needed. To address the damaging free radicals inherent in high blood pressure and diabetes, the genetic engineering of porcine aortic endothelial cells by a MnSOD adenovirus was conducted. In experiments it was found that the use of the virus increased the likelihood that the endothelial cell would survive in an oxidative environment and combat free radicals when under shear forces. The modified cells are less likely to be negatively affected by the free radical environment associated with diabetes and high blood pressure.

David Banash
Writing the Ready-Made: Literary Collage and the Material Text

Collage is consistently identified as one of the most characteristic and important developments in twentieth-century art, applied to work in every medium. However, using a vocabulary originally created to describe visual works creates a number of problems and possibilities when applied to specifically literary works. This paper examines the origins of literary collage, its specific practices, and the implications of collage for the concept of authorship and the relationship of literature to mass culture in the twentieth century.

Ellen E Sweeney
Out of Time and in the Wrong Place: Interpellation and the Chronotope in Neil Jordan's "The Butcher Boy"

Recent writing on Neil Jordan's 1997 film, "The Butcher Boy," has characterized the film as an allegory of postcolonial Ireland, which is afflicted with a schizophrenic identity shaped by conflicting British and American media images of itself. In my view, "The Butcher Boy" is a visual countertext to the essentializing national narratives that have excluded images and histories that do not correspond with this imagined community s self-conception, such as the long-repressed history of abuse of children in the industrial school system, which this film locates as one of Ireland s other histories. Through the film s protagonist, Francie Brady s, journeys between Ireland s wholesome middle-class spaces and its liminal ones, the film dissolves the boundaries between them. Through the twin topoi of the chronotope and the traumatic event, the boundaries between the sanitized and the repressed, the past and present, collapse, producing a vision of a nation troubled by its inability to incorporate the diversity of voices heard within its borders.

Firdevs Duru
Study of CMS HF light-guide system in University of Iowa

The University of Iowa is one of the institutes that participate in Compact Muon Selonoid experiment of LHC project at CERN, in Switzerland.The HF calorimeter of the CMS detector is composed of an iron absorber with embedded quartz fibers and a optical read-out system that is composed of photomultiplier tubes and light guides. Due to both the HF location and the operating conditions, light guides will be placed between the fiber bundles and the PMTs. So as to reduce the loss of light we need the right reflective material and the optimum design on light-guides. In this presentation we give the results of the tests that were performed in University of Iowa CMS laboratories on CMS HF light-guide system. Two different reflective materials, as well as two different shapes of light guides were tested before and after radiation.

Grant McCall
Examining Namibian Early Hominids through Stone Tools

This paper examines stone tools from the extinct Nhomadom riverbed on the Kalahari rim of Northeastern Namibia. The stone tools discussed in this paper are comparable to those from other African sites from the Early Stone Age, dating to around 1.7 million years. This paper attempts to infer patterns of movement of through the examination of stone tool production. The paper argues that the stone tool data indicate a highly mobile and transient pattern of movement. This paper then examines some previous models of early hominid subsistence in light of this new data.

Gregory Wolniak
Higher Education and Labor Market Earnings; An empirical investigation of competing theoretical models

In this study I delineate and empirically test theoretical models that suggest why greater education accompanies greater labor market earnings. Using a wide array of statistical background controls and measures of both the college and subsequent employment experience, I make a clear assessment of the net effects of education on earnings. The results of this study support past research suggesting human capital theory and sorting hypotheses are not mutually exclusive and that any one of these concepts alone fails to provide sufficient explanation. In addition, the results of this study support past research suggesting the degree of congruence between the college experience and resulting job characteristics may have a positive affect on labor market success. Both findings hold important implications for the educational decision-making of individuals, policy-makers, and higher education institutions.

Haiming Chin
Radial-Longitudinal Impedance Model for Implanted Human Cochlea

A Radial-Longitudinal (RL) Impedance Model is a tool, a method for analysis of implanted human cochlea. The RL impedance model is the first implanted human cochlear model. To create a RL Impedance Model is to convert real clinical data -- common ground impedance and (monopolar) channel impedance, to radial impedance and longitudinal impedance of the RL Impedance Model.

Hannah Lundberg
Kinetically Critical Regions of Femoral Head Roughening

Total hip arthroplasty (THA) wear is highly variable and can be accelerated by counterface roughening and third body ingress. Wear patterns depend upon a complex interplay of contact stress and bearing surface kinematics. It is hypothesized that the location of counterface roughening will have dramatic effects on the induced THA wear. With this in mind, using a sliding-distance-coupled contact finite element model of THA wear, we identified regions of the femoral head that, when roughened, result in maximal THA wear. After varying roughened patch locations over the hemispherical femoral contact area and varying roughened patch size it was determined that roughened patches can result in volumetric wear over 7 times that of a smooth femoral head. Directions of maximum linear wear also varied by 60o depending on patch location and size. This patch-site dependency may explain the large variability of wear found in retrieved total hip implants.

Huiming Yin
Constitutive modeling of composites containing aligned magnetic particles

The objective of this work is to investigate micromechanics and effective magnetomechanical behavior of composites containing aligned magnetic and elastic particles. To derive the local stress and strain, Green s function technique and Eshelby s equivalent inclusion method are used. Homogenization of the local field renders averaged stresses and strains, effective magnetostriction and effective elastic moduli.

J. Edward Mallot
Not Drowning But Waving: Stevie Smith and the Language of the Lake

This paper examines the work of modern British poet Stevie Smith, most particularly "Not Waving But Drowning." It uncovers patterns of drowning imagery in Smith's work, and argues that such references chart Smith's concerns with communication and gender relations.

J. Sage Elwell
Iconoclasm in 8th Century Byzantium and 20th Century America

In the year 754 the iconoclastic council convened in the palace of Hiereia across from Constantinople. After its deliberations the council promulgated its horos, officially condemning the manufacture and use of icons. On May 18, 1989 during a meeting of the U.S. Senate, then republican Senator of New York Alphonse D'Amato condemned a photograph of a crucifix submerged in urine. In so doing he prompted a call for an end to the National Endowment for the Arts.
The aim of this paper is to juxtapose these two primary sources that condemn artworks of a specific type in an effort to explore the polemical dynamic between Christianity and aesthetic theory. This paper will demonstrate that the crux of these two controversies is the erroneous assumption that images can contain and communicate ideas. As a counter to this assumption it will be proposed that images refer to objects or ideas and that viewers then reconstruct these referents and impose their reconstructions onto the artwork.

