Jakobsen Conference Abstracts, 2007

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Akiko Hagiwara
Teacher, Peer Evaluation of Second Language Learner's Oral Proficiency

Peer evaluation is commonly used in second language (hereinafter L2) classrooms; however, the effectiveness of peer evaluation for oral proficiency remains unclear. This study questions the extent to which L2 learners of Japanese are capable of commenting on peers' oral performance, despite their linguistic limitations. In this study, six learners recorded a monologue about their best friend. Peers and instructors were asked to rate the speakers' monologues in terms of content, vocabulary, grammar, fluency, and pronunciation and intonation using a 5-point scale, while commenting on the monologues regarding areas for improvement. The results showed that the only area in which teacher and peer raters were statistically different was pronunciation and intonation. However, peers could not detect peers' errors as often as teachers could. This study suggests that peers are capable of evaluating global performance of peers, but providing appropriate alternatives to peers' errors is a challenge for them.

Alissa Haedt
Maternal Attachment, Depression, and Body Dissatisfaction in Pregnant Women

Maternal attachment, or the affiliation a mother feels towards her child, is an important predictor of maternal health and fetal/infant outcomes. Thus, it is important to identify psychological factors which may impact maternal attachment. This study examined associations among maternal attachment, depression, and body dissatisfaction (BD) throughout weeks of pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 196) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about their experiences during pregnancy. There was no direct association between maternal attachment and BD. However, BD moderated the association between maternal attachment and weeks of pregnancy, and this association was not mediated by depression. High BD may contribute to poorer maternal health and poorer fetal outcomes through blunted growth of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Thus, high BD may be an important target for intervention in women during pregnancy. Future studies should examine longitudinal associations among these variables throughout the perinatal period.

Allison Bean
Gesture Facilitates Toddlers' Refinement of Spatial Term

To test the hypothesis that gestures promote refinement of word knowledge, we examined the ability of 41 normally developing 20-24-month-olds to follow under commands before, immediately after, and two days after training. During training, the examiner acted on 4 pairs of objects, placing one under the other while labeling (e.g., 'the boat is under the bridge')the trajectory. Some children saw the action models alone, others saw models plus an iconic gesture representing under, and others saw models plus photographs of the objects in the targeted under relationships. Only the Gesture Group demonstrated significant improvement from baseline to delayed post-test. These results are consistent with growing evidence that gesture facilitates verbal learning in general (Goldin-Meadow, 1999) and word learning in particular (Capone & McGregor, 2005). The difference between the Gesture and Photo Groups suggests that the effectiveness of gesture as a scaffold is not a matter of visual support alone.

Allison McGuffie
Cinematic Revolution in Sub-Saharan African Films

Despite its marginalized status within Western canonized film theory, African cinema is saturated with theoretical innovation, especially considering the relationship between cinema and revolution, in both its artistic and political dimensions. In order to bring Western film theory into productive dialogue with the rich theory inherent in African cinema, this paper considers Sergei Eisenstein’s film theory and practice in relation to the revolutionary philosophies presented by several Sub-Saharan African films, including Djibril Diop Mambety’s La petite vendeuse de soleil (Senegal, 1999), Flora M’mbugu-Schelling’s These Hands, (Tanzania, 1992), and Abderrahmane Sissako’s Rustov-Luanda (Angola, 1997). As this consideration reveals, the integration of revolutionary film form and political force changes cinema as it simultaneously attempts to change political situations in both Eisensteinian and African films. This paper argues that film theorists must recognize the vision of cinema’s revolutionary potential asserted by African films to a similar degree with which we venerate Eisenstein’s theoretical and filmic work.

Amanda Reedy
Adolescent Comfort with Online Counseling

Drug use continues to be prevalent among teenagers and is associated with several psychosocial problems. Developing low cost computer-aided counseling models may benefit rural substance abusing clients who face barriers to getting appropriate services. This study explored how receptive adolescents who abuse substances were to receiving on-line services. Teens participating (N=195) in longitudinal substance abuse treatment research completed the Online Counseling Comfort Scale (OCCS) and responded to questions about internet access and use. Findings suggest that teens are somewhat neutral towards online counseling. Clients diverse on gender, minority status, rural status, prior treatment, or treatment level of care did not differ in their receptiveness to online counseling. Additionally, minority clients were significantly less likely to have internet access at home. Implications of findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Amanda Wilton
Spanish Dances of Sarasate on Viola

Pablo de Sarasate (1844-1908) was a touring virtuoso of the violin and composer of virtuoso violin music. His Spanish Dances: Malagueña (1878) and Zapateado (1880) make use of the popular folk dances from his native country. The Malagueña is from the flamenco class of Andalucía, which is different from the serious Spanish dances of gypsy and Arabic origin, although these influences are undoubtedly heard to some extent. This flamenco style evolved from a fandango into a more melancholy and deliberate version, which usually includes castanets and guitar. Other style characteristics of flamenco are long-held notes, improvised turns, florid melodies, and Phrygian cadences. Flamenco music in general can be sung or danced, and is usually accompanied by clapping hands or the rhythmic stomping of the feet dancing, which is called Zapateado. These Spanish dances were written for violin with piano. I have transcribed them with a few changes to better suit the viola.

Amber Goedken
Effect of cost-sharing on prescription drug use by Medicare beneficiaries and potential adverse selection in the Medicare drug benefit

The objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between prescription drug benefit structure and prescription drug use by seniors and examine the factors predicting likelihood of adverse selection in the Medicare drug benefit. The study retrospectively analyzed data collected using an Internet-based survey administered by Harris Interactive® on behalf of the University of Iowa College of Pharmacy. Harris Interactive used standard protocols to recruit individuals from their online panel who were 65 or older, US residents and enrolled in Medicare. 1,220 anonymous surveys were completed from October 14 to November 3, 2005. The amount of cost-sharing was not associated with the number of prescriptions used. Seniors in poorer health and seniors using more prescription drugs revealed a greater intention to sign up for the benefit. The groups revealing a greater intention to sign up for the benefit indicate potential adverse selection in the private Medicare prescription drug plans.

Amos Patrick
Development Of A 3D Model Of The Human Musculoskeletal System For Real Time Interaction And Muscle Activation Prediction

With the ever-increasing power of real time graphics and computational ability of desktop computers, the desire for a real-time simulation of the musculoskeletal system has become more pronounced. It is important that this simulation is realistic, interactive, runs in real time, and looks realistic, especially in our climate of Hollywood special-effects and stunning video games. An effective simulation of the musculoskeletal system hinges on three key features: accurate modeling of kinematic movement, realistic modeling of the muscle attachment points, and determining the direction of the forces applied at the points. By taking known information about the musculoskeletal system and applying it in a real time environment, we have created such a model of the human arm. This model includes realistic constraints on the joints and real-time wrapping algorithms for muscle action lines. Preliminary evaluation shows that the moment arms calculated by our model are similar to those shown in the literature. Furthermore, by coupling our model with known optimization algorithms, muscle activation levels for prescribed joint torques can be calculated in real time.

Anamika Mubayi
Synthesis, Characterization and EPR studies of Transition Metal exchanged Nanocrystalline Zeolites

Nanocrystalline zeolites, or zeolites with crystal sizes less than 100 nm, are considered to be more efficient catalysts than conventional zeolites. The increased catalytic activity is due to the unique sites that are located on the external surface and the higher surface area that results from the smaller crystal size. The nanocrystalline zeolites like NaZSM-5 and NaY are synthesized with crystal sizes of 20-50nm and then are ion-exchanged with copper. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is used to probe the electronic environment of paramagnetic transition metal, Cu(II), which provides active sites in biological and catalytic systems. It is also used to determine the oxidation state of the copper ion and to identify spectroscopically distinct copper sites in nanozeolites. EPR spectra of as-synthesized and calcined samples, exchanged with copper (II) were collected. The EPR spectra were also interpreted by comparing theoretical calculations of the parameters for model complexes with experimental data.

Anatoliy Sokolov
Correlated Motions of Molecular Springs and Crankshafts within a Tightly-Packed Molecular Crystal

The development of complex, molecular machines is a goal of chemists, physicists, and material scientists. Movements of molecular components in solids that form the basis of molecular machines has been envisioned to involve up to three different processes, however, the process of correlated motion, or concerted motion of multiple components in the absence of free volume, presents the greatest structural challenge. Here, we wish to describe a tightly-packed crystalline solid that is composed of two molecular components that exhibit correlated and reversible movement upon the application of an external stimulus. Specifically, we have discovered that the components of the solid participate in: i) a crankshaft pedal-like rotation , ii) a spring-like movement, and iii) a rotational tilt.

Anita Gaul
Successful Group Work in the College Classroom: A Case Study

In my experience as a graduate instructor, I have found that many undergraduate students have a negative opinion of group projects, largely due to previous experiences with unsuccessful projects of this kind. How can students be arranged in groups that promote learning and increase student satisfaction with group work? Over the course of two semesters, I experimented with different methods of student group formation to determine which type of group produced the best results in terms of student learning and enjoyment of group work.

Anna Heineman
Kara Walker's Contextualized Silhouettes of the Civil War

Kara Walker is notorious for her use of black silhouettes against a sharp white background. In contrast to her earlier works, which presented no background scenery, Walker’s latest work entitled, Harper’s Pictorial History of the Civil War, places her silhouettes in a context. In this series of fifteen lithographs which Walker appropriated from Harper’s Weekly, she superimposed silhouettes over scenes of war and Southern life. By placing the figures in a more historically accurate scene, Walker contextualizes her imagery. Walker contrasts stereotypical slave depictions in early illustrations of Harper’s Weekly with her own imagery and she makes the omission of African-Americans in Harper’s Weekly apparent during a time when whites were reaping the benefit from unappreciated black labor. Additionally, her early illustrations depict black Americans as identical to one another. This paper will disprove Walker’s criticism about her use of stereotypical imagery by analyzing prints in her Harper’s series which show the strength in contextualization.

Anne Haydock

(6min.19sec. super-8 & 16mm hand-manipulated leader rephotographed on DV, color/sound, 2006). A game of dress-up: windows and wallpaper, hawks and moths, olive loaf and tinfoil. The sounds and gestures of the everyday gather to become the pre-articulated vocabulary of desire, anxiety, and basic human needs. The piece uses rephotography to incorporate elements from a site-specific installation with additional super-8 footage, combining direct animation, timelapse photography, and choreography for the projector with found and foleyed non-sync sound to create a sometimes lyric but often jarring meditation on what it can mean to eat and be eaten. Awarded 1st Prize/Jury's Choice by the 26th Annual Black Maria touring festival, "eaten" has also screened at more than twenty festivals and curated gallery shows across the U.S., Canada, Western and Eastern Europe, and the U.K.

