Jakobsen Conference Abstracts, 2004

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Adele Seelke
Double dissociation between sniffing and arousal in infant rats

An increase in sensory threshold is a defining characteristic of sleep in adult mammals, including rats. In order to determine whether infant rats also exhibit this characteristic, subjects were exposed to several concentrations of an olfactory stimulus when awake or asleep. The measure of stimulus detection was sniffing, a behavior that enhances detection of odors and is typically assumed to only occur when awake. Subjects exhibited an increased sensory threshold during periods of sleep. Surprisingly, subjects were observed to sniff even while exhibiting behavioral signs of sleep. Through further experimentation it was determined that the sniffing response was driven by the olfactory system and not the trigeminal system. Thus, although sensory threshold increases during sleep, sleeping does not preclude sniffing.

Alex Casillas
Impact of Personality Traits and Life Events on Newlyweds Satisfaction

Few studies have collected the breadth of data necessary to investigate the associations between personality, trait affectivity, and life events, or to examine the role that these variables may play on other areas of a person's experience, such as life satisfaction. The current study, part of the Iowa Marital Assessment Project (IMAP), was designed to address the aforementioned questions. During Phase I, couples completed self-report measures of personality and trait affectivity. Six months later they completed measures of satisfaction and of life events experienced since Phase I. Results revealed that several personality traits, most notably trait negative affect and neuroticism, were associated with life events (r range = -.21 to .31). Additionally, negative life events, trait affectivity, and other personality traits predicted various types of satisfaction (R2 range = .07 to .33). The implications of these results, as well as strengths and limitations of the study, are discussed.

Aliza Weinrib
Psychosocial Correlates of Diurnal Cortisol in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Diurnal (daily) cortisol rhythms can be altered by chronic stress and depression. In cancer patients, alterations of the diurnal cortisol rhythm are associated with poor prognosis. Little is known about diurnal cortisol and its psychosocial correlates in ovarian cancer patients. Prior to surgery, 39 gynecologic oncology patients collected cortisol samples and completed several psychological questionnaires. Surgical diagnosis determined that 18 women had ovarian cancer and 21 had benign disease. Cortisol samples were also collected by 21 healthy women. Results showed that diurnal cortisol is dysregulated in ovarian cancer patients, particularly in terms of night-time elevations in cortisol (p s < .05). Cancer patients with elevated cortisol late in the day reported greater stress and depression and less social support in comparison to benign patients (p = .02, p = .04, and p = .049, respectively). Psychosocial factors may contribute to cortisol dysregulation in ovarian cancer patients, with possible implications for survival.

Amy Trautwein
Can science justify our trust in memory?

The broad distinctions philosophers deploy in the classification of memory types have not changed for decades even though scientific advances in understanding the mechanics of memory have revealed their various shortcomings and conceptual flaws. My independent analysis of memory types integrates the scientific understanding into the philosophical while also examining the categorical criteria scientists use. The resulting multi-layered, multi-axial taxonomy provides new insights into the complexity of justifying knowledge claims about the past. In light of this new taxonomy, historical philosophical attempts to justify our trust in our memories reliability are assessed and the limits of their applicability in light of this new taxonomy are shown. Contemporary attempts to justify memory by appealing to scientific accounts of when memory is working correctly are assessed in light of current research showing that memory is, in many ways, a product of our imaginations and of our expectations of the world.

Banoo Malik
The evolution of meiosis and eukaryotes

Meiosis is a feature that distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes. It is the component of sexual reproduction where homologous chromosomes replicate and recombine and ploidy is halved. Proteins of the meiotic recombination machinery have been studied in depth at the functional and genetic level in animals, plants and fungi but not protists, which represent the greatest evolutionary diversity of eukaryotes. We present an inventory of homologous meiotic proteins distributed across the evolutionary tree of eukaryotes, to discern what fundamental similarities and differences exist in the meiotic machinery of diverse lineages of eukaryotes. Notably, some putatively asexual lineages bear some parts of the meiotic machinery while they have apparently lost others. As well, some sexual lineages appear to be missing fundamental components of the machinery. This comparative approach suggests that the core set of genes that define the meiotic machinery may comprise a slightly different set of proteins amongst various eukaryotic lineages

Brian Gehl
Sex Differences in Jealousy: The Role of Response Formats and Validity of Constructs

The theory of jealousy as a specific innate module (JSIM) argues that natural selection shaped the phenomenon of jealousy differently for women and men. This theory has found support in numerous studies utilizing a forced-choice paradigm developed by Buss and colleagues (1992). According to JSIM, males should choose sexual infidelity as more distressing whereas females should choose emotional infidelity as more distressing for different evolutionary reasons. Two studies were conducted to examine if continuous rating scales and individual items, as compared to the forced choice format, would produce a similar pattern of sex differences. Across both studies, females reported as much distress and upset to the sexual infidelity related scales compared to males and significantly more distress to the emotional infidelity related items. These results suggest that apparent sex differences in jealousy are strongly tied to the response format and items used.

Christian Coyle
Endothelial Cells Produce Superoxide under Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Stress in Static Culture and under Physiologic Shear

An accumulation of free radicals (oxidative stress) is inherent in the cardiovascular system of hypertensive and diabetic patients. The requirement for repair in the cardiac system in these diseased patients dictates that new approaches to artificial blood vessels (grafts) be developed. Due to failure of current small diameter grafts, a better understanding of enzymatic sources of free radicals is needed. To examine these sources, four known producers of free radicals (eNOS, NAD(P)H oxidase, cyclooxygenase, xanthine oxidase) were inhibited with select pharmacological inhibitors. With fluorescent assays, superoxide production was measured in control and inhibited samples under hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. In experiments, uncoupled eNOS and NAD(P)H oxidase were sizable contributors under static culture; while under physiological shear all four sources appear to play a role in superoxide production. With an increased understanding of the enzymatic pathways, more targeted therapies for cardiovascular diseases can be developed.

Christopher Thompson
Macrophage Sphingosine Kinase Activity Regulates Phagosome Maturation

One-third of the entire world’s population is currently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Tuberculosis, the disease caused by this organism, is a leading cause of infectious mortality, resulting in approximately three million deaths per year. Development of such a large reservoir of infection depends on the bacterium’s ability to evade the natural host responses against infection. One such mechanism of host immune response evasion is M.tb’s ability to prevent the intracellular calcium rise which normally accompanies phagocytosis. Our lab has previously shown that prevention of this calcium rise occurs via M.tb’s inhibition of sphingosine kinase. The work described here explores how sphingosine kinase is able to regulate phagosome maturation, especially in the context of mycobacterial infection.

Claudia Pummer
Vernacular of Exile: Yiddish Cinema in America in the 1930s

My presentation deals with the role and meaning of the Yiddish-American cinema in the 1930s, a cinematic text that I define as a "vernacular of exile." The Yiddish Cinema not only literally spoke the spectators mother tongue but also utilized a specific cinematic language that was influenced by earlier popular Yiddish art forms as well as by popular American entertainments. The exhibition of Yiddish films allowed the immigrant audience to revive traditional forms of an interactive spectatorship, which had its roots in early silent film exhibitions. By coming together in the movie theater, the immigrant audience symbolically reunited as an "exiled community" and celebrated the various influences it had encountered in the "New World." Thus, Yiddish cinema provides an example that Exile can also be understood as a form of diversity and permeability rather than as closure and insularity.

Clayton Thyne
Reexamining old assumptions: The effects of civil war on education, 1970-2000

The negative effects of civil war on the civilian population have been neglected in conflict literature. A notable exception is an APSA piece by Ghobarah, Huth and Russett (2003) that examines the negative effects of civil war on health. This study seeks to add to their finding by examining a second important social factor: education. By examining World Bank education data including expenditures and enrollment, this study tests the Guns for Butter theory and the theory that civil war is devastating for a system of education. Results suggest no support for the Guns for Butter theory. However, strong evidence is found supporting the notion that civil war is devastating for a system of education. Implications suggest that the international community should strive harder to prevent the onset of civil war and to terminate ongoing civil wars quickly to prevent the devastation of this vital indicator of social wellness.

Dwight Ferguson
Eugenics: A Reproductive Approach

Eugenics is the movement to improve and even perfect the human species by technological means. It arose in the late nineteenth century and flourished in the United States and Europe until the 1930s. Then it was challenged by the scientific counter-evidence, and by growing uneasiness about its racialist implications. This distrust for eugenics was the result of The Third Reich, which enlisted its doctrines and practices in support of detestable crimes against humanity. However in today's society, journals, textbooks and the media present a different view of how eugenics was involved in the Holocaust. It is said that eugenics itself was not the problem with the Nazis, the problem was that the Nazis abused eugenics and took it to the extreme.