James Trammel
Civil Religion on Television

This paper notes the depiction of religion on television, paying careful attention to the depictions of explicit faiths as opposed to generalized spirituality. Calling upon the role that religion plays in society as purported by Robert Bellah and Louis Althusser, this paper identifies how a generalized, de-theologized "civil religion" maintains its dominance on TV, even through the depictions of the more explicit religious faiths such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Jason White
Ramp or Street: Commuter Parking Choices in Downtown Iowa City

Many people choose the automobile to travel into downtown Iowa City. This raises questions of Where are commuters more likely to choose to park? And, what are the factors that influence this decision? The primary parking options are street and ramp parking. This study analyzed how time of day influences parking choice, and whether there is a correlation between willingness to walk and choice. The study also asked city residents who park downtown to rate factors that may influence their parking decisions. My conclusions are as follows: (1) More people choose ramp parking regardless of time of day, (2) Ramp parkers have a greater willingness to walk longer distances, (3) Ramp parkers ranked length of stay, personal safety and walking distance highest as reasons for their choice, and street parkers did the same for length of stay and walking distance. The study may help guide Iowa City on parking policy.

Jed Peterson
The Materiality of Books: Taste, Biography, Authenticity and Ancient Authors in the American Revolution

During the seventeen hundreds, American Revolutionaries used books by ancient authors to identify themselves to each other by pinning down meanings not only for their moment in history but also for where their movement fell within the history of republicanism. These individuals, living at a time where everything was a symbol indicating something, used books to showcase the physical embodiment of the political regeneration of republicanism. In collecting the works of the writers of antiquity, Americans were not only connecting their republican cause to the Romans, but they were forming social, political, paternal and fraternal bonds with others who felt the same way. Their libraries united Revolutionary Americans in their cause and gave the American revolutionary elite a common purpose, a vision of the past that guided their actions and gave them hope for the future.

Jeff Doty
A Battle Fought in Metaphor: Nationalism and Monarchy in Richard II

In Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity, Liah Greenfeld argues that nationalism began in early sixteenth century England and that certain semantic changes in language signify an emerging national consciousness. If so, the politics of Shakespeare s history plays are more complex than previous generations have thought. First I shall argue that in the histories, the idea of the nation becomes more important than the monarch, even while the plays ostensibly promote the Tudors legitimacy. Second, I shall propose that Shakespeare embeds nationalist ideas in metaphor; in fact, he uses traditional metaphors of monarchy and then reinscribes them with nationalist meaning in effect emptying-out monarchial authority and replacing it with an idea of the people. My primary text is from Richard II a scene in which the tensions between monarchy and nationalism are most explicit and with the conflict dramatized through the competing metaphors of the Queen and a gardener.

Jeffrey Charis-Carlson
You don't change, Washington : Collapsing the National and the Individual in The Gilded Age: A Tale for Today

While seldom read, Twain and Warner's The Gilded Age serves as the eponym for the era of U.S. history that evolves during the waning of the Age of Capital and merges into the Progressive Era. In this paper, I will analyze one of the key components that makes possible the homonymic/sylleptic relationship between the literary title, The Gilded Age, and the rhetorical figure of The Gilded Age : Twain s connection between the name of the nation s capital city, and the name of his na«ve, speculating, somewhat autobiographical character, Washington Hawkins. I argue that the homonymic relationship between Washington [D.C] and Washington [Hawkins], like that between The Gilded Age and The Gilded Age, operates sylleptically to require references to Washington to fulfill multiple grammatical and symbolic functions within the novel. The result is a complex, muddled novel that instructs Twain's contemporaries in what it means for the newly expanded federal government both to transcend and to include the individual citizen.

Jennifer Ryan
"This could be that road" : Race, Region, and the Blues in the Jazz Poetry of Sherley Anne Williams

My paper argues that regionalist themes function in the jazz poetry of Sherley Anne Williams to highlight the restrictions historically placed upon black female bodies, as well as advocating community-building and political awareness. Williams conceptualizes communal forums in terms of blues performance, an early opportunity for independence among black women, using Bessie Smith as a representative blues performer and public figure.ÊWilliams s valorization of Smith s body as a source of agency in these poems operates according to a specifically feminist agenda.ÊMy investigation of Williams s definition of black female subjectivity is followed by an analysis of her theory of blues poetics, which I derive from readings of key poems. I conclude by noting that Williams s celebration of blues performance as a site of feminist communication also implies that she offers the blues as one possible solution to women s marginalization in the context of both social and aesthetic movements.

John Chambers
Egocentrism, Event Frequency, and Comparative Optimism: When What Happens Frequently is "More Likely to Happen to Me"

We argued that when people compare their own and others likelihood of experiencing an event (e.g., Compared to the average person, how likely are you to be divorced? ), they tend to consider their own personal likelihood, but not others likelihood. If so, then event factors that increase one s own and others likelihood for an event (e.g., the frequency of the event) should increase one s comparative likelihood estimate because people only attend to their own absolute likelihood for the event. In two studies, participants provided comparative estimates for high and low frequency events (e.g., being divorced, laughing at a joke). Participants comparative estimates were higher for high frequency than low frequency events (regardless of the desirability of the event). In fact, participants were overly pessimistic about certain types of events, specifically, high frequency, undesirable events (e.g., receive junk mail), and low frequency, desirable events (e.g., meet a celebrity).

Jon Wolseth
Safety and Sanctuary: Pentecostal Youth and Urban Violence in Honduras

This paper, part of a larger research project on youth and social violence, examines the dialogue between Evangelical churches and young men in developing responses to youth violence in Honduras. Using ethnographic case material from a working-class/working poor neighborhood in El Progreso, I demonstrate how conversion to evangelical faiths for some young men is a way of overcoming poisonous social environments such as the street and the forms of violence that they may encounter. By utilizing a strategy of conversion, young men reinscribe themselves out of the violence of the everyday and into the protective space of the church. By doing so, Pentecostal young men construct a sense of safety that not only informs their interaction with other (non-church) youth, but also increases their use of community space, making them more mobile. I conclude that conversion rationalizes violence by counter-positioning personal salvation as the answer for the social ills of youth.