Arindam Chakraborty
Stochastic Micromechanics Of Functionally Graded Material

A stochastic micromechanical model is presented for predicting probabilistic characteristics of elastic mechanical properties of an isotropic functionally graded material (FGM) subject to statistical uncertainties in material properties of constituents and their respective volume fractions.  The model involves non-homogeneous, non-Gaussian random field representation of phase volume fractions and random variable description of constituent material properties, a three-phase Mori-Tanaka model for underlying micromechanics and homogenization, and a novel dimensional decomposition method for obtaining probabilistic descriptors of effective FGM properties. The model provides both accurate and computationally efficient estimates of probabilistic characteristics of effective FGM properties.

Arindom Saha
Characterization Of Grafted Vanadium And Zirconium Oxides On Gamma Alumina Surface

This study focuses on the properties of single and mixed metal oxides added to the surface of γ-alumina by grafting and impregnation techniques. Vanadium oxide and vanadium-zirconium mixed oxides have been deposited by these methods. Of interest is the influence of loading, oxidation state and red ox properties resulting from systematic variation of temperature, concentration, identity of metal oxide precursor and post deposition treatment during the syntheses. These materials are of interest because of their observed catalytic activity in steam reforming of hydrocarbons and alcohols. The surface densities of the added metal oxides have been established using a combination of surface area determinations and elemental analyses with ICP. Vanadium oxidation state distribution and ease of oxidation have been determined using XPS. The variation of these properties with sample preparation method and subsequent treatment is of interest in optimizing the syntheses of vanadium based steam reforming catalysts.

Bhupesh Adhikary
Characterization of South Asian Aerosols: A Regional Scale Modeling Analysis

Studies have linked aerosols to global warming and climate change. Experimental observations alone cannot provide adequate spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric aerosols which only a three dimensional chemical transport model can provide.  STEM, a regional chemical transport model, developed at The University of Iowa is used to study the seasonality and spatial distribution of aerosols over South Asia.  Model is validated using year long observations from two sites in South Asia.  The model is able to capture the magnitude and seasonality of BC and OC aerosols at the ABC-Hanimaadhoo observatory.  The model captures the mean annual concentration over KTM but presently is not able to explain the high aerosol peak in the dry months. The modeling results show that the Ganges valley experiences high anthropogenic aerosol loading even during the monsoon months but needs to be more thoroughly corroborated by future experimental campaigns.

Brian Hallstoos
"Muting" Mahalia: Marketing Gospel Music to White America

My presentation highlights the tension between the expressive practices of black gospel music and popular depictions of this music. To illustrate this tension, I focus on the performance practices of Mahalia Jackson and her image on album covers from the 1950s and 1960s. I explore why record companies marketed her as a relatively sedate and undemonstrative performer, when dynamic bodily movement was integral to her music. These static representations catered to the desires and expectations of white consumers, her primary audience. I consider the image of Jackson in the context of historical representations of black sacred music and in relation to the ‘mammy’ stereotype. I argue that representing Jackson’s body in motion would have evoked a black, female agency that white consumers would have perceived as both a racial and gender threat.

Calvin Lane
Balance, Tolerance, or Diversity?: The Theological Climate of Milton's Cambridge

The two so called "ancient universities" of Britain have been commonly distinguished by their divergent character: there is, on the one hand, Royalist, Arminian, Romantic Oxford northwest of London and, on the other, Republican, Calvinist, Puritan Cambridge in the fen country of East Anglia. This demarcation was supposedly born roughly in the later decades of the sixteenth century. This presentation, frankly, is facile and simply unacceptable. The goal of this investigation is to set an accurate portrait of Cambridge in the latter half of the 1620s, the first five years of Charles I's enigmatic reign and the span of John Milton's undergraduate career. Cambridge, and, in particular, Christ's College, were ideologically and theologically diverse places in the axial period between the accession of Charles in 1625 and the solidification of a polarizing political and religious regime which historians often argue inexorably lead to the English Civil Wars of the 1640s.

Charlotte Ridge
Satisfaction with Democracy in the EU: Party and Policy Representation

Polling data and low voter turnout in the European Parliamentary (EP) elections indicate that Europeans are not enthusiastic about European Union (EU). The indifference of the average European to the EU lends support to claims that the institution is out of touch with its citizens. While scholars have written extensively about public opinion on the European Union, they have neglected the possible influence of political party membership on feelings about EU democracy. Scholars have also overlooked how personal approval of the common market might affect personal opinions on democratic representation by the EU. This paper addresses the question: how does representation affect beliefs about democracy and the EU? Do political losers worry more about a democracy deficit than political winners do? In order to fill this gap in the literature, I address how political parties and beliefs about the EU affect public opinion on EU level democracy.

Charlotte Taylor
Aurora and the Sea

A stop motion animation about a girl and her journey to the sea. Made with dolls, clay, paper mache, Photoshop backgrounds, and 3-D rain.

Chen-Ming Lee
Nanoparticulate Movement through Viscoelastic Barriers

The purpose of this study was to measure the diffusivity of nanoparticles through viscoelastic barriers in an effort to identify limitations to nanoparticle movement in semi-solid/gel-like biomedical and pharmaceutical systems. The autocorrelation functions of carboxylated nanoparticles moving in various water soluble polymers were measured by dynamic light scattering and then analyzed using multiple exponential decaying functions incorporating the relaxation time spectra, extracted from measured rheological properties, G¡¦ and G¡¨, to obtain the distribution of diffusivities. The results showed that diffusion coefficients of nanoparticles through gel networks are reduced by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude compared to those in water. The distribution of diffusivities also grew larger with increases in either of the rheological moduli. Good correlation between the mean diffusivity of the particles and the relaxation time was found which demonstrates that gel relaxation time, an alterative parameter to insight gel structure, could be used to predict particle release from a viscoelastic matrix. This would enhance the ability to optimize gel-particle interaction to either maximize particle entrapment within a viscoelastic matrix or particle release from a gel.

Christina Freisinger
G Protein Regulation and Cardiovascular Development

During development, the fertilized egg becomes many cells and these cells need to communicate with each other in order to pattern the embryo and form internal organs. A class of proteins important in cell communication is the G-protein receptor signaling family, conserved in all animals. I focus on Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS), proteins involved in turning 'off' signaling cascades in the cell. In the zebrafish model, we have identified critical roles for RGS in organ formation and function, such as the heart and vascular systems. Knowledge of these complex signaling cascades and their regulation will help us to understand the causes of congenital heart defects and systolic heart failure, thereby allowing for potential identification or treatment of these conditions. This proposal summarizes our progress to date on the functional characterization of RGS proteins in vertebrate development.

Christopher Clark
Racial Representation in State Legislatures

Political science is beginning to recognize the importance of black descriptive representation in state legislatures. While there has been work done on the policy implications of having black state legislators, there is not one that aims to show what factors predict their presence. My paper aims not only to identify the social and institutional factors that help predict the presence of black state legislators, but it also looks at racial parity representation. Racial parity representation is a normative concept. That is, in an ideal world the percentage of blacks in the state legislature will equal the number in the population. In addition to using extant explanatory variables, I create two ratios, education and income, that compare whites to blacks to see how they impact racial parity representation. I expect that states with a higher percentage of black educational attainment the income will be closer to achieving racial parity representation.

Christopher Gainey

Iago, for violin solo, takes its inspiration from my favorite villain in all of Shakespeare. While reading Othello I found that I was more concerned with what was going on inside Iago's mind than I was with the welfare of the other characters in the play. The instrumentation was chosen to reflect not only the intimate, internal turmoil of the character, but also Iago's constant attempts to overstep the boundaries of his social position. This music is meant to sound as if the violin is fighting against the limitations of the instrument in a similar way. This piece does not follow a narrative as such, but instead is a glimpse into the whirlwind personality of a complex villain. The piece is performed on the recording by violinist Minsun Choi. My submission although separate, is meant to work together with graduate student choreographer Vladimir Condereche's submission "Shadowy Betrayal."

Christy Clark
A Curious Colony and A Peculiar Institution: Slavery in Rhode Island, 1652 to 1775

Despite the presence and persistence of slavery in the northern colonies, academic scholarship and public knowledge of northern slavery remains incomplete. The business of slavery shaped the lives of Rhode Islanders. By 1750 white Rhode Islanders owned the highest proportion of slaves in New England and dominated the North American trade in slaves. Slavery developed slowly and ambivalently during the colonial period. Rhode Islanders were uncomfortable with, but economically linked to the institution of slavery. Evaluations of slave law and patterns of slaveholding as well as an examination of slave trading records reveal how and why the institution of slavery shaped Rhode Island. Studying Rhode Islanders also offers an opportunity to study a fundamental contradiction in American history; the simultaneous rise of slavery and liberty.

Consuelo Guayara
Geographical Imaginaries of the Amazon: Colonial, Modern, and Postmodern Narratives

In this paper, I examine the main national discursive constructions and the different material practices on the Amazon through time. The narratives are arranged historically and cover three main periods: colonial, modern, and postmodern eras. This periodization follows the main shifts in approaching the Amazon, particularly in relation to material practices (political, economic, social, and environmental). Although some of the discursive tools have lost importance through time, others have maintained their centrality while they are remade. At the end, what we have is a tapestry of conflicting narratives in different points in time framed in different economic, social, cultural and political relations, but also articulated to different intellectual traditions, practical experiences, and ideologies that contrast sharply with homogenizing international representations.

Craig Dietrich
The Daily Palette OS X Dashboard Widget

The Daily Palette-a Web site delivering daily artwork by Iowa-identified artists, accessible via a link on The University of Iowa home page-has for more than two years provided a means for the public to view a diverse range of artworks through the display of images, texts, and streaming video. Over 100,000 visitors over the life of the project help demonstrate the ability of an online site to reach viewers unaccustomed to regularly visiting 'bricks and mortar' galleries. The Daily Palette OS X Dashboard Widget extends the reach of this globally-accessible gallery. Currently in development, the 'Palette' widget will present daily artworks, side by side mainstream widgets such as weather, phone book, and calendar, in a parallel constructed display. The works featured on the 'Palette' widget integrate art into conventional computer activities and remove the need for viewers to 'check in' to a web site. This research also reflects a hybrid practice which integrates technology research and creative practice.

Daniel Boscaljon
grasping for you in view of everyone

In a series of small blog entries, the author invites the reader into an increasingly complex and destabilizing series of reflections on the nature of the self as it encounters the following permutations: self/self, self/text, self/god, self/other. Through an anonymous and impersonal setting the desire is for the words to grasp thereader in a shockingly intimate fashion. The presentation will consist of a brief explanation of the unique nature of blogs and the untapped potential of blogging, followed by a demonstration of how this power can be channeled. Those interested in viewing the blog samples under discussion in their intended form can do so at: http://blog.myspace.com/jforum07.