E. J. Rand
Unity and Violence: Queer Nation's Construction of a Queer Identity

The recent popularity of queer in mainstream media discourses suggests that the connotations of the word have shifted substantially away from its earlier derogatory meanings. However, the history of that resignification is largely absent from our current use of the word. This paper attempts to investigate a portion of that history through an examination of the queer identity constructed in Queer Nation’s Queers Read This flyer. First distributed in 1990, this flyer called for queers to unite against the oppression they faced in a heterosexist society, and suggested the use of violence to maintain their safety. The essay argues that the flyer rhetorically constitutes a queer identity by simultaneously appealing to and producing a community of queers, and by reformulating the relationship between queerness and violence.

Elisa Na
The role of the nucleus accumbens in enhanced salt appetite

Past studies have shown that rats that experience repeated sodium depletions show enhanced ingestion of 1.8% saline. The present experiment examined the role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in enhanced salt appetite. Rats were divided into 3 groups: 3 furosemide treatments (3F); 2 vehicle and 1 furosemide (1F); 3 vehicle (3V). On testing days, rats were given furosemide or vehicle. 24 h after injection, animals were given a salt appetite test. After the test, rats were given access to saline and water. Daily fluid intakes were recorded and the salt appetite test was omitted for the final depletion. Animals were sacrificed and Fos in the NAc was quantified. 3F rats increased both chronic and acute saline ingestion across depletions and also showed significantly more Fos in the NAc than in animals in the 1F or 3V groups. These changes indicate that experienced animals increased their preference for hypertonic saline

Elizabeth McDade
The Role of Depression Symptoms in Dialysis Withdrawal

Among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis, death from withdrawal from life-sustaining dialysis is increasingly common. The present study’s objective was to examine depression as a potential risk factor for hemodialysis withdrawal. 240 ESRD hemodialysis (133 males and 107 females) patients were followed for an average of 4 years after depression symptom assessment. 18% withdrew from dialysis. Using multivariate survival analysis and after controlling for the effects of age (p<.001) and clinical variables, level of depression symptoms was a unique and significant predictive risk factor for the subsequent decision to withdraw from dialysis (p

Elliott Campbell
Limits to Regression Models of Soil Organic Carbon on Forestland

Estimates of forest pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) are essential components of global climate change models and greenhouse gas inventories. Despite the significance of SOC in predicting the impacts of climate change, large uncertainties remain in the regression methodology for quantifying SOC. An improved survey approach for quantifying forest SOC relies on soil databases that have recently become available. However, the regression method remains a popular technique due to lack of technical expertise and data. The objective of this study is to utilize the survey approach to identify limiting cases for use of the regression approach. This paper demonstrates that the errors of the regression methodology are due to soil rock content. An analysis of SOC error in Maine, Wisconsin and Iowa is conducted to show that 79% to 98% of regression error is due to rock content.

Grant McCall
Implications of the Reorganization of Lithic Technology at the Early-Middle Paleolithic Transition for Hominid Behavior

This paper examines the nature and implications of the significant reorganization of lithic technology at the Early-Middle Paleolithic transition. From the Early to Middle Paleolithic, hominid stone tool productions changes from expedient bifacial, centripetal core reduction to greater core preparation, planning of flake shape, and production of formal tools, such as the ubiquitous and diagnostic point.
This paper uses data from several sites in Eastern and Southern Africa to argue that this reorganization of technology does not reflect any changes in cognitive ability, as many authors have suggested. Instead, the technological transition occurs because of dramatic changes in mobility patterns, requiring more efficient use of lithic raw materials as the distances and frequencies of access to raw material resources increase. In addition, the new technology reflects different activities and subsistence strategies, requiring more specialized tools, such as points and scrapers.

Haitao Liu
Interfacial Debonding Modeling of Particle-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

A micromechanical damage model is proposed to predict the effective elastoplastic behavior of ductile composites containing randomly dispersed particles. The interfacial debonding between particles and the matrix is considered as the primary micromechanical damage mechanism. The debonded isotropic elastic reinforcements are replaced by equivalent anisotropic elastic inclusions. The interfacial debonding process is simulated by three-dimensional debonding angles. After the local stress field in the matrix is calculated, the homogenization averaging procedure is employed to estimate the effective elastic stiffness and yield function of the composites. As applications, the overall elastoplastic and damage constitutive behavior of the composites under various loading conditions is numerically simulated and compared with available experimental results.

Heather Foote
In Search of an Identity: The Dramatic Function of the Third Act in Giuseppe Verdi’s Falstaff

Traditionally, plots of nineteenth-century comic operas are resolved by the end of the second act, resulting in the third act seeming to be a superfluous addendum. In the shadow of such a tradition, the dramatic import of the third act in Giuseppe Verdi’s comic opera Falstaff is often minimized. I propose an alternative interpretation demonstrating its dramatic necessity. Whereas Acts I and II highlight Falstaff s alienation from the other characters (his obsession with wealth and physical pleasure estrange him from them), the events of the final act dramatize his maturation and reintegration into mainstream society. Lacan’s psychoanalytic theories of the Mirror Stage and three imagoes broaden our understanding of Falstaff’s growth as he seeks to redefine himself as well as his place within society.

Heidi Ress
Isolation and Characterization of Vincristine Metabolites

A unique dose-related neurotoxicity has been associated with vincristine, an integral component in numerous chemotherapy regimens. This toxicity, which manifests most commonly as a sensory peripheral neuropathy, prevents dose escalation in patients not responding to therapy. Little has been done to characterize the relationship between pharmacokinetic behavior of vincristine and its dose-limiting toxicity. Previous studies in rats have shown metabolite formation following incubation with freshly isolated hepatocytes in suspension. The objectives of this research endeavor include the determination of the major CYP450 responsible for the metabolism of vincristine followed by isolation and characterization of resulting metabolites. Isolation of metabolites resulting from the incubation of vincristine with recombinant human CYP450 3A4, 3A5, and 3A7 has been performed via liquid-liquid extraction. UV absorbance studies have detected four additional peaks and mass fragmentation data has been collected using LCMS. Ongoing research will utilize LCMS and NMR to elucidate the structure of these metabolites.

Huseyin Coskun
A Simple Mathematical Model for Cancer Cell Motility

In this article the steps taken and the steps to come in developing a mathematical model for movement of a cancer cell is outlined. The brain cells will be used for modeling the cell movement.
The brain cells crawl, in vitro, analogous to the amoeboid motility of eukaryotic cells. This process which involves protrusion, adhesion and contraction is generally called pull-push model for actin-based cell motility.
The model will be based on the fact that cytoskeleton is the basic actor for cell motility. The mechanochemical, biophysical aspects of the cell motility are going to be incorporated in the mathematical model. The model equations will be fully analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Numeric solutions are going to be compared to the data and be discussed.
The model is expected that reproduces major features of the cancer cell movements.

Hyunggun "Loves the International Ladies" Kim
Regional Material Property Alterations in Porcine Femoral Arteries with Atheroma Development

We have developed a novel methodology that permits assessment of regional vascular mechanical property alterations in the presence of atheroma in vivo employing a Yucatan miniswine model with induced atheroma. Femoral arteries were imaged with intravascular ultrasound. Image data were segmented and, following three-dimensional reconstruction, underwent finite element and sensitivity analysis with optimization to identify regions with altered vascular mechanical properties. All regions were compared to histological analysis. In 12 animals with 8 weeks of endothelial cell denudation and high cholesterol diet (induced atherosclerosis), the elastic modulus initially decreased with early lesion development and then increased with increasing fibrosis (Youngs modulus all values x104 Pa Mean±SEM) normal elements 9.73±0.01, fatty elements 9.53±0.01, fibrofatty elements 9.41±0.03, and fibrous elements 9.68±0.02 (all p<0.001 vs. normal elements). Wall thickness, however, continuously increased with atheroma formation. These data demonstrate decreasing vascular material properties with early lesions, followed by an increase as lesions progress.

Ikko Fukutomi
Racial Differences in Family Structure: An Economic Approach

Black women are less likely to marry and more likely to have children out-of-wedlock than white women. The most popular answer is Wilson’s lack of marriageable black men hypothesis. Black men are less educated, they are more likely to be unemployed, they have higher mortality and higher incarceration rates, and they earn less than their white counterparts. Although the hypothesis sounds promising, a large number of black males must be removed from the marriage pool to explain the data. I model single women’s marriage decision in the life-cycle context. If single, she can wait for a future mate or she can give up waiting and have children by herself depending on her marriage prospect. I investigate the role of marriage prospects on demographic outcomes with the help of a numerical marriage model. I also examine whether this model can explain the data without removing a large number of black males.

India Dennis
HIV and the Idea of the Nation State

This paper examines the HIV pandemic in Jamaica as it affects the MSM population. I use the concept of verticality to examine the way the nation state constructs the disease in this particular context.

Jackie Klein
Counselor Knowledge of GLBT Issues (NOT JUDGED)

Studies suggests an estimated 4-10% of the general population is gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transsexual (GLBT). Research indicates bias towards this group continues to exist among counselors. Counselors should be aware of the distinct issues GLBT clients face, as well as, their own biases when working with these clients. This proposed study will examine counselor knowledge and attitudes of GLBT issues at counseling facilities at The University of Iowa.