Joshua Weller
Variation in Attachment Organization Across Relationships: Implications for psychological well-being and relationship outcomes

Over the past two decades, adult attachment theory has become a main focus of many researchers seeking to understand the formation and maintenance of close relationships. In fact, adult attachment has been found to have far-reaching influences on relationship functioning and relationship quality & stability over time. Although recent research suggests that individuals can possess different attachment styles in different relationships, we do not yet know what implications such differences in attachment variability may have. Consistent with previous research on trait variability across roles (Donahue, Robins, Roberts, & John, 1993; Sheldon, Ryan, Rawsthorne,and Ilardi, 1997), we found that high attachment variability across relationships was related to low psychological well-being variables, such as self-esteem and ego-resiliency, and negative relationship outcomes. Our findings suggest that variability in attachment organization across relationships represents a! fragmentation of the self, which appear to be associated with psychological distress and poor relationship functioning.

Karunya Kandimalla
P-glycoprotein mediated efflux of small molecules across bovine olfactory mucosa: Implications in nose to brain drug delivery

Purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that P-glycoprotein is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is responsible for preventing various drug compounds, such as chlorpheniramine (CPM) and chlorcyclizine (CCZ) from reaching CNS following nasal administration. Immunolocalization of P-gp was confirmed on the apical surface of bovine olfactory mucosa (BOM) using C219 antibody. Olfactory mucosal permeability of CPM and CCZ was determined and compared with the permeability of etoposide (ETOP), a known P-gp substrate. All three compounds were effluxed from BOM. However, hydroxyzine (HYZ), the compound that was previously shown to have CNS distribution following nasal delivery inhibited the P-gp mediated efflux. The results indicated that CPM and CCZ were unable to reach CNS via the olfactory pathway, because they are effluxed by P-gp. HYZ was able to reach CNS by utilizing olfactory pathway owing to its ability to inhibit the P-gp mediated efflux.

Kaveri Jain
Microemulsion as an Effective Tool to Control Polymer Architecture

The broad objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of microemulsion photopolymerization for production of polymers with controlled molecular weight and specified end-groups. Microemulsions may be formed upon the addition of a surfactant and cosurfactant to a mixture of an organic phase and water. They are thermodynamically stable and exhibit a relatively monodisperse distribution of droplets in the size range of 10 to 100 nanometers. Since microemulsions are optically clear and transparent in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, they are attractive for light-induced reactions such as photopolymerization. This project has combined the small, monodisperse droplet distribution of microemulsions with the temporal control of initiation offered by photopolymerization in an attempt to custom-make new polymers. By careful selection of the initiator to droplet ratio, the illumination duration (continuous and intermittent), the molecular weight will be influenced by controlling the time between initiation and termination of a free radical polymerization.

Laura Breeher
Mass Transport Considerations in Atherosclerotic Plaque Modeling

Atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease that occurs in medium and large arteries is currently the leading cause of death in the United States. Therefore, research into the exact mechanisms of the disease is of particular importance. A model has been developed which simulates plaque growth in the human carotid artery as a function of certain hemodynamic factors. Plaque growth and fluid flow are coupled in an effort to gain understanding of the plaque growth process. Biological components incorporated into the model include degradation of extra-cellular matrix by macrophages, the initial egress of macrophages from the arterial intima, and the release of chemoattractants from the arterial wall causing enhanced monocyte (white blood cell) influx). Mass transport of cholesterol-laden particles (LDL) is included as a precursor to the model. Results show a trend toward realistic plaque profiles.

Laura Frey Law
A Mathematical Model of Active and Passive Stance Following Spinal Cord Injury

Lower limb bone demineralization is a common sequella of complete spinal cord injury (SCI), and is associated with significantly increased risk of lower limb fracture, often with minimal trauma. This loss of bone may be related to the dramatic loss in mechanical loading after SCI, and may be preventable if given a sufficient osteogenic stimulus. Unfortunately, no estimates have been previously reported of the bone loading conditions for exercise interventions after SCI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model to estimate the global loading environment in the distal femur during passive and active standing. The model predicted that compressive forces reached levels of ~240% BW in each limb with resisted active standing, nearly five times greater than passive stance alone, while shear forces remained below 25% BW for all stance positions evaluated.

Linda Spencer
A comparison of spelling skills in prelingually deaf children who have cochlear implant experience with the spelling skills in children with normal hearing

Rationale: To investigate and compare the spelling skills of a group of prelingually deaf cochlear implant users with an age matched group of hearing children.
Method: Participants included 18 prelingually deaf cochlear implant users and 18 age-matched normal-hearing children. Spelling was assessed using a written paragraph sample. The number of correctly spelled words divided by the total number of words yielded a ratio of correct words. Spelling errors were coded by error type.
Results: Accuracy ratios for the two groups yielded no significant differences between groups. Error analysis, however revealed children in the cochlear implant group tended to make visual errors such as transpositions or omissions, whereas the hearing children tended to make phonologic errors.
Conclusions: Deaf children with cochlear implant experience had similar spelling accuracy skills as children with normal hearing. The two groups, however approached the spelling task using different strategies.

Liz Hollingworth
Qualitative or Quantitative? An Analysis of Two Tests of Reading Comprehension

Recent legislation (the No Child Left Behind Act, 2002) has created a need for multiple methods of assessment in the K-8 reading classroom. With many educators calling for authentic measures of reading comprehension to supplement the mandated multiple-choice standardized tests of reading achievement, what type of measure is the best to choose? This analysis of two tests that do not use selection (multiple-choice) that have been approved to be used to determine federal and state funding for public schools, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-II and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills Constructed Response, Thinking About Reading, demonstrates that a qualitative inventory can give insight into the reading process while a quantitative instrument can measure the reading product. But careful analysis of the reliability of these types of tests indicates that perhaps the time and expense needed to administer these additional reading measures are not worth the extra information that is yielded.