David Riep
The Scent of Royalty: South Sotho Snuff Containers

History shows us that the South Sotho of southern Africa were a powerful kingdom throughout the 19th century. Led by the wisdom of king Moshoeshoe, they were guided through intercultural wars and land-grabbing colonialism that brought all neighboring indigenous groups to their knees. While South Sotho artists did not create specific works of art aimed at the office of kingship, there are a variety of objects that serve as metaphors for the role of the king within society. An example of this can be seen in one of these object types, the snuff container. Although the act of taking and sharing snuff among the South Sotho provides numerous cultural references regarding spirituality and sexuality, it also provides a direct allusion to the ideals of royalty. In lieu of the current dearth of scholarship on South Sotho art, the designation of snuff containers as both use-objects and royal signifiers is undeniable.

David Riep
The Work of Jean-Marie Teno and Raoul Peck: Restoring Life to a Fleeced Continent

The issues of cultural genocide and assimilation play a major role in the history of the African continent. Although each specific region experienced diverse effects from the unforgiving colonial process, the devastation left in its wake cannot go unnoticed. In the films "Afrique, je te plumerai," by Jean-Marie Teno, and "Lumumba: Death of a Prophet," by Raoul Peck, these issues are explored within the guise of two specific West African countries. Although both directors explore the lasting effects of colonialism on multiple levels, they each dedicate specific scenes to the visual arts of the Cameroon Grasslands and Congolese Basin kingdoms. Although the use and meaning of visual art objects offers a complex dialogue within the colonial history of the African continent, one cannot deny the importance of their role. Not only do they function as effective tools in readdressing the ideas and methods of colonialism, but they operate as a visual index for the cultures that created them.

Dejan-Kresimir Bucar
Preparation and Reactivity of Nanocrystalline Co-crystals Formed via Sonocrystallization: Towards Three-dimensional Ultra-high Density Digital Data Storage

Single crystals of macroscopic dimensions are not always suitable for single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) reactions because of their mechanical properties (i.e. they crack). Nanocrystaline materials have unique mechanical properties that allow crystallinty to be maintained under stressful conditions such UV-radiation. Having considered a recent paper of Nakanishi and coworkers (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 10944), we anticipated that a SCSC [2+2] photoreaction of supramolecular hydrogen-bonded assemblies within co-crystals could be achieved via a decrease of crystal size.  In this contribution, we demonstrate that a SCSC reaction of the four-component supramolecular hydrogen-bonded assembly of resorcinol and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-ethylene can be achieved by decreasing the crystal size towards nano-dimensions. Crystals of desirable dimensions were grow by a combined sonochemical and precipitation method. The SCSC reactivity of these assemblies was studied using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRPD), while the morphology of the crystalline samples was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Denise Kettering
Un-popular Piety: Clergy and Laity in Spener's Pia Desideria

Phillip Jakob Spener's Pia Desideria introduced a new understanding of piety to seventeenth century Germany. In doing so he initiated a reform that reshaped Germany's religious landscape. Scholars of Pietism have often stressed that Spener's reform created a new role for the laity in the church. However, a careful investigation of this influential text reveals less emphasis on creative new forms of popular piety and more emphasis on decreasing the social distance that existed between the clergy and laity. For Spener, lay piety is always guided by the clergy. Thus, while Spener ultimately is concerned about reforming the laity, he uses the existing structure of the church as a vehicle to create this new form of piety. He designs a piety that is ultimately "un-popular" because it focuses on reforming clerical behavior and maintaining social structures rather than allowing the laity to engage in creative new expressions of their faith.

Elaine Shenk
Language economies and familial ideologies: Evolving perspectives on language choice

Based on the principle that language both reflects and helps to construct the social identity of its users (Cameron 2001), this paper explores the ways in which familial language ideologies socialize children into particular kinds of communicative competences (Brice Heath 1982, Woolard and Schieffelin 1994), specifically regarding young children s language use practices in a setting of English-Spanish contact. The data highlight the mitigating effect of particular ideologies which resist, albeit quietly, the hegemony of the English language in the U.S. (Lippi-Green 1997, Schmidt 2000). These ideologies and accompanying strategies within the home are both supported and obstructed by outside influences such as the school and the broader community.

Elizabeth Danker
Reception of Abstract Expressionist Painting in the 1940s and 1950s and Film Noir

This presentation examines the scholarship on film noir as embodied by claims concerning realism, on the one hand, and abstraction on the other, in the context of the reception of Abstract Expressionist painting in the 1940s and 1950s. In part, this builds upon Kent Minturn's essay "Peinture Noire: Abstract Expressionism and Film Noir,” which examines the complex relationship between film noir, as a cycle, and Abstract Expressionist painting. My response to Minturn’s essay consists of highlighting how film noir has also been compared to the realist paintings of Edward Hopper by Wieland Schmied and Edward Dimendberg (other scholars who do not treat the relationship of film noir to painting in depth), so that film noir more accurately reflects an ambivalent and nebulous hybrid of abstract and realist tendencies that characterized the exhibition and reception of paintings in the 1940s, rather than a singular parallel with either Abstract Expressionism or realism.

Elizabeth Gibson
Mineral Dust Aerosol Chemistry and Climate

Atmospheric aerosols impact the Earth s climate directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN).  In this study, the hygroscopicity, CCN activity and infrared optical extinction of CaCO3, a reactive component of mineral dust aerosol, and Ca(NO3)2, which forms from CaCO3 through reaction with nitrogen oxides, have been measured.  The hygroscopicity and CCN activity of Ca(NO3)2 are orders of magnitude greater than that of CaCO3.  Ca(NO3)2 particles also reflect a greater amount of near infrared radiation at higher RH.  Although it is recognized that the properties and therefore the climate impact of mineral dust aerosol can change as it is transported in the atmosphere, little quantitative data is available connecting mineral dust aerosol chemistry and climate.  These results provide the first quantitative assessment of the changes in climate forcing that can occur as mineral dust aerosol undergoes heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere.

Elizabeth John
Understanding Medication Beliefs Among Older Adults Who Intentionally And Unintentionally Miss Their Medicines

Medication non-adherence is an important health problem and can be either intentional or unintentional. Though the reasons underlying both types of non-adherences are different, research has often considered it as a single entity. Forgetfulness or carelessness in taking medications is suggested as unintentional non-adherence. For cognitively intact individuals, however, forgetfulness and carelessness might not be unintentional. We hypothesize that intentional and unintentional adherence have different underlying medication beliefs and these beliefs are a significant predictor of forgetfulness and carelessness. Regression analysis was conducted on a cross-sectional data of 1220 internet users who were Medicare enrollees and aged above 65 years. Out of 1061 useable responses, 55.8% self-reported as adherent, 30.82% as unintentionally non-adherent and 7.4% as intentionally non-adherent. This study differentiated intentional and unintentional non-adherence based on medication beliefs and established a belief component in forgetfulness and carelessness. Understanding medication beliefs will help to design appropriate intervention strategies.

Emine Ozgur Bayman
Bayesian Sample Size Calculations for Multi-Center Clinical Trials with Binary Responses

An important issue is to decide the total sample size and sample size for each center in a multi-center clinical trial. A Bayesian hierarchical model for binary responses representing success or failure is assumed, with exchangeable random center effects. A concept of Bayesian power is defined as the probability of reaching a specific conclusion for a fixed set of parameter values. An algorithm is described for determining the sample size to give appropriate Bayesian power. It is assumed that there are 2 treatments and N centers. Each center has a pre-specified relative ability to enroll. The algorithm is implemented using WinBUGS and R, and the R2WinBUGS interface.

Fadi Alkhateeb
Influences on Physicians' Adoption of E-detailing

E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: Interactive (virtual) e-detailing and video e-detailing. Objectives of this study are to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. This study evaluates physician adoption of e-detailing through a mail survey of a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. The sample was selected from the database of the licensed physicians in Iowa maintained by the Office of Statewide Clinical Education Program. Multiple regression analyses (binomial logistic regression) were used for analysis. Pilot testing of the survey was conducted by mailing the survey to 150 physicians. Of the 150 surveys, 1 was returned as undeliverable. A total of 38 responses were received giving a response rate of 25.6%. Of the 38 surveys received, 5 (13.2%) reported using virtual e-detailing and another 6 (15.8%) video e-detailing. The total number of physicians who used e-detailing program (interactive or video) equaled 10 because one physician used both types, yielding 26.3% of physicians having ever used e-detailing in Iowa state.

Francesco Dalla Vecchia
Tonalities of light and darkness in Debussy's "Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien"

"Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien" is a sacred drama by the Italian poet Gabriele D'Annunzio for which Claude Debussy composed incidental music in 1911. This composition remained Debussy's longest score after his first and only opera "Pelléas et Mélisande" (1902). Although "Saint Sébastien" and "Pelléas" belong to different genres, these two theatric works share some remarkable features. Both dramas are fundamentally tragic stories of disembodiment, depicting the metamorphosis of the protagonist from physical to metaphysical, from body to soul, from darkness to light. Scholars have proved that, in "Pelléas," Debussy rendered the fundamental polarity through subtle musical devices. Therefore, I have analyzed "Saint Sébastien" in search of a musical system that similarly conveys the protagonist ascension to Heaven. I went beyond Debussy's score, reconstructing the details of the original theatrical setting through photos and reviews, and realizing an introduction to the appreciation of this unconventional work.

Gabriele Villarini
A Simulation Study to Investigate Rain Gauge Representativeness Errors in Rainfall Fields

In evaluating radar-rainfall estimates rain gauge data usually serve as ground reference.  However, they should be considered as point measurements compared to the radar estimates which represent area averages.  In this study, the sampling or representativeness error is defined as the ratio between areal and point values of rainfall.  To obtain better insight into its statistical characteristics, the author conducted a simulation study of spatially correlated lognormal fields.  The results of this study show that the rain gauge representativeness errors are unbiased, uncorrelated in space and do not depend on the logarithm of the true areal values of rainfall.  Additionally, a spatial averaging geostatistical tool (block kriging) is applied and shown to reduce the error variance considerably.  The reduction ranges from 5% to 50%, depending on the pixel (support area) size and the network configuration.

George Wrisley
Metaphysical or Alethic Realism: Identifying the Target of Putnam's Conceptual Relativity

At one time Putnam claimed that metaphysical realism consists of the following three doctrines: [1] The world consists of some fixed totality of mind-independent objects. [2] There is exactly one true and complete description of the way the world is . [3] Truth involves some sort of correspondence relation between words or thought-signs and external things and sets of things (Reason, Truth and History, 49). One line of attack that Putnam continues to pursue against realism involves what he calls conceptual relativity. However, it is unclear exactly what form of realism conceptual relativity is supposed to call into question. William Alston argues that [1] and [3] are completely independent of each other and that conceptual relativity primarily impugns [1]. Pace Alston, I argue that Putnam's notion of conceptual relativity is such that [1] and [3] are not separable; both are threatened by conceptual relativity.