Jacob Burris
Credentialist Theory and Problems with Credentialing Verification

This paper evaluates the social, economic, and learning (or use) value of educational credentials in light of the proliferation of credentialing fraud. I explain how résumé inflation and web degree mills are negatively impacting meritorious decision-making for employers and educational institutions. Advanced degrees, as defined by credentialist theory, have an employment exchange value to the world of work. Applicants with advanced credentials expect to receive preferential treatment by employers making hiring decisions. This paper develops two main arguments. First, that the social and econmic advantages of obtaining advanced degrees is undermined by rising cases of résumé inflation and the ease of credential fraud. Second, credentialing verification by employers and higher education institutions is necessary to maintain the integrity of academic credentials. The exchange value of credentials is compromised when employees fake credentials or employers fail to recognize applicants honestly holding the necessary credentials required for the job.

Jacob Wagner
Error or attribute: Understanding human decision-making

Humans are often blamed for errors in complex systems. A number of taxonomies exist for classifying human errors, but recent doubts have been raised as to whether these are actually errors or simply processes involved in both correct and incorrect decisions. A field test was designed to address some of these issues. During the field test, three geologists made assessments about the recent and past environment based on robotically collected data. The decisions were classified based on a previous error taxonomy. Each conclusion was then checked for accuracy. From this data, the error rate for specific behaviors could be calculated. The results indicate many of the behaviors describe earlier as erroneous actually produce correct decisions most of the time. One behavior is singled out as producing a majority of the errors and further research is needed to better understand its causes.

James Fox
Establishing sediment origin using carbon and nitrogen isotopes and the c/n ratio

Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotopes and the C/N atomic ratio are properties utilized for fractioning marine vs. terrestrial derived sediments in estuaries. The current work strives to use these properties at the watershed scale, and fraction sediments into forest vs. agriculture land-use origin. The C- and N- isotopes and C/N ratio are statistically explored as a multivariate sediment provenance tool. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression validate the significance of the tool to isolate sediments, and future work calls for an un-mixing model to separate forest vs. agriculture derived sediments.

Jason Caldwell
Vaya con DIAS: Dynamic analysis of larval locomotion in Drosophila chordotonal organ mutants

Rhythmic movements, such as peristaltic contraction, are initiated by output from central pattern generator (CPG) networks in the central nervous system. These oscillatory networks elicit locomotion in the absence of external sensory or descending inputs, but CPG circuits produce more directed and behaviorally relevant movement via peripheral nervous system (PNS) input. Drosophila melanogaster larval locomotion results from patterned muscle contractions moving stereotypically along the body segments, but without PNS feedback, contraction of body segments is uncoordinated. We have dissected the role of a subset of mechanosensory neurons in the larval PNS, the chordotonal organs, in providing sensory feedback to the locomotor CPG circuit with DIAS (Dynamic Image Analysis System) software. We analyzed an array of chordotonal mutants and demonstrated that these mutants all exhibit defects in gross path morphology and in individual peristaltic contractions compared to controls. Thus, chordotonal sensilla are major proprioceptive components that underlie locomotion and peristaltic contraction by providing sensory feedback to the locomotor CPG circuit in Drosophila larvae.

Jatin Vaidya
A comparative developmental study of impulsivity in rats and humans: the role of reward sensitivity

While it is clear that adults are substantially less impulsive than adolescents, there is little understanding as to what causes this developmental personality shift. The present study was conducted to test a recent hypothesis that differences between adolescents and adults in reward sensitivity account for differences in impulsivity. Thus, this adolescent anhedonia causes adolescents to engage risky, thrill-seeking behaviors to compensate for their reduced levels of reward sensitivity. In a comparative study, we examined preferences for various concentrations of sucrose solutions as an operational measure of reward sensitivity in adolescent and adult rats and humans. Humans also completed self-report measures of impulsivity and reward sensitivity. There was some indication that adolescents preferred sweeter solutions in both rats and humans. However, adolescents and adults did not differ in self-ratings of reward sensitivity.

Jeff Doty
City and Body Spaces in The Prioress’s Tale

We will never resolve whether the antisemitism in "The Prioress's Tale" represents Chaucer’s own view; however, by looking at patterns of how space is used in the tale--especially city space and body space--we can see some of the ways in which urban racial/ethnic/religious violence is inscribed by our construction of space. I argue that the Prioress defines Christianity against Judaism, and that she affirms Christian dominance through control of the space. The tale’s city spaces then get metonymically mapped onto bodies. The overall strategy of the Prioress’s "exotic" Asian setting is to return the listener’s focus back to England and re-justify the eleventh century expulsion of Jews.

Jesse Spohnholz
The Demise of Toleration? The Siege of Wesel, 1586-1590

In the late sixteenth century, the German city of Wesel was a religiously diverse community in which civic peace and a pragmatic tolerance was maintained. This period of coexistence ended between 1586 and 1590, when the city underwent a military siege led by Spanish troops. Although scholars usually describe an inevitable rise of religious tolerance in the western world, the practice of toleration ebbed and flowed in the pre-modern era, just as it does today. This paper argues that changes in the treatment of religious minorities and the social commitment to coexistence took place at a local level, independently from philosophical trends or changing legal structures. The siege of Wesel reminds us that the way people treat each other on a daily level is often quite independent of their expressed commitment to tolerance or the amount of legal protection a government provides its minorities.

Jessica Horst
Looks Aren’t Everything: 10-Month-Olds Also Categorize By Function

Appearance and function serve as important features in categorizing objects, but there may be developmental changes in infants ability to use these features. Madole, Oakes, and Cohen (1993) found that when discriminating individual objects, infants attended to object appearance before they attended to object function. We extended this previous work and examined 10-month-old infants’ ability to categorize dynamic displays of objects on the basis of appearance and function. Infants formed both appearance-based and function-based categories. However, infants familiarized to objects that shared a common appearance but differed in function appeared to remember individual category exemplars, and infants familiarized to objects that shared a common function but differed in appearance appeared to form a summary representation. Taken together, these experiments suggest that 10-month-old infants can form both appearance-based and function-based categories, but whether infants learn about individual exemplars or form a summary representation varies depending on the features serving as the basis for the category.

Jill Bryant
Mandatory Reporting Law and School Counselors: Decisional Influences, Reporting Behaviors,and Barriers to Compliance

As mandatory reporters, school counselors are in a unique position when compared with fellow reporters. While they have professional and ethical obligations congruent with other mental health professionals, they also are held to the standards and policies of their school district and administration. A statewide survey of school counselors (N = 263) was conducted to examine child abuse reporting behaviors, influences with regard to decision-making, and perceived barriers to the reporting process. The study also explored school counselors perceptions of their knowledge and ability to detect child abuse, and their role as a child abuse consultant within their school setting.

John Podobinski
Synthesis and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of the Enantiomers of Modafinil

Narcolepsy is a central nervous system (CNS) syndrome characterized by excessive sleepiness, temporary hypnotic state, and disturbed night-time sleep. Current pharmacotherapy for narcolepsy, which affects approximately 1% of the population in North America and Western Europe, involves the use of CNS stimulants to control sleepiness and promote wakefulness. CNS stimulants are also used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects approximately 5% of the school age population. Unfortunately, CNS stimulants are often relatively ineffective, poorly tolerated and have significant side effects. Moreover, they are able to produce tolerance and have a strong potential for illicit use. Because of these barriers, other CNS stimulants, such as modafinil, (2-[(diphenylmethylsulphinyl)]acetamide) and adrafinil (2-[(diphenylmethanesulfinyl)-N-hydroxyacetamide) are being developed for narcolepsy and ADHD. Experimental and clinical data suggest that the pharmacological profile of modafinil differs from those of amphetamine and methylphenidate, two classical psychostimulants. As such, modafinil and adrafinil may represent new leads in the development of therapeutics for narcolepsy, ADHD, and stimulant abuse. Chemical and biological results to date will be presented.

Jordan Copeland
Species-Being Being Revealed: Feuerbach on Friendship

According to Ludwig Feuerbach, human self-consciousness includes the ability to make one’s species an object of thought, transcending simple consciousness of oneself one s limited particularity by expanding one’s gaze to include the recognition of oneself as a species-being. Individual self consciousness, Feuerbach argues, can arise only in community with other selves; thus, every I depends upon a Thou for access to the sacred idea of the species. Given the important role that the I-Thou relationship plays in Feuerbach s conception of what it is to be fully human, this paper investigates the intricacies of this complex encounter. This investigation will include: (1) an explication of both the self-differentiating process that occurs when the I first encounters the Thou, as well as the content revealed to consciousness through this process; and (2) an examination of friendship as a particularly important manifestation of the individual’s relationship to a Thou.