Maher Abdalla
Hepatitis C infection and hepatic expression of antioxidant enzymes

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. It has been reported that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased in HCV infection and may contribute to hepatic cell injury. Cells are protected against oxidative insults by various antioxidant enzymes. The current work tests the hypothesis that HCV infection modulates the expression of these antioxidant enzymes. Using liver biopsies from patients with HCV infection, we found no differences in the expression of MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD or catalase, but did find a marked increase (3-fold) in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and a marked decrease (45%) in the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), compared to normal liver tissue, regardless of stage of fibrosis. The changes observed in iNOS and HO-1 protein levels in these biopsy samples was also observed at the mRNA level as determined by relative quantification of RNA extracts by RT-PCR. To further investigate these changes in HO-1 expression, we performed immunohistochemistry to visualize HO-1 in normal and HCV-infected liver. We found that HCV-infected liver demonstrated (1) decreased HO-1 staining associated with the hepatocytes, and (2) increased HO-1 staining in Kupffer cells. These data demonstrate that HCV-infection decreases hepatocyte associated HO-1 activity, and increases Kupffer cell HO-1 activity. Our findings may explain in part the oxidative stress associated with HCV infection, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

Manpreet Kaur
Characterization of Biodegradable and Bioadhesive Polymer Blends

The objective of this study is to develop and characterize polyblends with dual properties of biodegradation and bioadhesion through blending polymers with these individual properties via the extrusion process. Binary blends of PLGA - polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and PLGA -hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) of varying composition were extruded into pellets and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Weight loss profiles of these pellets were obtained in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Morphology of the polyblends was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DSC thermograms of PLGA-PEO did not show composition dependent melting point depression where as a single glass transition was observed for PLGA-HPC. The weight loss profiles showed 10% retention of HPC in all compositions of the polyblends where as the PEO leached out from polyblends greater than 10% PEO. SEM analysis confirmed the gravimetric observations. Preliminary results indicate that PLGA-PEO polymers form immiscible blends, whereas PLGA-HPC blends demonstrate partial miscibility.

Marc Falk
"Bankrupt and Paralysed": Critical Perception of Handel's Illness of 1737 and its Effect on his Music.

Critical views of Handel s mental and physical condition have varied greatly over the years, but all sources agree that in 1737 the composer suffered an acute illness that was quickly the talk of the town. The London Evening Post reported that Handel was very much indispos d, and it s thought with a Paraletick Disorder , while the Earl of Shaftesbury revealed that Handel; . . . was this Spring struck with the Palsy, which took entirely away the use of 4 fingers of his right hand . . . and when the heats of Summer 1737 came on, the Disorder seemed at times to affect his Understanding. This paper will examine both early and more recent research on Handel’s illness and cure of 1737, and then explore the potential effect of the illness and recuperation on his compositional output of the time, specifically the use of borrowed material in the oratorios Saul and Israel in Egypt.

Margaret Burchianti
Building Bridges of Memory: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, Argentina's Desaparecidos, and the Stakes of the Present

The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, women whose adult daughters and sons were disappeared by the military dictatorship during the late 1970s in Argentina, organized in 1977 as mothers searching for their children. Twenty-five years later they are still mobilized, fighting for memory, truth, and justice. In this paper I show that the Mothers fight for the disappeared, far from being an issue solely about the past, is inextricably connected to the Mothers concern for Argentina s present and future. The Mothers movement is a site through which social memories of the dictatorship are transmitted and connected to the realities of a neoliberal present. The Mothers have taken over the struggle for social and economic justice from their disappeared daughters and sons who are no longer able to wage that struggle. In doing so, the Mothers are building a bridge between the disappeared and a current generation of activists.

Maria Meza Bartrina
Changing relations between Paraguay and U.S.A.: The press coverage of the Filartiga v. Pena Irala in the U.S. and Paraguayan press

This research will examine the press coverage in the U.S. and Paraguayan media of a human rights violation committed in Paraguay in 1976, when Joel Filartiga was tortured to death by Paraguayan police official Americo Pena-Irala and his death squad. This case was brought into the U.S. judicial system under the Alien Tort Claims Act.
The U.S. courts decided that state torture violated the universal law and that the United States had jurisdiction over a torturer residing in its territory. In a civil suit under the law, United States Court of Appeal for the Second Circuit found in favor of the victim in 1981.
There was no precedent for such a suit. The Filartiga's suit was unusual because it involved a suit by an alien plaintiff against an alien in the United States for torture that had taken place in Paraguay by a Paraguayan citizen against another Paraguayan.

Mark Reimer
The Historical Underpinnings of Reader Response in Literature

Reading and responding to that reading in some manner have been and continue to be integral elements of language arts and English classes. While initially the notion of a communication contract drove literacy instruction, there has been a change in theory that recognizes the actualization of the reader as necessary for instruction. Three early models of instruction (transmission, translation, interactive) based on a communication contract between the author, the text, and the reader did not allow any place for the reader in meaning making process. It is in a fourth model (transactional) where the theory of a reader's actualization is able to emerge and bring the reader to a place of importance in making meaning. The reader is finally invited to bring her/his prior knowledge, experience and wisdom to the fore in explaining the ideas found in texts and their significance to her/his studies.

Marty Gould
Robinson Crusoe and Imperial Performance

With characters adorned in richly embroidered clothes, troupes of dancing girls, and ceremonial processions, W.T. Moncrieff s play The Cataract of the Ganges (1823) brought India to spectacular life on the nineteenth-century stage. While this lavish reproduction of India confirms the British theatre s function as an imperial institution, Moncrieff s play complicates its own authorization of the theatre by associating theatrical practices with superstition and oriental despotism. Indeed, the play endorses its own cultural rival, the English novel, as the most effective counter to the dangers of eastern theatricality. In short, The Cataract of the Ganges illustrates the cultural tensions at the heart of empire.

Mary Choe
Adult attachment, partner perceptions, and attraction in romantic crushes

Individual differences in adult attachment have been linked to a wide range of relationship processes yet little is known about the role attachment plays in initial attraction and the earliest stages of romantic relationship formation. The present study examined the role attachment plays on perceptions of romantic crushes, judgments of actual and ideal similarity, attraction, and relationship outcomes. Both participants' attachment organization and their perceptions of their crushes had a significant impact on the reported level of attraction to their crushes and whether or not a committed relationship had been formed. A process model of attraction for one s crush and a process model predicting relationship status are proposed.