Gina Giotta
Keeping Up Appearances: Digital Camouflage and Wartime Recruiting

This paper considers the shift from camouflage as a mode of concealment to camouflage as spectacle in the 21st century. While camouflage was initially developed in WWI to disguise soldiers, equipment and movement in theaters of war, sophisticated technologies of visualization such as radar and thermal imaging have significantly outmoded disruptive patterning designed to fool the human and glass eye of the reconnaissance camera. Despite this spiral into tactical obsolescence, the US military recently spent millions of dollars to replace its standard-issue camouflage fatigues with uniforms bearing proprietary digital camouflage imprints. As there is no evidence to suggest that the new patterns in any way counteract advanced technologies of disclosure designed to locate enemy positions, I argue that the transition from organic paint daub to digital pixel is primarily a public relations maneuver intended to enhance the military's image as a hip, tech-savvy employer. Additionally, I contend that the sexier patterns function to promote the idea that war is now a largely safe, technologized endeavor that takes place between machines rather than their human analogs--a particularly important yarn that aids in the wartime recruiting of an all-volunteer force.

Gwyneth Rost
It takes a village: 14-month olds discriminate similar-sounding words presented by multiple, but not single, speakers

While infants are generally considered to have good auditory perception for speech sounds, infants in the early stages of word learning are reported to have reduced speech-sound perception in tasks where similar-sounding words are paired with objects (Stager & Werker, 1997), in effect teaching the objects' names. Because speech perception is thought to be a process of categorization, it was hypothesized that infants' category structure - and their discrimination of similar-sounding words - could be improved by presenting additional acoustic information provided by multiple speakers. To test this hypothesis, infants were exposed to photographs accompanied by labels spoken by either a single or multiple speakers. At test, infants in the single-speaker condition failed to recognize the difference between the two words, while infants who heard multiple speakers discriminated between them. Results indicate that infants' speech perception in word-learning tasks is supported by presentation of the words by multiple speakers.

Hoi Ok Jeong
The Impact of Religious Membership on Individuals' Social Capital in South Korea

This paper looks at the impact of religious beliefs on social capital in South Korea at the level of the individual. While many religions coexist peacefully in Korea, three religions--Protestantism, Catholicism, and Buddhism--are the most common. Drawing upon Anheier and Salamon (1998), I argue that each religion in the country exerts a positive influence on their members in terms of the creation and increase in an individual's social capital. Specifically, the results of regression analysis show that Protestantism is most likely to promote one's social capital, followed closely by Catholicism, and Buddhism is the least likely to be conducive to the formation of social capital.

Hsin-Jen Hsu
Investigating Phonological Representation in Individuals with Language Impairment: Evidence from Repetitive Activation in a Nonword Repetition Task

This study investigated the role of phonological representations in performance on a nonword repetition task. Fourteen adolescents with SLI (mean age = 13;9) and 14 age- and IQ-matched normal language peers (NL) repeated lists of CVC nonwords varying in degree of phonetic overlap: nonwords shared (a) no segments (control) (b) one segment; (c) CV_(alliteration); and (d) _VC (rhyme). Speech perception, receptive vocabulary, and visual working memory were also assessed. The NL group showed higher repetition accuracy than the SLI group for all conditions. The NL group showed improved performance over control for all three repetitive activation conditions. However, for the SLI group, facilitative effects were only found in the rhyme condition. Group differences in receptive vocabulary and phonological perception were found, but do not fully explain the observed differences in nonword repetition performance. Group differences in visual working memory also reached significance. Taken together, the results suggest that weak phonological representations might account for poor repetition performance in individuals with SLI and might be one source underlying the linguistic deficits in this clinical population.

Huong Nguyen
Development of a Speech Perception Test in Vietnamese

Speech perception tests are important tools for assessing hearing acuity, fitting hearing aids, and quantifying the outcomes of rehabilitation programs. Unlike in the United States and other countries where such tools have been developed and refined since the 1950s, there are no standardized speech perception tests available in Vietnam. In the initial stage of this investigation, the Vietnamese language was quantified in terms of tone usage and durational characteristics, word category usage, and dialectical differences. Seven native talkers recorded Vietnamese speech samples; One female and one male talker were selected and a compact disk of three lists for each was generated. A total of 106 subjects were selected to test the word lists. The first stage was carried out in the Hearing aid Laboratory for Basic and Applied Research (University of Iowa) and the data collection was carried out in Vietnam. Test- retest reliability and acoustic differences of the Vietnamese language will be determined the next phase of this project.

Ian Rasmussen
The Simon effect occurs without shifts of attention: A new look at the attentional explanation

In choice reaction time tasks, individuals are faster when the stimulus appears in a location that corresponds to the correct response (congruent trial) than when the stimulus appears in a location the corresponds with an incorrect response (incongruent trial). This phenomenon is known as the Simon effect, and it is usually explained as an attentional effect. However. the Simon effect can also be explained as conceptual priming based on the relative position of objects. In two experiments, we attempted to test these two accounts. In Experiment 1, the stimuli were maintained in working memory and the critical stimulus was subsequently indicated by a central cue. Despite the fact that the relevant stimulus information was no longer visible, the Simon effect was present. In Experiment 2, the absolute middle position of the display was associated with congruency effects only if another stimulus position was previously presented, suggesting that subjects were sensitive to the spatial arrangement of object-response mappings rather than the absolute position of the objects on the screen. These results may suggest a conceptual or relational coding of spatial configuration relative to available response locations.

Igor Schneider
Requirement of calcium modulation in organ laterality

Although humans appear bilaterally symmetrical from the outside, our internal organs are carefully positioned in an asymmetric manner across the Left-Right (LR) axis, and the development of this asymmetry is highly conserved across species. Deviations from the normal internal organ LR arrangement can cause lethality and congenital heart defects. Calcium (Ca2+) signaling has been implicated in laterality; here we manipulated endogenous Ca2+ release in the zebrafish dorsal forerunner cells (DFC), resulting in altered DFC migration/cohesion, bilateral expression of asymmetric genes and randomized organ laterality. We identify beta-catenin inhibition as a Ca2+ target. We also demonstrate that localized loss within the DFC region of Nkd1, a calcium binding protein, is sufficient to alter laterality. Finally in frogs, we demonstrate a similar Ca2+ sensitive stage resulting in increased nuclear beta-catenin and altered laterality. Overall, our data denotes a conserved early Ca2+ requirement in vertebrate LR patterning.

Irma Nydegger
Imaging Exocytotic Events in PC12 Cells: A Precursor to Free Radical Studies

Free radicals (including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) have been implicated in most major neurological diseases and disorders such as: ischemia-reperfusion injury (stroke), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s, AIDS dementia and other dementias as well as cardiovascular diseases. Free radicals, however, are not always detrimental in the body as commonly perceived. Previous work also suggests that in addition to the traditional neurotransmitters that are released during exocytosis (such as dopamine), free radicals are also implicated as neuronal messengers. Studies have shown that free radicals are produced during neurotransmitter degradation such as dopamine autooxidation that occurs during exocytosis. This study seeks to elucidate the process of exocytosis in Pheochromocytoma cells (neuronal models) using fluorescence microscopy.

Jane Butler
In Which Physics Lilts, Crippling Flight

The essay "In Which Physics Lilts, Crippling Flight" combines personal narrative and historical science narrative in order to explore an obscure and controversial aspect of scientific history, to question the role of sound in memory, and to follow the narrator's quest to reconcile intrusive memories of her dead mother.

Janjira Intra
Preparation and Characterization of Cationic Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) Particles as Non-Viral Gene Delivery Systems

Three formulations of cationic Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) consisting of PLGA and poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) were compared and evaluated. In the first methodology (PA), PLGA was blended with PEI prior to entrapping plasmid DNA (pDNA) using the water in oil in water (w/o/w) method. The second formulation (PB) was carried out by first preparing PEI/DNA complexes then encapsulated in PLGA using the w/o/w technique. The third formulation (PC) involved the covalent conjugation of PEI to the surface of PLGA using a modified EDC/NHS chemistry. Cationic PLGA particles showed significantly higher pDNA-loading efficiency than PLGA particles. All of the formulations had particles with a net positive zeta potential. Gel electrophoresis assays showed that all formulations except for PC had strong pDNA binding capacity. Hybrid particles mediated higher transgene expression than PLGA particles in COS-7 and HEK-293 cells. An MTT assay indicated that cytotoxicity of cationic PLGA particles was significantly lower than PEI.

Jennifer Ambrose
Recognizing the Unnatural: The Place of the Sublime in Navigating Post-Katrina American Landscapes

This project examines the role of the sublime in post-Katrina American landscapes. I argue that the use of the sublime as an aesthetic tool for representing natural phenomena as unnatural disasters is symptomatic of an attempt to present moral culpability in American catastrophes. Specifically, I am examining the work of Aric Mayer in attempt to describe the ways in which the sublime elicits a specific moral response from viewers.

Jennifer E. Lee
The Influence of Neuroticism and Extraversion on Experimentally-Induced Muscle Pain Sensitivity in Healthy Adults

Pain perception is a highly complex process. Although pain is influenced by many factors, personality contributes uniquely to the pain experience. However, few known studies have examined the role of personality on pain sensitivity in non-patient groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of neuroticism and extraversion on pain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven adults participated in an experimentally induced pain task that produced temporary muscle soreness via infusion of an acidic solution into the anterior tibialis muscle. Results indicated that individuals high in neuroticism reported higher peak pain and decreased pain thresholds (hyperalgesia) during the pain task. Extraversion was associated with lower pain intensity and increased pain thresholds (hypoalgesia). These results suggest that personality is associated with differences in pain sensitivity among healthy individuals. Further, these findings underscore the importance of considering normal baseline personality traits when assessing pain.

Jennifer Rees
Inhibition of Dopamine Metabolism Leads to an Accumulation of 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a Potential Neurotoxin of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic cell death. Current studies have indicated that cell death may originate from increased oxidative stress and the reactive dopamine metabolite; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Compounds derived from oxidative stress, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), might impair dopamine metabolism yielding atypical levels of the DOPAL metabolite. Based on this information, it is hypothesized that DOPAL, generated at aberrant levels due to an impairment of dopamine metabolism, will cause protein modification. This work utilizes rat striatal synaptosomes, nerve endings isolated from nerve tissue of dopaminergic regions of the rat brain, to demonstrate that upon increased addition of 4HNE a corresponding increase in DOPAL concentrations are observed. It was also established that DOPAL will modify proteins using a detection method involving nitro blue tetrazolium. The data establish the ability of DOPAL to modify proteins thus, demonstrating its potential role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

Jhon Rojas
Preparation, characterization and tableting properties of spray-dried cellulose II microparticles

The effect of spray-drying process on particle flow, tableting, and drug dissolution properties of cellulose II compared with the non-spray dried powder and microcrystalline cellulose (The spray-dried cellulose I powders: Avicel® PH101 and Avicel® PH102), was evaluated. The particles were characterized respect to size distribution, crushing strength (compactability behaviour), moisture content, true and bulk density. The results demonstrated that the spray-drying process enhanced the flowability of cellulose II while the compactability and compressibility, dissolution profile and true density remain unchanged compared to the non spray dried powder. The spray-dried microparticles of cellulose II showed better flow properties, faster disintegration (< 20 seconds at 75 MPa) and faster dissolution when ibuprofen is used as a model drug compared with Avicel® PH101 and PH102 (controls).