Karen Wohlwend
Uncovering Assumptions in the Play-Literacy Interface

The appropriate role of work and play in early literacy practices has been the center of a tug of war in early childhood education, recently reappearing in the struggle over No Child Left Behind legislation. Historically, early childhood educators have either separated or integrated play into language arts curriculum. I examined the play-literacy interface through supporting rhetorics within theoretical discourse in four educational perspectives: maturational, behavioral, constructivist, and social constructivist. This analysis suggests 1) rhetorics of literacy as work opposed rhetorics of play within maturational and behavioral perspectives while 2) rhetorics of play as progress and literacy as progress converged and supported each other within constructivist and social constructivist perspectives. Assumptions in play as progress rhetoric that play is necessary for development oppose assumptions in literacy as work rhetoric that work is necessary for literacy . All perspectives share an assumption that adults define what constitutes work and play for children.

Karleen Jones
Disinterested Legislators or Career-Minded Politicians?: The Roles of Institutionalization and Ambition in the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies

Contemporary theorizing about legislative politics often assumes that politicians behavior is determined by their desire to win reelection. Based on the model of the American Congress, the inadequacy of such an assumption is apparent when applied to cultural and institutional settings outside of the United States. Unlike the U.S. House of Representatives, a number of legislative bodies throughout the world are weakly institutionalized that is, they lack hierarchies of positions, as well as universalistic norms for decision-making. While some scholars offer low-levels of institutionalization as evidence of politicians desire to exit the legislature, preliminary evidence suggests that minimal institutionalization is instead one of the primary causes behind legislative turnover. This study examines the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies in order to determine whether its small number of leadership positions and weak committee structures reflect the disinterest of the legislators, or instead encourage politicians to seek status and power outside the halls of the chamber.

Katarina Kulhankova
Murine Model of Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation Induced by Inhalation of Cockroach Allergen

Rationale: Cockroach antigens are a major contributing factor of allergic sensitization and asthma exacerbation. With a focus on environmentally relevant allergens, we developed a murine model of a cockroach allergen induced lung inflammation, and investigated the effects of various sensitization/challenge dose regimens on inflammatory responses within the lungs.
Methods: C3H/HeBFeJ mice immunized and challenged with various doses of Blatella Germanica allergenic extract and control sham solutions yielded eight dosage regimen groups. Inflammatory pulmonary responses were evaluated upon necropsy.
Results: Low and high dose intraperitoneal sensitization, followed by low or high dose intranasal challenge resulted in dose-dependent eosinophilic lung inflammation documented by total cells, eosinophils, and IL-4 levels recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pulmonary responses of sham sensitized mice challenged with allergenic extract and vehicle did not differ from the sentinels, thus eliminating potential inflammation from endotoxin, glycerol and phenol contained within cockroach extract. Histologic evaluation of lungs demonstrated a dose dependent eosinophilic infiltration.
Conclusions: We demonstrated the dose-response pattern of cockroach-induced lung inflammation in a murine model. This rodent model is being used to study responses to cockroach allergen acting in concert with other biological constituents that occur in an indoor environment and play an important role in allergies and asthma.

Keith Wilhite
Racial Trespassing: Representations of Suburbia in Ann Petry’s The Street

Ann Petry describes two drastically distinct geographies at the outset of her novel The Street (1946): the trash strewn, claustrophobic world of Harlem, and the white houses and sparkling blue rivers of tree-lined Lyme, Connecticut. Scholars have noted the deterministic power Harlem exercises over the novel s protagonist, Lutie Johnson, but less attention has been paid to the suburbs or, more importantly, to the spaces where suburb and city overlap. This essay proposes to show that idealized representations of suburbia, and Lutie s misreading of those representations, play an equally pernicious role in her downfall. By allowing an idealized representation of suburbia to set the terms for Lutie s urban pursuits, Petry exposes the subversive nature of suburban representations in the postwar era. This argument offers a new perspective on the novel and, hopefully, will shed light on the role representations of suburbia play in postwar African American literature.

Ken Richardson
Inhibition of Pathological Growth of the Heart

Cardiac hypertrophy via the growth of individual heart muscle cells is an important compensatory mechanism of the heart when faced with hemodynamic stress. However, hypertrophy can also lead to significant pathology, including life-threatening arrhythmias and deterioration into heart failure. To dissect these diverse effects of hypertrophy and to suggest ways to eliminate pathologic aspects of hypertrophy while preserving the good, I studied the cytoplasmic phosphatase calcineurin, the L-type calcium channel, and small G proteins of the Rho family, which have all been implicated in pathological hypertrophy. I found that calcineurin requires calcium influx through the L-type channel to activate hypertrophy, that calcineurin, in turn, feeds back on the activity of the L-type channel, and that small G proteins of the Rho family are required for calcineurin-mediated pathological hypertrophy effects. These findings are significant because they can be extended to human disease using currently available medications.

Kevin Schut
Fantasy men: how computer Fantasy Roleplaying Games can help negotiate the ideologies of manhood

This paper addresses the potential for computer fantasy roleplaying games to negotiate the different ideals of manhood that American men encounter. Historians of models in masculinity have identified the ideologies of respectable manliness, rough masculinity and eternal boyhood. As these values are often not compatible in everyday life, they create a kind of identity tension that is difficult for men to resolve. Susan Douglas argues that radio technology provided a means for amateurs in the early 20th century (mostly men) to negotiate this tension. I want to argue that the features of fantasy role-playing games and the cultures surrounding them make them ideal texts for a similar process of negotiation. By investigating PC culture, gaming culture, the Fantasy genre and Neverwinter Nights, a popular fantasy roleplaying computer game, I hope to demonstrate their resonance with the different ideals to which American men are exposed.

Kevin Tidgewell
Synthesis and Characterization of Salvinorin A Analogues

Salvia divinorum is gaining popularity as a hallucinogen in the United States and Europe. The main active component is Salvinorin A, a selective and potent kappa opioid receptor agonist. Kappa opioid agonists have been shown to antagonize the effects of CNS stimulants, by modulating the level of dopamine in the brain. They diminish the stimulating effects of cocaine, block its reinforcing effects and self-administration, and lower the likelihood of relapse. Salvinorin A can be used as a template to create novel kappa agonists as well as antagonists, since it has been shown with other opioid ligands that small modifications can lead to very significant changes in pharmacological actions. Kappa antagonists have antidepressant activity and could potentially be used in the treatment of opioid dependence; while the agonists could be used in the treatment of stimulant abuse. Synthesis and biological results to date will be presented.

Kim Cohen
Reproducing Results: Readership and Reform in Catherine Owen's Ten Dollars Enough

Catherine Owen’s first novel, Ten Dollars Enough, begins with the morning’s bill of fare glibly rattled off by the neat waitress of a boarding house: "Beef steak, cod steak, mutton chop, and hash!" which we find out were supplemented with an abundant amount of cream-of-tartar biscuits and potatoes (1). However, Mrs. Bishop, the main character, would have gladly "exchanged all for a cup of really fine coffee, a fresh egg, and some good home-made bread and butter" (1). This wish for good food brings her to a desire closer to her heart, a desire which she pleads to Harry: to "keep house" (1). This request recalls the subtitle of the novel, "Keeping House Well on Ten Dollars a Week, How It Has Been Done, How It May Be Done Again," which clearly inscribes for readers the instructional intention of this text. However, as with Mrs. Bishop’s simple desire for fresh food awakening her desire for a home of their own, this novel does far more than "show, in the popular guise of a story, that we may keep house well and provide a varied and even luxurious table for a family on ten dollars a week" ("Literary Notices"296). This novel, like many serialized within the pages of Good Housekeeping, draws from several genres, including cookbooks, fiction, household manuals, etiquette guides, housekeeping and child rearing treatises, and reform literature. In true deference to the domestic science movement, the text itself multi-tasks and offers an efficient and economical

Kimberly Nylen
Expectations about Parenthood

A growing body of literature suggests that one source of variability in adjustment to parenthood may lie in the role of expectations and violations thereof. Unfortunately, there is no "gold standard" instrument for measuring expectations. This study aimed to develop a measure that assesses the nature of women's expectations about parenthood and the extent to which expectations were violated. Approximately 145 postpartum women completed an expectations questionnaire and self-report measures of depression and anxiety. Expectations and actual experiences were assessed retrospectively as a means of determining the subjective importance of expectations and the relationship between discrepancies and reported mood. Relevance of expectations to the postpartum domain is discussed in terms of structural analysis of the instrument and scores on depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results show that violated expectations accounted for a significant portion of the variance in depression, but not anxiety, indicating specificity of violated expectations to depression.