Matthew Binnicker
Infection of Human Urethral Epithelium with Neisseria gonorrhoeae Elicits an Upregulation of Host Anti-apoptotic Factors, and Protects Cells from Staurosporine-induced Apoptosis

In order to better understand the host response to an infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, microarray technology was used to analyze the gene expression profile between uninfected and infected human urethral epithelium. The anti-apoptotic genes bfl-1, cox-2, and c-IAP-2 were identified to be upregulated approximately eight-, four-, or two-fold, respectively, following infection. Subsequent assays including RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, and RNase protection confirmed the increased expression of these apoptotic regulators, and identified that a fourth anti-apoptotic factor, mcl-1, is also upregulated. RT-PCR and RNase protection also showed that key pro-apoptotic factors including bax, bad, and bak do not change in expression. Furthermore, our studies demonstrated that infection with the gonococcus partially protects urethral epithelium from apoptosis induced by the protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine (STS). This work shows that following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, several host anti-apoptotic factors are upregulated. In addition, a gonococcal infection protects host cells from subsequent STS-induced death. The regulation of host cell death by the gonococcus may represent a mechanism employed by this pathogen to survive and proliferate in host epithelium.

Matthew Miller
Makings of Americans: Whitman and Stein's Poetics of Inclusion

Although the work of Gertrude Stein has usually been understood in ways that isolate her from her antecedents, Stein is in fact a writer central to American literary tradition. Like Whitman, she enacts a poetics of inclusion that defines as central what had previously been understood as marginal elements. Through comparing The Making of Americans to Whitman's inclusive gestures in Leaves of Grass, an important pattern emerges that helps in understanding the cultural work that their poetics perform.

Megan Jenkins
New Negro or Sellout? Harry T. Burleigh and the Harlem Renaissance

A controversial figure from the Harlem Renaissance is Henry (Harry) Thacker Burleigh, a composer, singer, and editor in New York. During the Harlem Renaissance, Burleigh was seen as an Old Negro one who did not seek to help the cause of African-Americans as a group. Burleigh, despite his success, never advocated an African-American political cause; rather, he seemed to have believed that the best way an African-American composer could promote African-American music is to produce one's own music to the best of one's ability. Despite his lack of popularity with the leaders of the Harlem Renaissance, Burleigh was an important part of the growth of the movement. Whether he was self-conscious about his race or not, Burleigh's music was performed regularly, and it very unselfconsciously contained themes of race. While he may not have been a New Negro Burleigh showed by his own actions and his music that he believed that African-American art was as important as white art. In my paper I expand on Jon Spencer's argument that Burleigh was an influential figure in American music, especially in the music of the Harlem Renaissance.

Mike Chasar
"Insane Conjunction": Salvador Dali and the Shakespeare Suites

This paper explores Salvador Dali's unexpected and largely unaddressed interest in Shakespeare. A relationship that seemed an 'Insane conjunction' to a reviewer for "Time" in late 1946 appeared to make good sense to the Spanish surrealist who repeatedly, and in a variety of mediums (oils, etchings, stage and costume designs, jewelry, book illustations), returned to Shakespeare throughout the latter, non-surrealist half of his career. Unlike his encounters with other artists which are fraught with competition and comparison, Dali's relationship with Shakespeare is surprisingly collaborative and offers an alternative look at an artist better known for his shocking psychological dreamscapes. This paper focuses, in particular, on Dali's portrait of Shakespeare, on his illustration for "Macbeth" which explores the unconscious on Shakespeare's terms, and on an illustration for "As You Like It" that becomes a vehicle for articulating Dali's anxieties concerning his identity in Franco's Spain

Ming Yan
The effect of a change in pharmacy benefit structure on prescription drug utilization and costs in an Iowa population

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of implementing a three-tier copayment pharmacy benefit structure on prescription drug utilization and costs. A quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with comparison group design will be used to examine the effect of implementing a three tier copayment pharmacy benefit in an Iowa population. Prescription claims data from July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2002 are being obtained. The intervention groups include enrollees changing from two-tier benefit to three-tier benefit and enrollees changing from coinsurance benefit to three-tier benefit. The comparison group includes enrollees in a 20 percent coinsurance plan throughout the study period (n=1276). Multivariate statistical analyses will be used in this study. Poisson or negative binomial regression will be used to model the number of prescription drugs and OLS regression will be used to model the natural logarithm of prescription drug costs.

Nagendra Chemuturi
Dopamine transport and metabolism across bovine respiratory mucosa

Dopamine transport across bovine respiratory mucosa was measured in vitro by placing the mucosa between Sweetana-Grass diffusion cells containing Krebs s Ringer s buffer or drug solutions. Dopamine transport was followed in the apical to basolateral (a-b) and basolateral to apical (b-a) directions. Permeation studies using dopamine transport inhibitors (GBR 12935 and nomifensine), iproniazid (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and a metabolic inhibitor (2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) were used to study the active processes. Permeation studies using inert membranes were performed as a control. Nonlinearity of flux in the a-b direction while being linear in the b-a direction and in the presence of GBR 12935, nomifensine, suggested active transport. Dihydroxy phenyl acetic acid, a dopamine metabolite was also observed during the analysis of transport study samples. Since dopamine transport across respiratory mucosa is regulated by its active uptake and metabolism, their optim! ization may improve its absorption and subsequent CNS activity.

Nancy Bishop
The Barberini Gospels

The Barberini Gospels is an eighth century Anglo-Saxon illuminated manuscript, unique among its contemporaries mainly for the early appearance of some motifs and for the use of multiple painting styles in one book. The makers and subsequent users of this book, however, failed to leave a paper trail, resulting in no known history until the modern era. Because it apparently moved to the Continent at an early date the Barberini Gospels could have been a source of influence in the development of Carolingian art as well. Assessing its significance in broader contexts of both English and Continental art history requires the establishment of some fixed points. But its provenance, as such, must rely on a certain amount of speculation, educated guesswork, and circumstantial evidence. This paper explores one such line of reasoning by examining artistic, iconographical, and archival clues to propose a Continental home for the Barberini Gospels in the early Middle Ages.

Nancy Hayes
Close Encounters of the Word Kind: Exploring the Emotional and Physical Dimensions of Everyday Literacy

Professional discussions of literacy tend to center on the kinds of reading and writing done in primary and secondary schools, using language rife with visions of deficit and failure. Yet literacy as enacted outside of school contexts often springs from the pleasure and satisfaction of engaging with the written word. In particular the physical and emotional dimensions of that engagement make a profound impact on readers' and writers' pursuit of the goals they seek to attain by reading and writing. This presentation explores the physical and emotional dimensions of the literacy practices of 18 Spanish adults. It draws on ethnographic interviews, field observations, and popular media and literary artifacts to describe literacy events as they unfold in the everyday lives of informants and to suggest new ways of talking about and enacting literacy in educational contexts.