Joanne Reiland
A Cell Culture Model for Studying Mammary Drug Transport

A human cell line, MCF-10A, has been investigated as a model for drug transport in the human mammary gland. Barrier properties and transporter expression are essential components of a drug transport model system. MCF10A cells showed insufficient barrier properties measured by transepithelial electrical resistance and immunofluorescence microscopy. The ABCG2 (BCRP) transporter was shown to be present in MCF10A cells by western blotting and immunofluorescence methods. However, no difference in the directional transport of the known ABCG2 subtrate nitrofurantoin was observed between the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical flux. This may be caused by a greater than expected paracellular transport rate due to the insufficient barrier properties. Alternative cell lines and methods are being investigated as model systems including MCF10A cells transfected with a tight junction protein missing in MCF10A cells, Crumbs3, primary mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) and flow cytometry uptake and efflux measurements.

John Dawson, John How, Vijayant Rajvanshi
Planning in Post Katrina New Orleans

More than a year after Katrina, New Orleans is still devastated. This paper is the culmination of a visit to the Crescent City where meetings with various players in the recovery efforts, and research into the recovery planning processes were conducted. The comprehensive planning process for New Orleans must be completed for the release of federal funds by the state to the city for broader rebuilding. This process proved more complex and contentious than in other localities affected by the storm. Political conflicts, public outrage at recommendations, and a highly disorganized initial approach in responding to the aftermath of the disaster all contributed to the lack of organized and effective planning. Initial plans conflicted as a result of disagreement between the parties who hired the contractors preparing the plans. Ultimately, this research has provided a glimpse at what the future of the profession may hold for practicing planners.

Johnathan Gajdos
A corpus-based analysis of extended adjectives in German: Distributional factors and grammatical rules

German is popularly known for lengthy words and phrases; contributing to this perception is a flexible and highly productive morphological compounding system and an ability to insert extended adjectives (EAs) through the use of phrases embedded between the beginning of a noun phrase and an adjective. This paper reports on aspects of a larger electronic corpus study of the use and distribution of EAs in German. Considered here are overarching structural commonalities found across EAs and distributional factors related to chronology and genre. Despite the general perception of EAs as being old-fashioned or solely scientific or technical, the data suggest that that may not be accurate, as EAs occur, for example, in both recent texts and in literary genres. Furthermore, the paper presents a case for the inaccuracy of certain restrictions that are posited by the Duden grammar and argues for the overall flexibility in EA formation, distribution, and use.

Jon Johnson
Have Scanner, Will Travel

My current work centers on the portable scanner as a recording device. The resulting images show traces of digital marks and gestures. The scanner captures a long moment when object and digital artifacts become subject, simultaneously suggesting tension and harmony. The television scans investigate how story and images are offered to us and how we choose, or decline to choose, how we read them. The other half of my work focuses on the formal and technical potential of the scanner as an imaging tool. When I approach the mundane and simple with the scanner, the objects aspire to be architectural, while the digital effects create a fabricated atmosphere hinging on the sublime. The scanner contains its own lights and mirrors that create new space, removing the original to somewhere new and unfinished. Devoid of a light meter, the scanner indiscriminately encodes and stores all information. The resulting images often include light streaks, digital banding, trailing colors as well as moments of sharp detail: this inclusion is the driving force behind the process.

Jonathan Thomas
Engaging Authors in the Past: Replication of the Iberian Slate Plaques

The engraved slate plaques of the Late Neolithic/Copper Age (3500-2500BC) of southwest Iberia have been posited as heraldic/lineage markers, material mnemonics, religious icons, or as nascent prestige goods. These plaques, about the size of one s hand, are found almost exclusively in megalithic tombs in parts of Portugal and Spain. They employ a specific vocabulary of geometric shapes and anthropomorphic figures; however, no two are exactly alike. Little is known about how plaque production (or craft production in general) was organized, or what their association with interred individuals was due collective burial practices. How did they play a part in the memories and identities of the artisans and agricultural groups that created them? A stylistic and microwear analysis was undertaken to determine if individual plaque makers and engraving materials are discernable, and to better understand the role plaques played in Neolithic life both as craft goods and as recursive phenomena involved in the development of social complexity.

Joshua Cosman
Sensory Enhancement of Figures During Figure-Ground Assignment

Several cues influence figure-ground assignment, including object area and convexity. In addition, top-down input such as attention or familiarity can also influence this process. Although much is known about the factors that affect figure-ground assignment, little attention has been given to possible consequences of this process on later visual processing which leads to figures' increased salience in visual scenes. The subjective salience enjoyed by figural regions could be caused by one of two effects, either a perceptual enhancement of figures or to figures being given processing priority over grounds. We attempted to distinguish these effects of figure-ground assignment by asking participants to perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task. Across 2 experiments, targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those on grounds, consistent with an enhancement effect. These results suggest that figures enjoy an enhanced neural representation over grounds during figure-ground assignment.

Joshua Fisher
The 1982 World's Fair: Twenty-Five Years Later

Twenty-five years ago, a World's Fair was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, organized around the theme of energy. The Fair was entertaining, and slightly profitable, but it failed to yield a single solution to the world's energy problems, which still face us today. As a result, the Fair is now largely forgotten, and its two remaining structures stand empty. This paper explores the mistakes that have been made at the Fair site, both in 1982 and today, as well as the role public art and architecture can play in dealing with such weighty issues as energy.

Joshua Matthews
Public Safety and the Lightning Rod: A Historical Example of the Rhetoric of Security

This paper examines the rhetoric of safety that developed around the marketing and implementation of the lightning rod, Benjamin Franklin's invention of the mid-1750s. It was claimed to be a highly important technology of insurance, it inspired perhaps the first international safety campaign, and it intimately tied together public conceptions of security and fear -a feature not unlike the Security schemes of our own day. I'll discuss how nineteenth century media talked about the lightning rod -how it was figured as a sign of social and economic status, how public safety and marketing became interconnected, and how Benjamin Franklin became a marketable figure, i.e., the "Great Protector."


Justin Goodson
The Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Trips

Non-asset based third-party logistics providers manage fleets of leased vehicles for their customers. Due to high leasing costs, minimizing the number of vehicles employed in daily operations is of primary concern to such firms. Consequently, routings that involve fewer vehicles and potentially longer travel times are favored over routings that involve additional vehicles. Constructing routes that meet such criteria gives rise to the vehicle routing problem with multiple trips (VRPM). Unlike the classical vehicle routing problem, the VRPM permits vehicles to make multiple trips to and from a central depot within a given time duration. We present a heuristic solution methodology for the VRPM. In contrast to previous research on the VRPM, our approach explicitly combines vehicle routes within the route duration limit. We present preliminary results of our algorithm on benchmark data sets and outline plans to improve upon these solutions.

Karla Stevenson
Constructing The Peoples' Champion: A Post-Modern Examination of American Idol

Robert Hariman, in his book Political Style, The Artistry of Power, examines "how courtly tropes have been appropriated in the communicative practices of the modern mass media and their constituent industries of entertainment and advertising." Building off Hariman's framework, I examine the popular reality television show American Idol to discuss how the repeated transformation of the body and the subsequent creation of an American Idol constantly reaffirms populist and courtly styles, promoting a version of political activism that disseminates specific political myths. Part of a larger project that examines AI and other forms of reality television as they relate to political style and civic engagement, I argue Idol shifts from privileging courtly tropes to privileging populist tropes. I also argue that each season, the body of the Idol is transformed from a courtier to a populist leader, a charismatic idol who is paradoxically "better than" and "of the people."


Kirsten Kumpf
Combing out Female Sexuality in French Cinema: One Strand at a Time

By definition hair is a collection of dead cells, but the stories that it tells are alive with more than fashion. This paper examines the intricacies of hair within French Cinema. By isolating the hairstyle, certain stereotypes about female sexuality emerge which call into question the cinematographer s intentions, who challenge these types of myths. The paper investigates how hair establishes a specific sexual code which limits and controls viewers perceptions. In this sense women s hair embodies certain signs and serves as a means to encode specific societal markers. Furthermore, I explore how female hairstyles reflect and contest women s sexuality during various times in French society. The hairstyles function as follows: 1) if women are limited in voicing their sexual desires, their hairstyles can speak for them 2) when cinematographers desire a revolutionary message, they can manipulate hair. By limiting oneself to a physical expression, viewers can discover a deeper sense of female understanding.

Kristin Naragon
Differential Relations of Depression and Social Anxiety to the Facets of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality

Depression and social anxiety disorder are highly comorbid, and symptoms of both disorders are characterized by low levels of the personality trait extraversion/positive emotionality (E/PE). However, little is known about the relations of the facets (i.e., lower-order factors) of E/PE with these symptoms. This study utilized multiple measures of depression, social anxiety, and the facets of E/PE in student and psychiatric outpatient samples. A principal factor analysis revealed a five-factor structure of E/PE, consisting of Sociability, Positive Emotionality, Energetic Drive, Dominance, and Fun-Seeking. These facets demonstrated differential relations with Social Anxiety and Depression: namely, Social Anxiety was broadly related to the facets of E/PE (particularly Sociability and Dominance), whereas Depression was most strongly related to Positive Emotionality. Implications for treatment, differential assessment, and future research directions are discussed.

Lavanya Murali Proctor
The "Spirit of Cricket": Colonialism and Racism in Contemporary International Cricket

The emphasis on a 'spirit of cricket' that is supposed to direct the game of cricket contributes to the perpetuation of colonialist domination. Victorian value systems are the source of the 'spirit of cricket', which is, consequently, inextricably linked to Englishness. Contemporary international cricket is hostile because of the shift in financial control to South Asia. I examine some discourses from news media and online forums surrounding an incident involving Australian umpire Darrell Hair and the Pakistani cricket team to show how this hostility finds expression in two opposing discourses, of racism, and of lack of the 'spirit of cricket'. The 'spirit of cricket', which is central to the game and to ideas of cricketing ability, is rendered unavailable to non-Anglo cricketers, based on their un-Englishness. They are, accordingly, seen as lacking in sporting ability. This inability is, thereby, insurmountable and naturalized. Such a naturalized generalization is, by definition, racist.