Kurt Rahmlow
A temple in which living pillars sometimes emit confused words : Edward Steichen’s The Pond Moonrise (1904) and the Symbolist Aesthetic

Critics commonly acknowledge that early pictorialist photographers attempted to validate their medium by associating it with more respected art forms. In the case of The Pond Moonrise (1904), Edward Steichen did this by crafting a painterly that is, an innovative and labor-intensive print. More recently, scholars have recognized the influence of Symbolism on Steichen’s early development, and they have acknowledged the importance of Symbolist references for Steichen’s larger interests. By adopting a Symbolist aesthetic, a photographer, a practitioner of a modern and experimental art, claimed equal status with a specifically modern and experimental, if an increasingly academic, type of painter. What critics generally fail to recognize is that Symbolist works like The Pond Moonrise also afforded Steichen the opportunity to indulge his ambivalent attitude toward authority. Symbolism enabled the artist s appeal to traditional forms while it nevertheless allowed him to continue to play the rebel.

Kyle Strom
Development of Cluster Microforms in Gravel Bed Rivers: A Laboratory Study

This research aims to advance current knowledge on cluster formation and evolution by tackling some of the aspects associated with the effects of clusters on bedload transport. The specific objective of the study is to quantitatively describe the effects clusters have on sediment transport bedload rate. In order to meet the objective of this study, two main laboratory experimental scenarios simulating a simplified gravel-bed stream are conducted. Results show that the effects of clusters on bedload transport rate can be classified in three different phases: a sink phase where clusters absorb incoming sediment, a neutral phase where clusters do not affect bedload, and a source phase where clusters release particles. Clusters were also found to increase the magnitude of the fluctuations in bedload transport rate, showing that clusters amplify the unsteady nature of bedload transport.

Lauren Cook
35mm Film Projection

In stark contrast to the ever increasing hi-tech digital world of video, "Hand Made" focuses on the art of filmmaking and its most basic forms: the grain of the film and the organic nature of emulsion. It was created by contact printing images with a flashlight in a darkroom and hand-processing with various chemicals to achieve different effects. The film was crafted entirely by hand without the use of a camera, labs, digital editing or any type of sound equipment.

Malinda Slagle
Effects of habitat fragmentation on the fruit set and bee diversity of Amorpha canescens Pursh. (lead plant, Fabaceae)

In Iowa, where only 0.1% of the state s original tallgrass prairie remains, little is known about the effects of habitat fragmentation on bees and bee-pollinated plants due to the absence of systematic surveys. We studied the effects of area, landscape arrangement, and floral resources of prairie remnants on the bee pollinators and reproduction of a high quality forb, Amorpha canescens Pursh. (lead plant, Fabaceae) in Iowa and Minnesota. Percent fruit set of A. canescens was positively related to the abundance and diversity of bees and was greater in clusters of remnants than isolated ones. Bee diversity was unrelated to almost all of the variables measured and may be affected by other features such as abundance of floral resources and nest sites in the landscape. Our results indicate that preserving and restoring clusters of prairies is likely to improve native plant reproduction and may help preserve pollinator diversity.

Malinda Theisman
Things are not as they seem

This world may be real, or it may not, all I know is that I percieve it with my body’s senses, and each moment of that perception is unique. My work is involved with the act of perception. Perception can either be linked to a thought process, or it can be experienced free from intellectual filtration. When the latter occurs, forms are curiously strange and beyond the uses of meaning. Free from intellectual meanng, objects are no longer fixed. They acquire a spaciousness and a mobility when no longer confined by definitions, and the possibilities for experience are limitless.
How can an image portray the precognitive feeling of an object? This problem raises issues regarding the nature of visual representation, including, how reliable is perception? And how reliable is imagination and belief? What is the difference between perceiving and concieving? In the process of the work, these questions are answered insofar as they are surmounted. The work solves through making the unanswerable clear.

Marcelo Mena
Ocurrence of carcinogenic nitrosamines in the treatment of surface water and wastewater

Monochloramine is being increasingly used for the disinfection of drinking water because it generates less trihalomethanes than chlorine. However recent studies at the University of Iowa have suggested that monochloramine interacts with organic nitrogen in surface water and wastewater and forms carcinogenic nitrosoamines at levels that put our drinking water at risk. Studies in the Cedar River and Lake Michigan showed the formation of nitrosodimethylamine at 20-50 ng/l that exceed the 0.7ng/l 10^-6 cancer risk level recommended by the EPA. Tests in the Coralville Wastewater Treatment Plant detected the presence of nitrosodiphenylamine, a less potent carcinogen, that in the presence of dimethylamine donates its nitroso group to form and activate the more potent nitrosodimethylamine. An equilibrium constant was estimated for this reaction. These results suggest that nitrosamine analyses should be carried out in Iowa rivers, specially now that Iowa City has started using monochloramine as a disinfectant

Maria de la Luz Reus Medina
Comparative evaluation of the compression behavior of a new cellulose based direct compression excipient and Avicel® PH-102

This study compares the compression behavior of a new cellulose-based tableting excipient, hereinafter referred to as UICEL and Avicel® PH-102, a commercial direct compression excipient. UICEL shows the cellulose II lattice, while Avicel® PH-102 belongs to the cellulose I polymorphic form. Their powder properties were evaluated. The compression behavior was carried out using the Heckel equation and the modified Heckel equation. The slopes of the in-die and out-of-die Heckel curves for Avicel® PH-102 were steeper than for UICEL. The relative density versus applied pressure plot was in good agreement with the modified Heckel equation. The out-of-die and in-die minimal pressure susceptibility values calculated were significantly smaller for UICEL than for Avicel® PH-102. In conclusion, UICEL and Avicel® PH-102 differ in their compression behavior under pressure. The different polymorphic forms could provide a possible explanation.

Mark Bresnan
Inscribing the Feminine: The Gendered Trajectory of Empire in Woolf1s The Voyage Out

When Rachel Vinrace, heroine of The Voyage Out, arrives in South America, ostensibly to live with her father, she soon realizes that her journey was clearly intended to introduce her to a suitable husband. In this paper, I situate Rachel’s attempted inscription into marriage within the context of colonialism. Because she has been raised by her aunts at their estate, a highly feminine space, Rachel must travel abroad in order to meet, and marry, eligible young men, thereby assuming her place within the English empire. Yet Rachel’s coming of age also represents a threat to colonialism; it must, of course, be an awakening of the proper kind. I therefore read the novel as a dramatization of Rachel’s resistance to her initiation into the role of imperial wife and mother, ultimately culminating in the delirium and death she suffers following her engagement.

Mark Olszewski
Automated Analysis of Intravascular Ultrasound Images for the Assessment of Plaque in Human Coronary Arteries

Coronary heart disesase (CHD) is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Currently, the methods of choice for assessing CHD in vivo are x-ray angiography and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Previous work at the University of Iowa has resulted in a system for the fusion of IVUS and x-ray angiography that allows the generation of a geometrically correct, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a vessel segment of interest. Accurate reconstruction and quantitative measurements of coronary plaque depend heavily on accurate identification of the lumen and vessel borders in IVUS images. This work aims to automatically identify the lumen and vessel borders in IVUS images using techniques that learn from examples and mimic the action of human observers. Initial trials of the fully automated IVUS segmentation system show mean border positioning errors of 0.22mm ± 0.18mm for the luminal border and 0.31mm ± 0.30mm for the vessel border. The automatic segmentation of IVUS images has resulted in a substantial decrease in the time needed for analysis, thus allowing for an increase in the size and scope of a clinical study assessing the relationships among curvature, plaque thickness, and hemodynamic shear stress using the geometrically correct 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries.

Mark Simons
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Replicates within Neutrophils and Protects Against Apoptosis

Infection with N. gonorrhoeae in men results in an acute urethritis and exudates from infected men show predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) that contain large numbers of ingested N. gonorrhoeae diplococci. The question of whether N. gonorrhoeae survives PMN killing has been a topic of controversy for many years. In the following experiments, we address the question of whether N. gonorrhoeae can survive PMN killing using a model system to study these interactions in the natural setting. In these studies we find that gonococci are able to survive killing and replicate within PMN phagosomes. Morphological and RT-PCR analysis showed that N. gonorrhoeae infected PMN have delayed apoptosis and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene bfl-1, whereas opsonized zymosan stimulated PMN exhibit signs of apoptosis with condensed nuclei. These findings suggest that N. gonorrhoeae may protect PMN from the onset of apoptosis providing a protected environment for replication.

Marta Tryzna
The resultative construction as a marker of aspect in English and Polish

In the presentation the resultative construction is examined, involving predicates with immediately postverbal noun phrases, of which a resultative phrase is predicated. A resultative phrase is taken to be an adjective or a prepositional phrase which indicates a state achieved by the referent of the noun phrase is predicated of as a result of the action denoted by the verb.
The presentation begins with a set of theoretical assumptions concerning the distribution of resultative phrases in English involving example of both transitive and intransitive verbs. Subsequently, the constraints formulated on the basis of the English data are applied to Polish data in an attempt to verify the crosslinguistic validity of those constraints. Finally, the resultative construction is approached from the semantic perspective in order to define its role in the marking of the perfective aspect.