Nitish Agrawal
Mechanistic Studies of Thymidylate Synthase

Thymidylate Synthase (TS) catalyzes the reductive methylation of 2' - deoxyuridylate - 5' - monophosphate (dUMP) to 2' - deoxythymidylate - 5' - monophosphate (dTMP). This enzyme is an important target of chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. The mechanism of this enzyme is of great interest because it catalyzes two independent reactions where the cofactor N5, N10methylene 5,6,7,8 - tetrahydrofolate serves both as a methylene donor and a hydride (H-) donor in the reaction. The objective of our research is to develop a better understanding of how TS activate medically and biologically significant stable covalent bonds (C-N, C-H bonds) and catalyze the formation of C-C bonds. We will examine the role of quantum mechanical hydrogen tunneling in TS catalysis. Our preliminary results suggest that the chemistry catalyzed by TS is rate limited by the H- (hydride) transfer step of reaction. We would also explore the TS by studying chemistry of the TS taken from cancerous lines. It may provide better understanding of the differences between normal and malignant TS. This in turn may lead to new approaches of drug design that would specifically target TS in the cancerous lines and not the normal TS which is essential for life.

Priyanka Roy Chowdhury
A novel, biodegradable, porous 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose based polymeric scaffold for tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is a newly emerging biomedical technology, that involves the regeneration of natural tissues from living cells to replace defective tissues and organs. One approach to tissue engineering is a cell-scaffold based approach, in which human cells are seeded and grown on suitable scaffold and then transplanted into the injury site to induce formation of a replacement tissue or organ. The challenges for this approach are many and include designing a scaffold with suitable chemical and physical properties because the scaffolding material plays a critical role in guiding cell adhesion, growth and new tissue formation. We have developed porous 2,3 dialdehyde cellulose based polymeric scaffolds which are biocompatible and biodegradable. The ability of these scaffolds to promote human fibroblast cell adhesion, growth and differentiation was studied. Preliminary in vitro cell culture studies demonstrate successful cell adhesion, growth and differentiati! on supporting the usage of 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering.

Raymond Watkins
'A Sight for Horse Eyes': Savage Vision in D.H. Lawrence's St. Mawr

The most conspicuous indication of D. H. Lawrence's primitivism has seldom been commented upon: descriptions of the vision of his animal and primitive characters. _St. Mawr_ (1925) serves as an ideal example, since the animal-primitive eye of either non-Western characters or of the horse St. Mawr indicates their power and superiority over cultivated Europeans. Such a hierarchy parallels Lawrence's visual aesthetic as discussed in "Introduction to These Paintings." In this late essay, Lawrence praises Cezanne for his courage in bringing precisely the same primitive vision and movement to the canvas. Although Lawrence struggles to make St. Mawr as dynamic as a Cezanne canvas, his depiction is ultimately as static as the over-industrialized European world he condemns. Through the trope of the animal and primitive, Lawrence illustrates a central paradox of Modernist art: a rhetorical and aesthetic impulse to move toward the primitive other, while still embracing European tastes and values. In this way, Lawrence's mythic horse encapsulates a central myth of Modernism.

Rebecca Oberley
Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) Enhances teh Phagocytosis and Killing of Chlamydia trachomatis by THP-1 cells

Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular pathogen that is a frequent cause of infection and inflammation in the male and female reproductive tract. If Chlamydial infections are not treated, scarring of the Fallopian tubes or epididymsis can occur and result in sterility. Surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) are proteins involved in the innate immune response in the lung (2). Both proteins enhance the phagocytosis of a variety of pathogens into macrophages by acting directly on both bacteria and macrophages. SP-D has been detected throughout the human body; whereas, SP-A has only been detected in the lung and conducting airways. We hypothesize that SP-A and SP-D are present in the female reproductive tract and that they help phagocytose and kill Chlamydia trachomatis. We find that both proteins are present in a variety of female reproductive tissues and cell lines. We also demonstrate that SP-A and SP-D enhance the phagocytosis of Chlamydia trachomatis by TH! P-1 cells. We also show that the viability of the phagocytosed bacteria decreases in the presence of SP-A.

Robert Simmons
Catullus 74: Internal Critique of a Love in Process

While the Roman poet Catullus is notorious for making sport of a serious sentiment in one poem with a comical depiction of that same sentiment in the same poem or one nearby, his highly unorthodox portrayal of his feelings for his lover, Lesbia, late in his collection have thus far only been taken at face value. But poem 72, the first of a series in which he tries to define his uncommon romantic feelings using non-erotic images, seems to be held up for mockery in 74, as the nurturing relationship of a father for his sons and sons-in-law as depicted in 72 turns into a nephew's incest with both his aunt and censorious uncle in 74. Catullus plays on the struggles he has in capturing just the right image for his feelings while also acknowledging the incomprehensibility of his innovative portrayals of romance to a culture to which the concept was largely foreign.

Robin Barrow
Mutiny Novels and the "Truth" about Rape

Using Jenny Sharpe s idea of the truth-effect, I examine the narrative structure of sexual violence in two novels set during the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857: James Grant s First Love and Last Love (1868) and Flora Annie Steel s On the Face of the Waters (1897). Although the representation of rape functions differently in these examples, both authors are invested in establishing the truth of their narratives. This is a marked change from other Victorian novels, which enforced silence and secrecy in response to sexual violence. I argue that this pattern is due to the function of violated Englishwomen as focal points for British political and cultural outrage stemming from the colonial rebellion.

Roman Kotov
Evaluating Smokers Risk for Anxiety Pathology in a Russian Epidemiological Sample

The present study evaluated the main and interactive effects of level of smoking (cigarettes per day) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety related sensations) in predicting panic and anxiety variables in an epidemiologically-defined sample of smokers from Moscow (n = 95). The combination of high levels of anxiety sensitivity and smoking predicted agoraphobic avoidance, but not frequency of panic attacks during the past week. These findings suggest anxiety sensitivity may moderate the relation between level of smoking and prototypical panic psychopathology variables (panic attacks and agoraphobic avoidance) even after controlling for the theoretically-relevant factors of alcohol abuse and negative affect.