Lynne Larsen
Across Gender Boundaries: The Distorted Iconography of Hatshepsut and Akhenaten

The art of ancient Egypt in both iconography and style remains largely static for millennia. Established conventions such as composite profile human figures, organizing scenes into registers, and the intermixing of hieroglyphs with images appear as early as the Pre-Dynastic era and extended through the Ptolemaic period. This strict adherence to practices instituted in art is a manifestation of the Egyptian attitude towards tradition in all realms of life. The emphasis on tradition functions as a legitimizing tool for the perpetuation of Egyptian culture, thought, and religion. Two New Kingdom pharaohs, Hatshepsut and Akhenaten questioned Egyptian tradition. Each crossed into a sphere unconventional for his/her gender. On political grounds, Hatshepsut assumed kinship. On religious grounds, Akhenaten revolutionized worship practices and emphasized domesticity. The effects of both manifest themselves in the distorted iconography of these pharaohs.

Manpreet Kapur
Influence Of Hydrophilic Polymers On The Hydrolysis Kinetics Of Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide)50:50 Hot-Melt Extruded Polyblends

Polymer blending offers a cost-effective alternative to polymer synthesis to obtain new polymers with unique properties. Combining a biodegradable polymer such as poly (lactide-co-glycolide) 50:50 (PLGA) with hydrophilic polymers with mucoadhesive properties by hot-melt extrusion can generate formulations with dual properties of degradation and mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesion increases the residence time of a delivery device at the site of administration increasing bioavailability. PLGA degrades by ester hydrolysis generating lactic acid, glycolic acid and their oligomers that further catalyze the reaction. The hypothesis is that presence of hydrophilic material in the blend will increase the influx of water into the matrix system and increase PLGA hydrolysis rate. However,PLGA degradation was retarded. Hydrophilic material leaches or swells forming pores that may facilitate loss of catalyst.This study investigates the effects of hydrophilic polymers on mucoadhesion and the hydrolysis kinetics of PLGA polyblend matrices and role of porosity in PLGA degradation.

Margaret Andersen
Dr. René Ricoux and Pronatalist Visions of Colonial Algeria, 1880-1900

In 1880 a doctor named René Ricoux concluded his study of Algerian demographics by describing Algeria as a veritable "fountain of youth," from which depopulated France would find renewed strength and fertility. Published at a time when anxieties about the consequences of declining population growth filled metropolitan newspapers daily, Ricoux's study elicited significant interest in France. The study seemed to suggest that the French race was by no means doomed to continue along the current trajectory of decline and depopulation; it simply needed room to grow. This paper explores the impact of Ricoux's findings on French discussions of depopulation in the metropole. Specifically, French pronatalists conceived of Algeria as a promised land in the fight against growing decadence and declining population growth and positioned colonial settlement as a solution to French depopulation.

Megan Berner
Photobooth Confessional

Photobooth is a mixed media installation, which involves viewer participation. In the first iteration of the piece, visitors were invited to sit in the booth and pose for a series of four photographs. The video that was recorded from that process was then shown on a monitor placed inside the photobooth that could be viewed from the viewpoint of the camera. This version of the piece, with the title Photobooth Confessional, again involves viewer participation. Visitors to the Intermedia Graduate Open House are asked to contribute to the piece by sitting in the photobooth and sharing something in front of a video camera. This can be a story, a confession, an observation, a message, or any other words or actions the participant wants to impart. The video will then be edited and turned into a group-story, a sort of abstract narrative, making connections and networks between different people's moments in front of the camera.

Michael Baltutis
On the Road with the Rain God: Sexuality and Sacrifice in a Nepalese Festival

The annual autumnal festival of the rain god Indra focuses on the raising of a forty-foot wooden pole, fashioned from a tree taken from a forest that is a two-day walk from the city of Kathmandu. Many different words are used to name this formless object, both in primary texts and by people of the various ethnic groups (Nepali and Newar) who have a stake in the proper performance of this festival. This paper will focus on two of these local terms, placing them both within the traditional South Asian milieu from which they derive, while simultaneously questioning the local etymologies provided them. I will argue that while the sexual connotations ascribed to the pole by Nepalis fit into classical Hindu ritual patterns, the sacrificial identity attributed to the same object by Newars prescribes a quality that is linguistically inaccurate, though reflective of deeper Newar ritual patterns.

Murat Unlu
Improved performance of Magnetically Modified Alkaline Batteries

The specific demands of new electronic devices such as high power, cell design, dependability and stability drive battery manufacturers to seek improvements in current technology. Extensive studies have been devoted to improve the cathode performance of rechargeable and nonrechargeable batteries. In our lab, we have modified alkaline battery cathodes (electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD - MnO2) with magnetic microparticles (samarium cobalt). These magnetically modified batteries have significantly improved the battery performance. Improvements in battery performance are achieved at both low and high discharge rates. The first discharge capacity of magnetically modified EMD cathodes are enhanced 31 % and 44 % at low and high discharge rates, respectively. For multiple cycles as secondary batteries 108 % enhancement are achieved at high discharge rates over 15 cycles.

Nathan Dickman
Can 'God' ask a genuine question? On the Virtues of Dialogue and the Personhood of God

Many turn to religious traditions for answers to life's perplexing questions. People explore religious traditions by interrogating their representatives for resolutions to the tensions that constitute human existence. But, reversing traditional roles, can "God" ask a genuine question? Making sense of this question depends upon determining what constitutes a "genuine question" as well as determining the meaning, if any, of the term "God." The former is the my primary objective, while the latter is, if possible at all, too enigmatic to adequately attempt within the confines of a brief presentation. However, in my conclusion, I highlight hermeneutical ramifications of genuine questioning for theological reflection about the deity depicted in biblical narratives. I demonstrate that the ability to pose genuine questions is an essential virtue for reaching an understanding with others through dialogue, and given this we might wonder whether the Biblical God can enter into dialogue.

Nicole Civettini
The Impact of Religious Conservatism on Men's Work and Family Involvement

The social conservatism of evangelical and fundamentalist groups in the United States includes their support for premarital sexual restraint, husband leadership and father involvement within families. I explore the impact of religious conservatism on the work and family outcomes of Black and White men using the National Survey of Families and Households 1988 and 1993 waves. I hypothesize that men from conservative households may leave school, marry, and begin families at younger ages, hold more conservative views about gender, yet work and earn less while providing more housework and childcare. Results show that conservative religious affiliation in childhood does not hasten the transition to adulthood for men of either race, but does hinder educational attainment among men from disadvantaged backgrounds. Nor does current religious conservatism affect either the amount of housework or child care performed among partnered men, though it lowers wages among White men.

Olayinka Oladimeji
Symptomatology, attribution to medicines and symptom reporting among Medicare enrollees.

The objective was to describe self-reported symptomatology, medication attribution, and predict factors associated with reporting of symptoms. An Internet-based survey was administered by Harris Interactive. Multiple logistic regression analyses were done. The dependent variables were reporting at least one symptom to physician and intention to report symptom/s to physician among individuals who had at least one unreported symptom. Independent variables included number of medicines, number of pharmacies, concern and necessity beliefs in medicines, self-reported medication adherence, education, race, gender, age and number of times they had seen a physician, been hospitalized or admitted to emergency room in the past six months. Among those who had not reported ≥1 of their symptoms, concern beliefs and seeing physicians ≥3 times in the past six months were predictors. Concern beliefs were positively related to symptom reporting and seeing physicians ≥3 times in the past six months was negatively related to intention to report.

Ozge Girit
The Mediated National Identity/ies of the Turkish Student Association at the University of Iowa

This paper will be an examination of how a local communication network of the Turkish Student Association in the University of Iowa can play an important role in the global communication and circulation of a mediated Turkish national identity. My active participation in this Turkish nationality group has led me to reconsider the traditional conceptions of sovereignty, national citizenship, bounded territories and identities, and conventional national discourses in opposition to contemporary discourses of globalization that have introduced a redefinition of what we commonly understand of sovereignty, citizenship, territories, and identities. What scholars in media ethnography and anthropology argue for today is grouped under such terminology as global citizenship , cosmopolitan citizenship /rights/values, universal humanity , etc. My paper on the other hand will argue for counter tendencies, which is that national territories exist, and this becomes even more prevalent for the immigrants who live away from their homelands.

Patricia Schneider
Role of Axin-RGS domain in Vertebrate Development

The protein complex of Axin, APC and GSK-3 acts as a primary negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. Axin is a key scaffolding protein of the b-catenin degradation complex and contains a b-catenin binding domain, a GSK binding domain, an RGS domain and a DIX domain. Our study focuses on the role of the Axin-RGS domain. Because Wnt signaling is thought to involve activation of G-protein coupled Frizzled receptors, we tested whether the Axin-RGS domain functions in this context. We generated a point mutation converting the original Gln to Asn, predicted to increase affinity for Ga and another converting Gln to Ala, predicted to abolish binding activity. Wild type and mutant Axin were overexpressed in zebrafish and frog embryos. Our results suggest that the interaction of Axin with G-proteins, via its RGS domain, may play a role in the regulation of Wnt signaling during axial development.

Pete LeGrant
Against Cohen's Objections to Korsgaard's Account of Practical Identity

My goal in this paper is defend Korsgaard's idea of practical identity, as it pertains to her theory of action. G.A. Cohen argues that several of the premises that Korsgaard presents in The Sources of Normativity are false. I focus only on Cohen's objections that have to do with Korsgaard's theory of action. Korsgaard argues that we need practical identity as a source of reasons to act. I then move on to Cohen's objections. First, he claims that there is no necessary connection between practical identities and a universal principle that commands us to have them. Second, he argues that it is not true that we need practical identities to order to act, and last he objects that it is not true that our actions must be based on universal principles. I will handle each of these objections in turn.

Pradeep Mandapaka
Effects of Sampling on the Estimation of Spatial Correlation Structure of Normal and Lognormal Random Fields

Estimation of the correlation structure of random fields has applications in various geophysical fields.  Through the simulation of homogeneous, isotropic Gaussian and lognormal random fields, the study addresses sampling problems that affect the estimation of the spatial correlation function.  The random fields are characterized by a two-parameter exponential correlation structure, where the parameters are the correlation distance at which the correlation drops to 1/e and the shape factor that controls the small scale variability.  When the correlation function retrieved from multiple realizations of the simulated fields is compared with the theoretical one, the results show that the ratio of correlation distance to the domain size plays a key role in the estimation process.  In the sensitivity analysis that was performed on the number of realizations required to accurately estimate the correlation structure, the results show that 50 realizations are a large enough sample for both normal and lognormal cases.