Matthew Binnicker
Gonococcal Modulation of Programmed Cell Death in the Urethral Epithelium: A Role for Neisserial Porin IB

Infection of urethral epithelial cells (UECs) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae increases the transcription of several host anti-apoptotic genes, including bfl-1, cox-2 and c-IAP-2. To identify the bacterial factor(s) responsible for eliciting these changes, the transcriptional status of apoptotic machinery was monitored in UECs challenged with certain gonococcal membrane components. Initially, we observed that infection of UECs with gentamicin-killed gonococci increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, bfl-1. This indicated that viable bacteria are not required for the induction in anti-apoptotic gene expression. Confirming this observation, treatment of UECs with purified gonococcal membrane increased the expression of bfl-1, cox-2 and c-IAP-2. Interestingly, treatment of UECs with gonococcal porin IB (PorB IB), a major constituent of the OM, significantly increased the transcription of bfl-1, cox-2 and c-IAP-2. The upregulation of these genes by PorB IB was determined to be dependent on NF-eB activation, as inhibiting NF-eB blocked their induced expression. This work demonstrates the transcriptional regulation of host apoptotic genes by gonococcal PorB IB, and supports a model whereby UEC cell death is modulated as a potential mechanism of bacterial survival and proliferation.

Megan Sheffer
Restaurant Turnover and the Iowa City Smoke-Free Restaurant Ordinance

As a public health measure, a smoke-free restaurant ordinance (SFRO) was enacted on March 1, 2002, in Iowa City. The goal of this study was to assess the economic impact of the Iowa City SFRO in terms of restaurant turnover. Methods: Restaurant permit licensure for Iowa City and Coralville (the control city) from 1997 to March 2003 was obtained from the Johnson County Public Health Department. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact probability test. Results: The ratio of restaurants in Iowa City to the total number of restaurants in both cities remained stable and the proportion of restaurants for each city did not differ significantly (p<0.38) during the ordinance or in the prior year (p<0.77). Conclusion: The results indicate that the SFRO did not adversely affect the local restaurant industry in terms of restaurant closures

Michelle McQuistan
Dentists Comfort and Willingness to Treat Underserved Populations, by Gender

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test the following null hypotheses: 1) There are no differences between male and female dentists comfort levels in treating underserved populations, and 2) There are no differences in the percentages of underserved populations treated by male and female dentists.
Methods: A survey was mailed to UI alumni (N=745). Data (n=232) were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models.
Results: There were no differences in dentists comfort levels. Female dentists treated more other ethnic groups (22.1% vs. 16.1%; p=0.045) and non-English speaking patients (9.7% vs. 4.8%; p=0.0025) than male dentists. Females treated fewer elderly patients than males (7.0% vs. 9.0%; p=0.047).
Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that the comfort level of treating underserved populations was similar by gender. There were, however, statistically significant differences in the types of populations treated.

Mike Chasar
Is Beowulf a Gossip? Reading 2009b-2069a

When Beowulf leaves the Danes and returns to his native Geats after slaying Grendel and Grendel’s mother, he has a homecoming audience with his king, Hygelac. But instead of boasting about blood and gore and his heroic accomplishments, Beowulf spends the first 50 lines of his return speech telling Hygelac all about whom the daughter of the Danish king is going to marry. Having little to do with the poem’s plot, this passage has long intrigued its readers. My paper argues that this highly charged moment in the narrative is actually a moment of gossip and that this gossip is doing important work in the world of the Geats. Not only is it serving to demonstrate Beowulf’s awareness of Geat cultural values, but it also provides an opportunity for verbal (and distinctly political) "treasure giving" that gives Beowulf a chance to display his most heroic and kingly of character traits.

Mingchuan Hsieh
The Impact of Sampling Error On Adequate Yearly Progress Decisions

High stakes testing is now federally mandated in the United States. Regardless, serious concerns remain about the ability of a high stakes testing system to make accurate judgments about school improvement. There are numerous factors that affect the accuracy of the decisions; one contentious issue is the role of sampling error in the accuracy of such decisions. If the purpose of measurement is to judge the school, rather than the particular individuals attending the school in a given year, fluctuations in achievement due to different groups of students being tested each year should be considered error (Cronbach, Linn, Brennan and Haertel,1997; Hill, 1997; Jaeger 2000).
The purpose of this study is to illustrate the amount of year-to-year variation to expect for schools of different sizes and schools with different levels of achievement. The study considers a number of methods of combining data to estimate change in the percent proficient using real data from a Midwestern state testing program.

Nathan Coussens
Protein Crystals Grown In Vivo

Many advances in medicine are facilitated by knowledge of the three dimensional structures of proteins. The most common technique used to determine protein structures is x-ray crystallography. For the technique, large quantities of protein are required for crystallization in vitro. Normally, recombinant proteins produced in various organisms are used for these studies. Protein crystals grown in vivo have been isolated from the midgut of cockroach embryos. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.1Å with the in vivo-grown crystals. The protein from dissolved crystals is modified with sugar attachments (accounting for up to ~20% of the molecular mass) and heterogeneous in size. We plan to determine the atomic structure of this protein and compare it to the structures of the recombinant protein produced in bacteria, yeast, and insect cells. For the first time an in vivo structure will be compared with those of recombinant proteins.

Navdeep Sidhu
Ballet-Dancing Hydrogens in a Protein Molecule

Proteins sample a variety of conformations in their native states. These conformational sub-states include global unfolding, the extreme limit for large-amplitude motions, as well as smaller-amplitude partial unfoldings or more localized fluctuations, many of which may be involved in biological function. However, many of these sub-states are so sparsely populated as to be undetectable by most means. The long-term goal is to determine the populations of the conformational sub-states in ubiquitin and the kinetics of inter-conversion among these sub-states. In the present study, I followed the denaturant-dependence of hydrogen-deuterium exchange by NMR to identify conformational sub-states and to determine their relative stabilities in native ubiquitin. Both guanidine chloride and urea are used as denaturants to test the hypothesis that identification of conformational sub-states by hydrogen exchange does not depend on the identity of the chemical denaturant.

Nidal Al-Huniti
Analysis of the characteristics and regulation Of Erythropoietin receptor populations In-Vivo by a tracer interaction method (TIM)

Abstract: The objective is to study in-vivo Erythropoietin (Epo) progenitor cells surface receptors (EpoR) in the bone marrow (BM) under phlebotomy and bone marrow ablation. Serial tracer interaction method experiments were conducted in adult sheep under baseline (BL), post-phlebotomy (PH), and post-ablation (AB) conditions. BM ablation changed the elimination from nonlinear to linear, consistent with an abolition of the nonlinear elimination via BM EpoRs. The phlebotomy increased the linear clearance of the ablated elimination pathway (from 63.6 b12 to 126 b64 ml/hr/kg), consistent with an up-regulation of the erythroid progenitor BM-based EpoR pool, but did not change the clearance of the non-ablated elimination pathway (p>0.05). Epo elimination via EpoR in the bone marrow is nonlinear and increases following phlebotomy-induced anemia. This is consistent with an up-regulation of the erythropoietic EpoR pool in BM.

Peter Popolo
A preliminary investigation of inter-speaker and inter-singer vocal tract differences

This paper is a brief first study of the vocal tract differences of speakers and famous singers for the purpose of determining if vocal tract qualities are sufficient for discriminating between different individuals. The study has relevance to the larger task of speaker identification, and also in the area of voice pedagogy. Vocal tract frequency responses of five male speakers and five operatic tenors were obtained using linear prediction, and compared both visually and objectively, using a simple distance metric. Although results are inconclusive for such small groups, there are differences which show some promise for devising a discrimination algorithm. This study raises a number of interesting questions, such as whether sung utterances are superior to spoken utterances for the discrimination of different voices by humans and machines, and whether the use of judicious vocal tract tuning is as important as the presence of fortuitous physiological characteristics for great singers.

Phyllis Rippeyoung
When Women are Right: Gender and Values in European Far Right Party Support

Far right political party support in Western Europe has been primarily examined in terms of the men who constitute the majority of party membership. However, women make up a not insignificant portion of the parties that has yet to be explained. What little previous research exists argues that women vote due to their interest in family values and out of a fear of violence. Male voters, however, are argued to be voting out of an economic self-interest, which is fueled by anti-immigrant and racist rhetoric. This paper argues that past research has been too focused on traditional assumptions of what brings women to vote. Looking at eight European countries using the 1990 World Values Survey, results indicate that men and women may have slight differences in what leads them to vote for the far right, but that women are not voting based on stereotypical women’s values.

Pornpen Werawatganone
Determination of the CTAB and HPMC interaction and its influence on the micellar catalytic effect

Micellar solutions were employed as reaction media, wherein the reactions were either catalyzed or inhibited depending on the systems. The catalytic effect of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), on organophosphate, dicapthon, degradation by o-iodosobenzoic acid (IBA) was reported. In this work, alpha-naphthyl acetate (alpha-NA) was used as a model ester. alpha-NA hydrolysis in the presence of IBA was catalyzed in CTAB micellar solutions. A nonionic, polymeric viscosity inducer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC 2910), was introduced into the system. The CTAB-HPMC interaction was evident in equilibrium dialysis studies. The polymer caused a decrease in the reaction rate constant; higher the polymer concentrations caused lower values of the rate constant. The decrease in the rate constant was likely due to the polymer-micelle interaction interfering with the binding of the substrates to the CTAB micelles.