S. Beth Bellman
Gender differences in depression, stereotyping, and expected social support

Gender stereotypes differentially effect the interpretation of symptoms of physical illness for men and women. Building on this work, we investigated whether the sex of a target results in differences in perceptions of depression. 175 community residents read a vignette about a man or woman experiencing either moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Subjects then responded to items about the importance of seeing a physician. The data were analyzed using a 2x2 between-subjects ANOVA. A significant 2-way interaction was observed, F(1, 166) = 4.06, p<.05. simple="" effects="" showed="" that="" it="" was="" deemed="" less="" important="" for="" female="" targets="" with="" moderate="" depressive="" symptoms="" to="" see="" a="" physician="" than="" females="" severe="" symptoms.="" in="" contrast="" equally="" male="" regardless="" of="" whether="" they="" exhibited="" or="" information="" about="" symptom="" severity="" seems="" have="" been="" used="" selectively="" women="" but="" not="" men.="">

Salil Lachke
A reverse genetic approach to study phenotypic switching in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

Candida albicans and related species of the genus Candida are opportunistic fungal pathogens. The capacity to live both as a commensal and pathogen, evade the immune system and drug therapy, invade a variety of body locations, and to adjust rapidly to changes in host physiology indicates that C.albicans has extraordinary phenotypic plasticity. Phenotypic switching is a developmental program that enables C. albicans to spontaneously and reversibly -switch2 between several phenotypes that have a profound effect on pathogenic traits and controls the ability of these phenotypes to undergo the bud-hypha transition. Since C. albicans is diploid with an as yet ill-defined sexual cycle, a reverse genetics approach has been adopted for studying the mechanism of switching. Switching regulates expression of several genes in a phase-specific manner and hence a study of how these genes are regulated would enable one to climb up the ladder of events to the actual switch event.

Sangkil Moon
A spatial choice model for product recommendations

Product recommendation models are key tools in customer relationship management (CRM). This study develops a product recommendation model based upon the principle that customer preference similarity stemming from prior response behavior is a key element in predicting current product purchase. The proposed recommendation model is dependent upon two complementary methodologies: joint space mapping (placing customers and products on the same psychological map) and spatial choice modeling (allowing observed choices to be correlated across customers). Using a joint space map based upon past purchase behavior, a predictive model is calibrated in which the probability of product purchase depends upon the customer's relative distance to other customers on the map. An empirical study demonstrates that the proposed approach provides excellent forecasts relative to benchmark models for a customer database provided by an insurance firm.

Sarita Menon
Regulatory role of SOD2 and cyclin D1 during thiol antioxidant induced G1 arrest

There is increasing evidence of the regulatory role of intracellular oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions during cell proliferation. We have previously shown that modulation of intracellular redox state by thiol antioxidants like N-acetylcysteine (NAC), specifically delays the progression of cells through G1 phase of the cell cycle. Based on these observations the specific hypothesis is to determine the regulatory role of MnSOD (SOD2) and cyclin D1 during thiol antioxidant induced G1 arrest. NIH/3T3, mouse fibroblasts were treated with varying amounts of NAC, harvested after 24 hours and cell cycle analysis was done. NAC treated cells, showed G1 arrest along with a decrease in cyclin D1 and an elevation in MnSOD, protein levels. Results from RT-PCR experiments showed no changes in mRNA levels following NAC treatment. Therefore NAC induced modulations of both SOD and cyclin D1 seem to be translationally regulated. These results support the hypothesis that SOD2 and cyclin D1 expression could control redox-modulated progression from G1 to S.

Sean Scanlan
The Tour de France As Epic, Part Two; Or, the Modern Epic and the Modern Novel

In his essay The Tour de France as Epic (1957), Roland Barthes claims that this three-week sporting event is the best example we have ever encountered of a total, hence an ambiguous myth (87). It is mythic because it fuses the real with the utopian. Not only does the tour reflect our need for mythologizing, but also, its multi-chapter structure and the geography it traverses proves it to be our best example of a modern-day epic. The Tour is an epic narrative that idealizes combat between men and nature and combat between nations. My methodology is literary narratology, and the aim of my paper is two-fold. First I utilize Barthes and Franco Moretti to show how their literary examples enhance our understanding of the Tour as a cultural contest that mimics Homer's Odyssey. Second, I challenge Barthes claim that the Tour is an epic, and instead prove that the 2002 Tour has the design of a novel. 20.

Shanhong Luo
What is Attractive: Similarity, Complementarity or Security?

Experimental studies were conducted to test three hypotheses with regard to initial attraction and adult attachment: similarity, complementarity, and security. Participants (a) read four "hypothetical dating partner" scenarios, each depicting a relationship with a partner who displayed behaviors typical of one of the four attachment styles, (b) rated their reactions to each of the partners, and (c) used adjectives from Klohnen and John's (1998) circumplex measure of working models to describe themselves and each partner. Comparisons of the mean attraction rating each of the dating partners obtained, showed strong support for the attachment-security hypothesis. Correlational analyses provided robust evidence for the similarity hypothesis. Regression analyses suggested that perceived similarity is a mediator of the relationship between attachment and attraction, whereas perceived security contributes to attraction through an independent mechanism. There was no evidence for the complementarity hypothesis.

Sheila Benson
Reinforcing Hegemony: The Privileging of Middle-class Socioeconomic Values in a Twenty-first Century Basal

This study examines how part one of Scott Foresman's (2000) second-grade basal Reading: New Beginnings uses dominant ideologies about school's role in future economic success to reinforce class disparity as natural. This particular basal, with its careful attention to character portrayal (accomplished primarily by casting almost all the stories with animals rather than people) and its focus on the importance of individuals, appears to pay close attention to cultural and gender equity issues. However, a closer examination of how specific elements of discourse function within this basal demonstrates a blending of work and school discourses that positions readers to accept a socio-economic hierarchy as natural. We need to question such discourses, constantly questioning what ideologies are naturalized and teaching students who use these basals to do likewise.