Qian Shi
Evaluating Early Proteinuria Changes as a Surrogate Endpoint for Renal Disease Outcomes: a Bayesian Approach

The protective effect of angiotensin-II-receptor blocker irbesartan on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was established in Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT). The objective of the present study was to evaluate early changes in proteinuria as a surrogate for ESRD, using data from IDNT. Trial- and individual-level measures of surrogate validity, relative effect (RE) and adjusted association (AA), were used to assess the surrogacy. Two Bayesian joint models, normal/lognormal (JNL) and normal/Weibull (JNW) models were developed to estimate RE and AA. The latter model captures the adjusted association between marker values and true endpoint through a latent component. Estimated RE's are approximately 0.5, with relatively wide 95% credible intervals. Estimated AA's are close to 0.3 and 0.7 for JNL and JNW model respectively. Sensitivity analyses show that inference is robust to the choice of the prior. Results from both models show that early proteinuria changes defined as change from baseline to 6 months may not be a reliable surrogate for the renal disease outcomes.

Rachel Stephens
Small-Scale Spectacle: Civil War Chromolithographs and their Monumental Inspiration

The enormous popular appeal of Civil War panoramas in the last two decades of the nineteenth century invoked various artistic responses, however, the most important adaptation was the production of chromolithographic prints taken from the monumental paintings. Even though the impetus for these reproductive chromolithographs was commercially driven, much about late nineteenth-century American life, culture, and politics may be ascertained from a study of these artistic documents. Because the vast majority of the panoramas no longer exist, these chromos live on as a unique testament to American sentiments in the late nineteenth century. The purpose of this study is to bring to light many Civil War chromolithographs that were based on panoramas. Basic visual comparisons of several existing panoramas and chromolithographs clearly unite the two media, which makes clear many previously unknown conjunctions, and adds further insight into the somewhat mysterious past of the panorama industry.

Ramasubramanian Kanthasamy
Visible Light Photoreduction of Cr(VI) in Aqueous Solution Using Iron-Containing Zeolite Tubes

In this study, a novel visible light photocatalyst consisting of iron-loaded zeolite tubes was designed to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in aqueous solution. Iron was incorporated into hollow, porous ZSM-5 tubes using two different methods. In the first method, the iron-encapsulated ZSM-5 tubes were prepared by introducing iron into the mesoporous silica template prior to the formation of the hollow ZSM-5 tubes resulting in an encapsulated iron species. In the second method, iron was ion-exchanged into the ZSM-5 shell during a post-synthesis treatment. The iron-loaded ZSM-5 structures were extensively characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, solid state 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The iron in the iron-exchanged ZSM-5 tubes tended to aggregate compared to the iron in the iron-encapsulated ZSM-5 tubes. Both the iron encapsulated and iron-exchanged ZSM-5 hollow tubes were active for the visible light photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in aqueous solution. The iron-exchanged ZSM-5 tubes were very active initially but suffered from substantial iron leaching after the first use in aqueous Cr(VI) photoreduction relative to the iron-encapsulated ZSM-5 tubes which showed very little leaching of the iron.

Rebecca Brock
A Longitudinal Investigation Of Stress Spillover In Newlywed Marriage

Stress spillover in marriage was examined within a stress-buffering conceptual framework in a sample of newlywed couples (n = 82 husbands and 86 wives). Greater rates of change in chronic role strain experienced by husbands over the first three years of marriage were associated with steeper declines in husbands marital satisfaction regardless of the adequacy of spousal support they received from their wives. In contrast, greater rates of change in both husbands and wives chronic role strain over the first three years of marriage were indicators of more favorable trajectories of marital satisfaction for wives. Further, adequate spousal support provided by husbands appears to bolster the positive effects of changing chronic role strain on wives marital satisfaction. Methodological and theoretical implications for research examining stress spillover in marriage are discussed.

Salil Desai
Effect of ortho substitution on solution stability of formanilides

Formanilides formed by the reaction between anilines and formic acids, are hydrolytically unstable constituents of therapeutically important drugs e.g. antimycin A1 and formoterol. The susceptibility of this amide bond is affected by the neighboring chemical substituents through electronic or steric effects or by anchimeric catalysis. We have systematically studied the effects of various substituents on the rates of hydrolytic instability in acidic and alkaline conditions in order to deduce the mechanistic role of neighboring groups on formanilide stability. Kinetic studies were carried out in acidic and alkaline solutions on substituted formanilides. Our results support the AAC2 mechanism for the hydrolysis of formanilide in acidic pH. Linear Hammett plots were obtained using enhanced substituent constants indicating the presence of resonance and inductive effects between the reaction site and the para and meta substituents. Analysis of ortho substituted compounds revealed steric hindrance and anchimeric assistance interactions which are responsible for variation in hydrolysis rates.

Samantha Joyce
Brazilianess and the City. Don't Blame it on Rio! The Case of Sex and The City and the 'Brazilian Wax'

I feel like nothing but walking sex (Carrie Bradshaw). As I watched the episode of the popular TV series, I couldn t help but wonder: How is Brazilianess (Brazilian culture, and women) portrayed in the HBO series Sex and the City (SATC)? This research revealed that although the program was recognized for its positive portrayal of female friendship and was praised for its association with female empowerment when it comes to Brazilianess, SATC relegates it to stereotypical non-empowering and somewhat unrealistic roles. As a Brazilian scholar and a feminist I argue that the narrative, in SATC perpetrates a negative and stereotypical image of Brazil, and hope to shed light in the ways that Brazilianess is portrayed in the American media. Although research on the representation of Brazilians is ample in Brazil, the same is not true in the US. This research seeks to begin to fill this gap.

Sangyeol Lee
Pairwise retinal image registration by radial distortion correction

We describe a new method for pairwise retinal image registration. The proposed method is unique in that the radial distortion due to image acquisition is corrected prior to the geometric transformation. Since the overlapping region is typically small in a retinal image pair, only a few correspondences are available, thus limiting the applicable model to an affine transform at best. To recover the distortion due to curved-surface of retina and lens optics, a combined approach of an affine model with a radial distortion correction is proposed. Experimental results confirmed that the affine model with distortion correction could register retinal image pairs to within 1.88±0.35 pixels accuracy assessed by vessel line error, which is 17% better than the affine-only approach. Because the proposed method needs only two correspondences, it can be applied to obtain good registration accuracy even in the case of small overlap between retinal image pairs.

Sara Sheeley
Horizontal transmission of male-killing Wolbachia in Drosophila

Reproductive parasitism by Wolbachia is common among arthropods, with phenotypes including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), feminization, parthenogenesis, and/or male-killing. CI is the most commonly observed phenotype, and CI Wolbachia have undergone frequent horizontal transmission, evidenced by incongruent parasite and host phylogenies. Male-killing strains have evolved multiple times from ancestral CI strains, but evidence of horizontal transmission of the strains causing this phenotype is rare. To date, only two strains of male-killing Wolbachia have been identified within Drosophila, and phylogenetic evidence indicates that the strains have independent origins. Here we report the characterization of a strain of male-killing Wolbachia infecting Drosophila borealis, as well as evidence for its horizontal transmission between two distantly-related Drosophila species with non-overlapping ranges.

Scott Schachtele
Effects of Deafening on Dendritic Spine Formation in the Rat Auditory Cortex

Rat auditory cortical pyramidal neurons rapidly develop dendritic spines, the primary location of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system, between the ages of postnatal day (P)11 and P21 (<0.1 spine/µm and >1 spine/µm, respectively). This increase in spine density correlates temporally with both the establishment of mature auditory hair cell thresholds and hearing-evoked activity in central auditory neurons, suggesting a correlation between hearing onset and synaptic reorganization in the auditory cortex. The goal of this research is to investigate the role of early auditory afferent input on the patterning of dendritic spine development in neonatal rats from P4, prior to hearing onset, through P42 when hearing is mature. In vivo dendritic spine density was assessed using the lipophilic dye 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) in P4, P9, P11, P14, P19, P21 and P42 rats. Interestingly, early postnatal deafening via kanamycin-induced hair cell toxicity (P8-P15) does not significantly alter the rate of spine formation in layer 2/3 and 5 auditory cortical pyramidal neurons compared to control hearing rats. To further examine this lack of an effect from deafening, we analyzed (1) spine density variability (2) difference in dendritic arborization and (3) growth of new projections from other sensory cortices (cross-modal sensory plasticity). Our results show no significant difference in spine density variability, complexity of the dendritic arborization or in cross-sensory plasticity between hearing and deafened animals. Currently we are combining DiI labeling with immunohistochemistry for Bassoon, a presynaptic scaffold protein, to enable visualization of synapses on dendritic spines. Using this technique we will be able to determine if early postnatal deafening results in a change in synapse occupancy of dendritic spines in vivo.

Shaowei Wan
Effect of Hospice Access on the Use of Hospice among Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Great variation and high cost exist in treating terminally ill patients. Evidence suggests that hospice care can increase end of life (EOL) quality and decrease EOL cost, especially for cancer patients. Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women. However, only 28.9% of patients with breast cancer received hospice care before death. Hospice use has been reported to be associated with race, marital status, and insurance type previously. Yet there is no studies addressing whether hospice access influences hospice use. In this study, we examined the choice of hospice use among women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. We used SEER-Medicare linked database and employed multivariate logistic regression to estimate the relationships between hospice access and use. Our results demonstrated statistically significant lower hospice use by patients (1) living further from the closest hospice and (2) living in areas with fewer hospices per capita. The results suggest that hospice providers may be less willing to enroll patients farther from their offices and have less incentive to reach out when hospices are near capacity.

Sherif Negm
Effect of Optical Trapping on Sf-9 Cell Migration

Optical traps are frequently used in the biological sciences to manipulate and position individual cells and cellular structures. We have investigated the utility of using of an optical trap to measure intercellular adhesive forces in preparations of cultured Sf9 insect cells. During these experiments, we have discovered a novel migration of cells in response to holding a cell in the optical trap. In a typical experiment, a single Sf9 cell is trapped at the focal point of an 830 nm diode laser. Almost immediately, cells on the surface of the microscope slide, and away from the trap, begin to migrate toward the trapped cell. The major question to be addressed is the origin of forces responsible for this cellular migration process. Results will be presented for experiments designed to distinguish between physical and chemical mechanisms responsible for cell migration.

Si-Chi Chin
An Inspection of Tool: Take Chinese Romanization System as an Example

The complexity of the Chinese Romanization system leads to an inaccurate transliteration. One Chinese name can transform into at least three Romanized forms according to different systems. Inversely, one Romanized Chinese name could represent thousands of different combinations of Chinese characters. Thus, if we search by a Romanized Chinese name, we can hardly distill the desired answer from an impure repository. The solution for the problem can be educational and technical: either we educate people of the pitfalls of the Romanization systems, or we remedy the situation with more technical solutions. However, the current practices of the Library of Congress on the personal names authority control are arbitrary and insufficient to handle the problem.