Rachel Sailor
The Intimate Image: A Nineteenth-Century Album of Native American Photographs

In the Special Collections Department in the University of Iowa Library there is a two-volume nineteenth-century album set devoted exclusively to images of Native Americans. The set was originally owned by Jane Clark Kirkwood and Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa governor, U.S. senator and Secretary of the Interior (1881-1882), but has been disassembled for the sake of preservation and storage. Although the past few decades have brought increased scholarly attention to the photography of the nineteenth-century Indian population, collections in album form have not received the same kind of scrutiny. I will argue that the collection of photographs in this particular album reveals as much, or more, about those who created and owned it, than the Natives Americans pictured. Specifically, I will suggest that the individual circumstances of Kirkwood as frontier Governor and Secretary of the Interior created a new context for the imagery in his collection, and that the very dear and luxurious format of his privately owned album is suggestive of the deeper issues of Manifest Destiny that occupied the nation.

Raheel Ahmed
CaMKII Trafficking in Developing Neurons in Rat Hippocampus

Synapse formation in the brain involves regulated assembly of signaling and scaffolding molecules at dendritic spines. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key neuronal signaling molecule that regulates synaptic transmission. CaMKII may regulate central synapse formation and maturation, and dynamic alterations in the subcellular localization of CaMKII may regulate its enzymatic activity and determine its downstream targets. My results support a model whereby CaMKII localization to the dendritic spine is coordinately dependent upon synaptic activity-dependent interactions with scaffolding proteins and synaptic activity-independent, F-actin based mechanisms. F-actin in spines may serve a role as a molecular scaffold to concentrate CaMKII within the spine compartment during periods of synaptic inactivity. Moreover, time-lapse studies of fluorescent-tagged CaMKII in live neurons indicates that CaMKII is recruited into spines at early stages of spine development, coinciding with the formation of new spines. CaMKII may therefore play a central role in regulating structural plasticity during development by coordinating synaptic assembly and dendrite spinogenesis.

S. Brookhart Shields
De Novo Designed Metallopeptides: Investigation of Prion Protein Octarepeat Copper Binding

Previous work in the Franklin Group has focused on chimeric metallopeptides and metalloproteins that were based on the EF-hand metal binding motifs of calcium binding proteins (e.g. calmodulin) combined with the HTH DNA binding motifs of homeodomain proteins. The success of these designs has led to a new generation of chimeric proteins, which move beyond the EF-hand motifs to incorporate other physiological metal binding sites. The chosen designs have metal binding residues within a small, contiguous amino acid sequence, as well as having the correct geometry to replace the 90-degree turn of a HTH motif. Specially, the goal of this project is to replace the second turn of engrailed protein with the copper binding sequence (P)HGGGWG(Q) from the octarepeat region of prion proteins. Prions are of great interest not only for the unique copper binding sites but also the unknown role copper plays in the disease states that prions are associated with (i.e. Mad cow disease). Metal binding behavior of the prion-HTH chimera will be discussed.

Sandhya Shankarnarayan
Perturbations of the cell wall of the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lead to the SLN1-SKN7 osmotic response pathway activation

The structure and composition of the yeast wall is dynamic allowing for morphological changes during cell growth and in response to damage caused by environmental fluctuations. A recent genetic screen that we conducted in our lab uncovered a cell wall gene CCW12 as a potential regulator of the pathway, involved in osmotic stress sensing. The osmotic stress pathway in yeast consists of three molecules involved in the response to dehydration and three molecules involved in the response to cell swelling. Upon cell swelling, addition of phosphate groups to pathway molecules leads to changes in expression of genes involved in cell wall composition and cell growth. We have considered two models for the basis of cell wall regulation of the swelling pathway. In the first model, changes in the composition and structure of the wall lead to swelling. Swelling causes activation of the pathway. In the second model proteins in the wall make a specific contact with molecules of the pathway. Experiments addressing these models will be discussed.

Sangeetha Madhavan
Influence of age on dynamic position sense

Everyday the human body utilizes dynamic position sense (joint position and velocity) of rotating joints to coordinate movement sequences for control of balance, and to prevent falls. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of age on motor coordination by examining how kinesthetic sense from the ankle joint can be used to trigger an upper extremity movement sequence task. Our results showed that there is a significant decline in dynamic position sense with age. These differences were also reflected in the performance of a battery of clinical balance tests and in perception of health related quality of life (SF 36). EMG acquired from leg muscles during the testing suggests that elderly are using different motor control strategies than the young to compensate for the decline in proprioception that is known to occur with age.

Sarah Vigmostad
Hemodynamics in Stented Human Coronary Arteries with Implications to Restenosis

In the past ten years, coronary stents have emerged as an effective treatment for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Used in conjunction with balloon angioplasty, they have greatly reduced the risk for restenosis. However, restenosis still occurs in 20-30% of cases. The tendency for restenosis has been associated with regions of low wall shear stress (WSS). To prevent restenosis, interventions should result in minimizing areas of low WSS. In-vivo angiographic and intravascular ultrasound images were reconstructed in three dimensions in 14 human coronary arteries (with 20 implanted stents) treated for CAD. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model blood flow through the arterial segments, and WSS was examined at 5mm segments in the proximal and distal ends of each stent. WSS was found to be lower distally in 7 out of the 20 stents (33%, p<0.001). This can be attributed to the geometry of these vessels after stent placement, in which the artery expanded distally. This geometric configuration was not observed in the remaining 13 stents. Previous hemodynamic studies examining coronary stents have been limited to simulating idealized geometries. The ability to examine human coronary arteries and their altered geometry after stent placement enables a realistic CFD study and provides important insight into the causes of restenosis.

Shanhong Luo
Assortative mating and martial quality in newlyweds: A couple-centered approach

The authors conducted a comprehensive analysis of assortative mating on a broad range of variables in a large (N=291) sample of newlyweds. Couples showed substantial assortment (i.e., similarity) on attitude domains, but little on personality domains. Couple similarity was not due to social homogamy or convergence over time. The authors examined effects of spouse similarity on self and observer indicators of marital quality. Results showed (a) positive associations between similarity and marital quality for personality but not for attitude domains; (b) similarity on attachment were most strongly predictive of satisfaction; (c) there were robust curvilinear effects for husbands but not for wives; (d) couple similarity remained a significant predictor of marital quality even when spouses self-ratings were controlled.

Shayla Thiel
‘IM Me’: Identity Construction and Gender Negotiation in the World of Adolescent Girls and Instant Messaging

Based on an extensive project about adolescent girls and Instant Messaging, this study investigates the burgeoning phenomenon of adolescents who use the popular and free technology, Instant Messaging, or IM , as means of negotiating identity through their communication with peers. Using qualitative methodologies of interview and narrative analysis with a theoretical grounding in post-structuralist feminism, this paper culls numerous themes from the IM conversations and the interviews. Among the findings are the idea that this new means of communication allows girls to construct themselves and appropriate identities at a pace that was not possible through past communications, such as elicit note-passing in classes; IM becomes a space to manage and manipulate social lives and construct identity in a world without the cultural trappings of a body.

Song Yi
Using Candida albicans as a Model for Elucidating the Molecular Basis of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome, a Human Autosomal Recessive Disease that Affects Cell Polarity

Model systems can be extremely useful in elucidating the molecular basis of specific human diseases. We have begun to utilize both the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and Candida albicans as model systems for the Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS), a rare autosomal, recessive, multisystem disorder. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene SBDS. Because SDS patients have recurrent infections without neutropenia, we searched for and identified a neutrophil defect. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of SDS patients were behaviorally normal in basic cell motility, and when responding to temporal gradients and concentration changes of chemoattractant (Stepanovic, 2003). However, they were unable to orient in a spatial gradient of attractant suggesting that they were defective in cellular polarization. We have transformed both Dictyostelium and C. albicans with GFP-tagged SBDS and have analyzed Sbdsp distribution. We are also in the process of knocking out SBDS in both organisms in order to assess the effect on chemotaxis and polarization of Dictyostelium amoebae, and on hyphal polarization in C. albicans. C. albicans serves as an excellent model for polarization because it forms a highly polarized true hypha and a conjugation tube during mating that polarizes in gradients of pheromone in the process of chemotropism.