Shrividya Iyer
Factors influencing availability of services in independent community pharmacies

Objective: To determine factors influencing availability of services in independent community pharmacies.
Design: A self administered mail survey of 900 randomly selected independent community pharmacies in six states. Categories of variables included, consisted of pharmacy characteristics, managerial characteristics and environmental characteristics. Variables were assessed with multi-item measures. Moderated regression was the method of analysis
Results: The usable response rate of the survey was 48.9%. Entrepreneurial Orientation was found to be a significant positive influence on availability of services (pConclusion: Entrepreneurial orientation and adequacy of resources are significant determinants of availability of services in independent pharmacies. An entrepreneurial orientation leads to greater availability of services in a benign environment as compared to a hostile one.

Stephanie Hart
Predictors of Children's Risky Decision Making

Preferences between a sure thing and a risky option were examined in two gambling tasks for children and their parents. One task offered varying probabilities of winning dimes and the other offered the same probabilities of losing dimes. These tasks were developed to capture the decision making processes of classic adult risky choice, particularly those involved in risk preference shifts between gain and loss trials, but were modified to be suitable for both adults and children ages 6-7. Risk preferences of the children were related to measures of individual difference using Rothbart's Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) as well as to the risk preferences of their parents.

Suma Shankar
Linkage Analysis of X Chromosome in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON)

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that inheritance of an X-linked gene is required along with mitochondrial mutation in the development of optic atrophy in LHON.
Background: LHON is a blinding disease that is maternally transmitted caused by mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Incomplete penetrance and male predominance in affected pedigrees and results of segregation analysis support presence of an X-linked factor predisposing to optic atrophy.
Methods: A family of 83 individuals, harboring homoplasmic 11778 mitochondrial LHON mutation was genotyped using 53 Single Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms on the X-chromosome and LODSCORE calculations performed.
Results: There was no evidence of significant linkage to any of the locus tested. However, there were areas of low positive LODSCORES with some markers on the X-chromosome.
Conclusions: Further analysis of the data using MULTIPOINT linkage analysis is required for exclusion mapping of the X-chromosome or to find an area with a combined significant LODSCORE.

Tim Bascom
Lost of the Shelves: The Misunderstood Genre of Memoir

When Deborah Baker, nonfiction editor at Little, Brown and Co., blazed through the University of Iowa nonfiction-writing program, she left ten or fifteen would-be memoirists scorched. Asked about the prospects for new memoirs, she grimaced as if someone had pulled her hair. Memoirs rarely have shelves set aside for them, she pointed out, and without a clear marketing hook, the memoir is a poor sell.
In fact, the number of literary memoirs has increased exponentially in the last decade, and the trend isn't going away. Here bolstered by the comments of Patricia Hampl (a widely respected memoirist), Paul Ingram (bookstore manager at Prairie Lights), and Natasha Kern (West Coast literary agent) I recommend how an unestablished memoirist might write a book that holds its own on the bookstore shelf.

Timothy Lindley
Redox Signaling is Involved in Central Activation and Sympathoexcitation During the Development of Heart Failure Following Myocardial Infarction.

Excessive neurohumoral activation is a hallmark of heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that increased superoxide anion production in the brain play a key role in the neurohumoral dysregulation during HF. Ligation of the left coronary artery was used to induce a large MI and subsequent HF in adult mice. Immunohistochemical detection of Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, demonstrated an increase in Fos-positive neurons in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks post-MI compared to sham mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of an adenovirus encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Ad-Cu/ZnSOD), decreased the number of Fos-positive neurons in PVN and SON. Central Ad-Cu/ZnSOD in MI mice also attenuated the drop in heart rate and mean arterial pressure following ganglionic blockade. These results suggest that increased superoxide levels play a critical role in central activation and sympathoexcitation post-MI.

Vishal Sipani
Cationic Photopolymerization of Epoxide Monomers

We have characterized the kinetics of photo-polymerization of epoxide monomer by studying the lifetime of the live polymer chains. The samples were polymerized by illuminating them from a 200W Hg/Xe arc lamp for a specified duration of time at 50oC and 75 mW/cm2 light intensity and then monitoring the reaction in the dark using differential scanning calorimetry. An iodonium salt photoinitiator was used for these polymerizations. In the absence of the initiating light, no new polymer chains are created, and the rate of polymerization decreases with time due to the termination of the existing live polymer chains. We characterized the average lifetime of these active polymer chains and found them to be on the order of tens of minutes. We have also studied the effect of variables such as temperature, photoinitiator counterion, and monomer functionality on the propagation lifetime.

Weidong Zhang
Staging Unity, Celebrating Chineseness:Textual Analysis of 2002 CCTV Spring Festival Eve Gala

This paper examines the Chinese television text of the Spring Festival Eve Gala 2002, and explores how Chinese national identity, or Chineseness, and ethnicity are represented and circulated in the popular entertainment text by the Chinese media. The paper argues that the state-run media functions as an ideology state apparatus, interpellates individuals with dominant ideology through their hegemonic discourses. Regardless of ethnic boundaries, a homogenous, monolithic Chineseness is imposed on every Chinese. In the process, ethnicity, though not totally effaced, can only be staged on the margin. The ethnic minorities are reduced, exploited and appropriated for the purpose of construction of a national unity.

Wenjie Chen
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory regions of COL1A1 are associated with otosclerosis and affect protein expression levels

Otosclerosis, a type of conductive deafness caused by abnormal bone homeostasis of the otic capsule, represents a frequent cause of hearing impairment among white adults. Although no causative genes have been cloned, a candidate gene association study between otosclerosis and three collagen genes linked to mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL2A1 found a statistically significant association between otosclerosis and COL1A1 (McKenna et al., Am J Otol 1998). In most cases of mild OI, functional null alleles of COL1A1 or COL1A2 lead to reduced amounts of normal collagen type I, the predominant component of bone. We hypothesize that some cases of otosclerosis may be due to abnormal expression of COL1A1, and tested this hypothesis by studying the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regulatory region of COL1A1 and otosclerosis.

Zlatan Krizan
Rule-Based vs. Intuitive Processing in Likelihood Judgment

We investigated how variables relevant to rule-based and intuitive processing influence likelihood judgments. Faced with hypothetical raffles and different distributions of tickets among several players, participants provided likelihood judgments of them winning on both verbal and numeric scales, either under time pressure or not. Verbal estimates, more than numeric, were influenced by the distribution of tickets across players, even when the objective probability of winning was held constant. Participants were highly overoptimistic, especially when no other player held more tickets than they did. Time pressure exacerbated overoptimism and moderated the effect of ticket distributions. Implications for likelihood-judgment models are discussed.