Sonya Naumann
Thousand Dollar Dress

My current thesis, "Thousand Dollar Dress", is plainly pertinent to the exploration of my own identity and its curiosity regarding the arcane concept of marriage and its socio-political implications. It is my goal to photograph 1,000 women wearing my $1,000 wedding dress within the context of their own or chosen environment. I will be traveling throughout the course of the project to ensure a diverse range of participants in an effort to reflect a multidimensional identity. At the project's end, I aspire to have 1,000 portraits and a video documentary including interviews from individuals of all ages, backgrounds and diverse marital situations speaking to the concept of marriage and its politic. I hope to create an open dialogue concerning the institution of marriage and seek to explore the diverse views attached to its conception amidst the current culture war regarding its exclusive definition.

Soyang Kwon
The associations of overweight with physical activity and dietary behaviors in adolescents

The purpose of this study was to examine associations of overweight with physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors in adolescents. The study participants included 140 7th-8th grade white adolescents. Physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Overweight students tended to participate in less physical activity than non-overweight students. Electronic game-playing and the Internet use were positively associated with overweight in girls (p<.05), but not in boys. Overweight students were more likely to have a television set in their bedroom than non-overweight students (p<.05). Placement of a television set or a computer in adolescents’ bedroom was associated with television viewing time or the Internet use time (p<.05). The placement of a television set and a computer in adolescents’ bedroom might lead to their sedentary behaviors and hence, obesity.

Steve McNutt
SUV vs. Bike, SUV Wins

A narrative essay revolving around the writer's attempts at interpreting a collision between him (on the bike) and the driver of a sport utility vehicle. The essay is less concerned with the facts of the accident and blame than an attempt at finding symbolic value in the accident. The center of the piece uses a fantasy conversation between the narrator and an emergency room doctor (Dr. Bob) as a device for exploring various interpretive possibilities. Is there an ecological argument to be made? Economic? Political? Is God involved? Must events always have meaning? And if bad events don't make you a better person, what does that mean?

Taeeun Min
Asian American Turnout: They Need Information!

In this poster, I examine what factor determines Asian American turnout. Most previous studies did not extensively and simultaneously look into various factors which affect Asian American turnout. Put differently, they only included a few factors in their models to explain what affects Asian American turnout. To examine Asian American turnout in a comprehensive perspective, I simultaneously examine all factors that previous studies suggeted. Utilizing the PNAAPS data (Pilot National Asian American Political Survey, 2000-2001), I find that age, education, interest in politics, discrimination experience, familiarity with the election process and mobilization are significant factors in determining Asian American turnout. What is unique about Asian Americans, according to my findings, is that partisan strength does not affect their turnout, unlike what it does to "ordinary" Americans. Instead, I find that information factors - mobilization and the level of familiarity with the current process of electing the U.S. president - have significatly positive impacts on their turnout. These findings imply that when Asian Americans are sufficiently mobilized and given more information regarding elections, they will vote more. In other words, formal socio-political institutions can improve the current low level of Asian American turnout by more actively mobilizing them and providing more information for them.

Timothy Koscik
Sex differences in parietal lobe morphology: Relationship to mental rotation performance

Sexual dimorphisms are frequently found when imaging the human brain. In addition to sex differences in overall cerebral volume, differences in the proportion of gray matter (GM) to white matter (WM) volume are observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. The parietal lobe is thought to be involved in spatial ability, particularly for mental rotation. The purpose of this study is to examine sex differences in parietal lobe structure and relate these differences to performance the Mental Rotations Test. The morphologic difference in the parietal lobes that favours women (proportionally more GM) is found to be disadvantageous for women on the mental rotations test. In contrast, the morphologic difference in the parietal lobe that favours men (proportionally more surface area) is associated with a performance advantage for men on mental rotation. It is suggested that sex differences in parietal lobe structure are related to sex differences in cognitive function.

Timothy Paschkewitz
Development of Unique Nanoscale Architectures for Enhanced Electroanalysis

Miniaturization in the field of analytical chemistry continues to advance measurement capabilities in the biomedical sciences by enlightening our knowledge of complicated biological systems.  Novel nanoelectrode fabrication technologies have been developed that will provide higher spatial and faster temporal measurement of small molecules associated with cellular function.  A novel method using focused-ion beam (FIB) to mill through insulating layers of poly(methylmethacrylate) to fabricate nanoelectrode templates will be presented.  FIB milling is a technique that provides very precise spatial control of nanoscale fabrication.  Such control allows for fabrication of single pore electrode templates as well as multiple pore array templates.  Enhancement of spatiotemporal resolution is a direct result of restricted diffusion and molecular confinement at nanoscale electrochemical elements.  Pure radial diffusion at each electroactive element of fabricated arrays can be achieved by precise control of spacing, size, and density of nanopores milled in the array template.  Single nanoelectrodes are studied using cyclic voltammetry and ultra sensitive microscopies.

Tomomi Naka
In the World but Not Of the World: Mennonites and Occupations

This paper, based on research carried out in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, examines ways in which Mennonites attempt to integrate religious values into their work lives. While there are no specific provisions in Mennonite theology concerning occupational choice, most Mennonites in the United States have regarded farming as consistent with their religious principles. Economic difficulties associated with agriculture in recent decades, however, have led many Mennonites to participate in new occupations. The transition from farming to alternative economic activities among Mennonites in Lancaster County has been especially marked, with many people raised in agricultural families now taking jobs in tourism and other industries. Comparing liberal and conservative Mennonites, I illustrate how Mennonite religious values affect believers’ economic activities when work comes to be seen as either a form of ministry or an inappropriate engagement with the secular world.

Ulrike Carlson
Stranded Prepositions In German: A Grammaticality Judgment Study Using Data From German Speakers

This paper examines the linguistic phenomenon of Preposition Stranding. One common occurrence of this phenomenon is in relative clause formation, as seen in this example. (1): This is the man. I go with the man. (1a): This is the man with whom I go. (1b): This is the man whom I go with. In relative clause formation, the preposition (“with”) can either move from its position following the verb (“go”) to a position preceding the relative pronoun ("whom"), as in 1.a., or it can remain “stranded” at the end of the sentence in the original position, as in 1.b. Preposition Stranding is said to occur in most of the languages of the Germanic language family, including English, the Scandinavian languages and Dutch. Its existence in German, however, is a point of debate, and some scholars have suggested that the phenomenon is limited regionally to dialects of Northern Germany. It will be shown that sentences with stranded prepositions can be accepted as possible in most regions of Germany, and are by no means unanimously rejected as not possible among native speakers of German. This is done by reporting a grammaticality judgment study with native German speakers that was done in the fall of 2005.

Vanessa Vobis

A habitat of moss-like structures, realized through manipulated sweater-like material will give way for a simulation of an ecosystem. Pre-existing fiber sculptures will be dissected to form undulating growth on the floor. The fuzzy and malleable modules, possibly lit from beneath, hovering on one of Intermedia's floors during Open House, will relate to natural habitats of forests while assuming awkward relationships with shifts of scale and medium. As with most of my multi-media projects, concept and complexity of the piece will be developed as actual installation occurs.

Vannesa Mueller
Using Multimedia to Enhance Shared Reading: The Iowa E-Book

Early lap reading has been shown to be an important way for children to learn diverse vocabulary, complex grammar, and listening comprehension skills necessary for later language and literacy growth. For many deaf children who use some form of sign language, early lap reading experiences may not occur, or may not support language learning. This may be due in part to the fact that approximately 90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents who may not have knowledge of sign language or visual strategies related to attracting and maintaining the attention of their deaf child. The Iowa E-Book is a tool designed to simulate early lap reading experiences for signing deaf children, and provide a language model and necessary exposure to and practice with early literacy experiences. Examples of the E-Book will be shown, along with several case studies involving children's use of the E-Book.

Vladimir Reche
Shadowy Betrayal

When two or more people are together there is a relationship and tension, sometimes there will be struggle for power, and people might do whatever is possible to achieve it. Shadowy Betrayal deals with the idea that one side achieves this goal, but as soon as it is accomplished it loses strength. The conquered brings the conqueror down when he/she stops. The piece strikes a chord by placing a couple on stage, the inevitable question is: Who is stronger? Male or female? The simple answer: In a relationship there are no winners or losers! This choreography looks at this relationship and places them in the same level, making them one. Christopher Gainey's "Iago", suggested to me turmoil on the minds of Iago and Desdemona (Shakespeare's Othello) and this was the inspiration for the duet. Iago's thirst for power and imaginative mind causing their fall is still very alive today in many different ways, and that's why people can see real life situations within the piece.

Yifei Liu
The Approach of Norm Balance toward Intention Prediction under the Theory of Planned Behavior

This research was to examine the effect of a new approach Norm Balance to predict intentions under the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Cross-sectional surveys were used in two studies. For 153 business undergraduates, Study 1 examined three common intentions: eating a low-fat diet, exercising regularly, and dressing businesslike. For 176 PharmD students, Study 2 examined three pharmacy-related intentions: informing relatives about counterfeit medications, buying prescription medications online, and completing a pharmacy residency. We developed the measure of the relative importance of subjective norm and self-identity. Two regressions were conducted for each intention: (1) Model 1: TPB with self-identity; and (2) Model 2: TPB with Norm Balance. When subjective norm or self-identity was non-significant in Model 1, the corresponding Norm Balance part was significant in Model 2. In conclusion, Norm Balance provides a different view about the significance/coefficients of subjective norm and self-identity.

Yu-Hsiang Wu
Impact of visual cues on hearing aid microphone performance and preference

The directional microphone is a hearing aid technology that can improve speech intelligibility in noisy environments. Although traditional laboratory auditory-only tests have shown substantial benefits from directional technology (re: omnidirectional microphone), hearing aid users do not always prefer directional technology in real-world environments. One reason of this laboratory-real world discrepancy is the availability of visual cues. With omnidirectional hearing aids and visual cues, the speech intelligibility of a listener may be already maximized (i.e., close to the ceiling performance). Consequently, the listener may not perceive any difference if he/she switches from the omnidirectional to the directional mode. In this study, microphone performance and preference were examined in various laboratory and real-world environments with or without visual cues. The results indicated that traditional auditory-only speech recognition tests overestimated the directional benefits. The subjects had more difficulty telling the difference between two microphone modes when visual cues are available.

Zhonghan Hu
Ionic Liquids--Solvents of the Future?

Chemists in recent years have been developing ionic liquids for use as green processing for three reasons. (1) They are nonvolatile, highly noncombustible, and highly head-resistant liquid material at room temperature. (2) The basic components of ionic liquids are cations and anions which provide a wide potential window for applications requiring high ion conductivity.(3) They are liquids at a wide temperature range (-30ºC to 300ºC) and can dissolve a variety of polar and nonpolar organic and inorganic compounds. As opposed to most other organic solvents, these liquids can be used as environmentally benign media for a wide range of industrially important chemical processes.