Steve Fink
Ambiguity in the Qur’an: An Investigation Based upon Surah 3:7

A key tenet of Islamic belief is that the Qur’an comprises final revelation from God. Surah 3:7 of the Qur’an, however, complicates this notion by mentioning a distinction between precise verses (muhkamat) and ambiguous verses (mutashabihat) within the Qur’an. Because ambiguous verses are open to a multiplicity of interpretive options, questions should be raised about the finality of a work that claims to comprise final revelation. This paper addresses the following question in particular: in what sense can the Qur’an claim to be final revelation when it acknowledges that some of its contents are ambiguous? This question will be considered through linguistic investigation of the words muhkamat and mutashabihat and through examination of other relevant Qur’anic passages, as well as by a general discussion of what is involved in interpreting religious texts. This paper will conclude with suggestions regarding what is at stake in this issue for contemporary Muslims.

Sukhon Likitlersuang
The Effect of Magnesium Stearate on the Hiestand Tableting Indices of Maltodextrins

A linear relationship between BFI (Brittle Fracture Index) and maltodextrin molecular weight is observed (R2 = 0.9984). When 0.16% magnesium stearate is added, the relationship is also linear (R2 = 0.9802), but is shifted to lower BFI values. When binary mixtures of maltodextrins, and binary maltodextrin mixtures with magnesium stearate are studied, the BFI is related to compact composition by a second-degree polynomial (R2 > 0.90 for binary maltodextrin mixtures and for binary maltodextrin mixtures with magnesium stearate). As before, the BFI of binary maltodextrin mixtures decreases upon magnesium stearate addition. The BI (Bonding Index) is also related to compact composition binary mixture by a linear relationship (R2 > 0.90 for binary maltodextrin mixtures) and by second-degree polynomial (and R2 > 0.90 for binary maltodextrin mixtures with magnesium stearate). Conclusions The BI and BFI is useful for the prediction of magnesium stearate influence on powder compaction.

Sushmita Bhattacharjya
The effect of curing on the thermal, sorption, drug release and morphological properties of latex type polymer coating systems

Purpose: To elucidate the influence of aging on the properties of acrylic films and film coated beads.
Method: The films were aged at 50°C, 70°C and 90°C for various times ranging from zero to 8 hours. Differential Scanning Calorimeter was used to measure the thermal properties of the free films. Water vapor sorption studies were also done on the cured films. Drug release from the cured polymer-coated beads was observed in simulated intestinal fluid.
Results: The glass transition temperature increased whereas the permeability and rate of drug release from Eudragit NE coated systems were found to decrease with curing time. For Eudragit RS at temperatures of 70° C and 90° C, the release rate decreased at short curing times, but started increasing for samples cured beyond 4 hours.
Conclusion: Curing time and temperature were shown to significantly influence the properties of both the free films and the coated beads.

Thomas Keegan
Micks, Bucks, Brutes, and Drunks: Appropriated Primitivism in Synge’s Playboy of the Western World and McKay’s Home to Harlem

My paper examines the difficulties playwright J.M Synge and novelist Claude McKay encountered in attempting to create a neocolonial identity for themselves during their cultural renaissances, the Irish Renaissance and the Harlem Renaissance, respectively. Primitivism and its reductivist aesthetic lie the center of these difficulties. As these two writers attempted to wrest well worn stereotypes from the grasp of their colonizers and in turn make use of these stereotypes in an act of subversion and self-assertion, their work encountered significant criticism from their intended audiences. This paper attempts to reevaluate the shared issues of identity and resistance within the Irish and Harlem Renaissances by acknowledging both the failures and successes of appropriated primitivism.

Tomislav Friscic
Synthesis of molecular ladders via template-directed solid-state synthesis

Ladderane molecules are of considerable interest in the fields of theoretical chemistry, electronics and biochemistry. Notably, [3]-and [5]-ladderane molecules are membrane components of anammox bacteria of the oceanic nitrogen cycle. Unfortunately, due to the strain involved in the ladderane fused cyclobutane rings, synthetic methods for the preparation of such molecules produce low yields and mixtures of isomers. Template-directed solid-state synthesis is a novel synthetic method that combines the principles of solid-state and supramolecular chemistry. The method utilizes hydrogen-bonding linear templates to achieve positional control of molecules in the solid, providing a way to achieve high-yielding and stereocontrolled syntheses. Consequently, by using the template-directed solid-state approach, we have accomplished a 100 % yield synthesis of biologically relevant [3]- and [5]-ladderanes. The approach is promising in terms of synthesizing longer ladderane molecules, demonstrating the tolerance of the method to changes in molecular size.

Ulrech Adelt
Hard to Say the Meaning: Neil Young's Enigmatic Songs of the 1970s

Social histories of the U.S. have for a long time tended to highlight the relevance of the 1960s and the 1980s and treated the 1970s as merely a transitional phase from the countercultural movements of the 60s to the conservative politics of the 80s. Recently, the 1970s have become the focus of scholarly attention. Neil Young's songs exemplify the significance of the 1970s in staking out new cultural territory which, while being informed by developments of the late 1960s, needs to be taken seriously in its own right. I will trace rock singer Neil Young s work from the late 1960s to the early 1980s in order to show that he is adhering to somewhat simplified notions of the 1970s as the me-decade or the transition from liberalism to conservatism but at the same time complicating these notions by creating a series of paradoxes.

Wei Zhang
Influential Factors of Patients Survival Time after Obesity Surgery

Abstract: Background: Survival time remains an important index of safety and effectiveness for surgical treatment of obesity.
Objective: To determine influential factors following surgical treatment of obesity.
Methods: From 1986 to 1999, 18,976 patients characteristics (including age, BMI, operation type, etc.) were recorded at the time of obesity surgery in 30 clinical sites throughout the world. Those patients were followed up to December 2001, and their survival statuses were verified by NDI. Progress to death was analyzed using Cox proportional-hazards model.
Results: Age, gender, BMI, operation year, history of diabetes, smoking and hypertension were significantly (P<.01 associated="" with="" survival="" time.="" operation="" type="" was="" not="" significant="">Conclusion: Patients who are young, female, with low BMI and no history of diabetes, smoking and hypertension have better survival probability, while operation type is not an influential factor in terms of survival time.

Weidong Xu
Transport of vesicles on the cytoskeleton highway

Activation of the small GTP-binding protein ARF1 stimulates both transport vesicle assembly and the polymerization of actin on the Golgi apparatus. We have found previously that two actin-binding proteins, drebrin and mAbp1 bind to Golgi membranes during ARF1 mediated actin assembly, but are associated with distinct actin pools. The actin-binding domains of both proteins are related and share homology to ADFH domain, however, mAbp1 contains a C-terminal SH3 domain while drebrin does not. In current study, we are using the reconstitution of ARF-dependent actin polymerization on isolated Golgi membranes to define protein motifs on drebrin and mAbp1 that confer their binding to distinct actin pools. And also GFP fusion proteins are used to study the physiological relevance of putative localization motifs in live cells. The molecular analysis of these proteins will shed light on the mechanisms by which specific actin-binding proteins respond to signaling and connectÊdifferent transport vesicles to the cytoskeleton.

Wenwu Tang
An Agent-based Simulation of Spatial Diffusion in Settlement Systems

Agent-based models can help us understand land use and land cover change. An agent-based model is designed to simulate spatial diffusion processes in pattern formation of village territories. Household agents consume energy while exploring for their territories. Energy expenditure depends on the friction of environment variables, such as water and road network. Households’ spatial behaviors are also affected by environment factors. Greedy rules and probabilistic rules are designed to determine village territories from energy surfaces of each village.

Yongming Zhao
Hemodialysis Provider Characteristics and Early Initiation of Hemodialysis

There is a significant trend to commence dialysis at a high level of residual renal function in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to no uniform criteria for timing of initiating dialysis, nonclinical factors may contribute to the discretion of timing of dialysis commencement. The objective of the study is to identify effects of hemodialysis access and provider market characteristics on early initiation of hemodialysis, which is defined as commencing hemodialysis at a level of glomerular filtration rate equal or greater than 12.6ml/min/1.73 m2. The results showed patients with higher proportion of for-profit centers, higher level of physicians per 10,000 population or Herfindahl-Hirschman Index in a dialysis market area, defined as an area within 65 mile of a patient’s zip code, had a greater odds of initiating hemodialysis compared with the counterparts. Early initiation of hemodialysis is substantially affected by patients’ access to providers and hemodialysis provider market characteristics.

Zeynep Akyol
Calmodulin Recognition of the NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) Receptor

Cerebral ischemia, following a stroke or brain trauma, causes excessive depolarization of neurons resulting in over-stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspatrate receptors (NMDARs), leading to a high influx of extracellular calcium, and neuronal death. To prevent neuronal damage by excessive calcium influx during normal neuronal activities, calmodulin (CaM) senses changes in intracellular calcium levels and inhibits NMDARs by a negative feedback loop binding to C0 region on NR1 subunit (NR1C0). An initial study suggested that CaM interacts with NR1C0 only in the presence of calcium. However apo CaM is known to pre-associate with various ion channels prior to activation. This is critical for a fast response of CaM to the changing calcium levels and for the isolation of CaM pools required by different targets. Our results from fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy studies indicate that not only calcium-CaM but also apo CaM binds to NR1C0.